V, in tricking, stands for vert.
Vache, (fr.), cow. See Bull.
Vair, (fr. vairé), generally written vairy when definite tinctures are named: a party-coloured fur, properly argent and azure, which tinctures are always implied when no others are mentioned; but, as will be seen, it occurs even in the early rolls of different tinctures. For instances, at the siege of Carlaverock 'the valiant Robert DE LA WARDE, who wards his banner so well,' bore it 'vairy of white and of black.'
    Apres li vi-je tout premier             Ke ben sa baniere rewarde           
    Le vaillant Robert de la Warde          Vairie est de blanc e de noir.      
    The origin of the name is not clear, but the most probable conjecture is that it is derived from a little animal whose fur was much in request, the ver, or vair, differently spelt, and which appears in Latin as varus. The word seems to have been used independently of heraldry for fur, and the following curious error may be noted in passing. The familiar fairy tale of Cinderella was brought to us from the French, and the slippers made of this costly fur, written probably verré for vairé, were erroneously translated 'glass slippers,' which of course was an impossible material, but has been repeated in all nursery tale-books.
    Menu-vair is used by French heralds when there are more than four rows, the term being considered as implying a diminutive vair. It is borne much by Flemish families, possibly in connection with trade associations. The menu-vair, or as we call it, minever, was a term used in the Middle Ages for the fur lining of robes of state.
    Beffroi, or gros vair, is used when there are less than four rows. The name is evidently derived from the bell-like shape of the vair, the word beffroi being anciently used in the sense of the alarm-bell of a town. It is said that when French heralds use the term vair only, that four rows exactly are intended.
    De menu-vair de cinq tires, au chevron de gueules--STESSIN, Flanders.
    Plein de menu-vair--BANVILLE DE TRUTEMNE, Normandie.
    De beffroi, d'or et d'azur--D'AUBETERRE, Champagne.
Le Conte de FERRERS.
Le Conte de FERRERS.
    In modern heraldry the figures of a shield-shape are generally drawn as in the second figure(arms of BEAUCHAMP), but in the older designs it was similar to that shewn in the arms of the Earl FERRERS, Earl of Derby, 1254-65, the sketch being taken from almost contemporary stained glass in Dorchester Church, Oxon; and sometimes the division lines are drawn after the same manner as nebuly.
    Le Conte de FERRERS, verree de or et de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Hugh de FERRERS, vairre de argent et d'azur--Ibid.
    Robert de BEAUCHAMP, de vairrie--Ibid.
    Piers de MAULEE, de veirre a la manche de goules--Ibid.
    Sire Hugh de MEYNI, verre de argent e de sable, e un label de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire John de BEAUCHAMP de Somersetshire, port de verre--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire de NOWERS, port verre d'argent et de gules--Ibid.
    Monsire La WARD, port verre d'argent et sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Vairy argent and azure--BEAUCHAMP.
    Vairy argent and gules--GRESLEY, Norfolk.
    Vairy argent and sable--MAYNELL.
    Vairé, ermine and gules--GRESLEY, Derbyshire.
    Besides being applied to the field, it is often found applied to ordinaries and some few charges; and in some cases even to animals.
    Or, [another gules], a saltire vair--WILLINGTON of Umberleigh, co. Devon, and Hurley, co. Warwick.
    Sire Johan de HOORNE, de goules a une frette de veer--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Quarterly, or and gules, a bend vair--SACKVILLE.
    Paly of six or and gules; a chief vair--Francis ATTERBURY, Bp. of Rochester, 1713-23.
    Argent, a bend sable and chief vair--Michael de NORTHBURG, Bp. of London, 1461-66.
    Barry of six, vaire gules, and ermine, and azure--Gules de BRAOSE, Bp. of Hereford, 1200-16.
    Sire Adam de EVERINGHAM, de goules, a un lion rampaund de veer--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Counter vair.
Counter vair.
    But different forms of vair occur, apart from the tincture. The term counter vair(fr. vairé contre vairé) has been adopted to signify that the shield-like forms instead of alternating singly alternate in pairs, so that each 'piece' represents a pair of shields united at their tops, as shewn in the margin; but this form does not seem to have been adopted in any arms which can be said to be distinctly English, though some of the families may possibly be represented in England. The form has probably arisen only from incorrect drawing.
    Counter-vary or and gules--BROTIER.
    De contre-vair; au franc canton d'hermine--SALPERWICK, Artois.
    Vairé contrevairé d'or et d'azur--TRAINEL, Ile de France.
Vair en pointe.
Vair en pointe.
    Again, Vair en pointe is a term applied by Nisbet to an arrangement by which the azure shield, pointing downwards, has beneath it an argent shield, also pointing downwards, and vice versa, by which the effect shewn in the margin in produced. There are one or two coats of arms so blazoned, but it is not at all clear that this is the design meant. Also one coat appears with four tinctures.
    Vairy en point argent and azure--DURANT.
    Vairy en point gules and argent--MONKHOUSE.
    Vairy argent, azure, gules, and or en point--Roger HOLTHOUSE.
    Heraldic writers also speak of varry as meaning one of the pieces of which the vair is composed; they also used the terms vairy cuppy and vairy tassy for potent counter potent, perhaps from the drawings in some instances resembling cups, and that in the possible meaning of tassa. It may be said that all these variations of the ancient vair arise from mere accident(generally bad drawing), supplemented by over refinement on the part of the heraldic writers who have described them.
Vallary. See Crown.
Vambraced: the term signifies that the arms is entirely covered with armour, but from the etymology of the term(avant bras) it seems that it formerly covered the fore part only. The brassarts are shewn in the illustration protecting the elbow.
    Gules, three dexter arms vambraced argent, hands proper--ARMSTRONG.
    Azure, a fesse embattled ermine between two dexter arms vambraced argent, garnished or--FRANKE, co. Leicester; granted 1689.
    Azure, a dexter arm vambraced grasping a sword erect in pale proper, hilted and pomelled or, between three boar's heads couped of the third, langued gules--GORDON, co. Banff.
Vamplet: of a Spear, q.v.
Vane, (1) a Weather-cock, (fr. girouette): this device by itself seems to occur only in one coat of arms; but castles and towers are sometimes blazoned as bearing vanes, e.g. in the insignia of EDINBURGH. (See under Castle.) As regards the arms ascribed to a Lord Mayor of London in the twelfth century, they are probably of sixteenth-century invention, though not unlike earlier Merchants' marks. In Stow's Survey the weather-cocks are drawn like the figure in the margin.
    Gules, on a saltire argent, between four weather-cocks(the supporters and vanes of the second, the cross crosslets or) five martlets of the field--Arms ascribed to Henry FITZ-ALWYN, first Mayor of London, and Roger FITZ-ALWYN, his successor.
    Per fesse sable and azure, a castle with four towers, the gate displayed argent; on each tower a vane or--RAWSON.
    Gules, a castle with two towers or, embattled and masoned sable, adorned with four vanes argent--CHASTELANI, France. [De gueules, au chateau à deux tours d'or moconné de sable--CASTELLANI, Provence.]
    D'azur, à un château sommé, de trois tours, pavillonnées et girouettées d'argent, le tout maçonné de sable--CHASTELAIN DE SERTINES.
    2. A Winnowing basket. See Basket.
Vannet, (fr.), a winnowing-basket. See under Basket; also under Escallop.
Variated, or Warriated. See Champagne.
Variegated. See under Flowers.
Varvals, or Vervels: the rings belonging to the hawk-bells. See under Falcon.
Vase. See Urn.
Venus. See Planet; Vert; also under Letters.
Verdoy. See under Bordure.
Verge: in one case only this term has been observed to have been made use of to signify the edge or margin of the escutcheon.
    Azure, two lions passant gardant; the verge of the escutcheon charged with demi-fleurs-de-lis or--Augmentation granted to Katharine HOWARD, fifth wife of Henry VIII.
Vergette, (fr.): the diminutive of the pale and vergettée=paly.
Vermeil. See Gules.
Verrou, (fr.). See under Lock.
Versé, (fr.), i.q. reversed: of charges when upside down.
Vert, (fr. sinople): green; absurdly called Venus by those who adopt planets, and Emerald by those who adopt the name precious stones instead of the true name of the tincture. It is expressed in engravings by line in bend. The French are said to have called it Sinople, from a town in the Levant(probably Sinope in Asia Minor) from which were brought the best materials for dyeing green, or silks and stuffs of a brilliant green colour, but the term does not occur before the fifteenth century. In the ancient rolls vert seems to be used occasionally(e.g. in the Roll of Carlaverock spelt verde). The term prasin has also been fancifully used, from the Greek prason, a leek.
Vessel, (fr. vaisseau). See Ship.
Vêtu. (fr.): (1) clothed, e.g. of an arm; (2) a peculiar term signifying that the shield is charged with a large lozenge, the four points extending to the edge of the shield. See arms of BENTOUX under Trefoil; and of CORRARO and HINXLEY under Point.
Vidé, (fr.): voided.
Vine, (fr. vigne): the vine is frequently represented in later arms, sometimes with and sometimes without the fruit, and very frequently also the leaves and the fruit, i.e. a bunch or cluster of grapes separately. When blazoned proper the leaves should be vert, the fruit purpure. The bunch of grapes should always be represented hanging, i.e. with the stalk in chief. The French use the term cap de vigne when the lower portion is shewn, with leaves and bunches of grapes(grappes or raisins), and pampre when only a branch of the vine is shewn with leaves, but generally without fruit. The term pampré of such a tincture refers to the leaves; fruité, to the grapes; the échalas is the vine-stick, by which the dwarf vines, chiefly cultivated abroad, are supposed.
    Argent, a vine growing out of the base leaved and fructed between two popinjays endorsed, feeding upon a cluster of grapes all proper--WINCHESTER, Scotland.
    Argent, a vine with leaves and fruit proper, over all on a bend sable three escallops of the first--LEVINZ, co. Northampton.
    Gules, a man's arm couped and embowed, the hand holding a branch of vine fructed, leaved and slipped all proper--CORNEILLES.
    Or, three vine leaves vert--ARABIN.
    Argent, a chevron between three bunches of grapes proper--BRADWAY, co. Gloucester.
    Argent, a bear's head proper holding a bunch of grapes in its mouth between three torteaux; a chief gules--BEARSLEY, Coventry; granted 1730.
    D'argent, à un cep de vigne de sinople[entortillé autour d'un echalas du même et] fruité de deux grappes de sable planté sur une terrasse du même mouvante de la pointe de l'écu, et surmonté d'une etoile d'azur--De LESSEPS, Bayonne.
    D'argent, au cep de vigne, pampré et terrassé de sinople, fruité de gueules, soutenu d'un échalas de sable--GUYON, Normandie.
    De sable, au cep de vigne, chargé de ses pampres, et soutenu d'un échalas de sable--LA TREICHE, Normandie.
    De gueules, au pampre d'or feuillé de sinople--Ville de DIJON.
    D'or, au chevron de gueules accompagné de trois raisins d'azur--OLIER-NOINTEL.
Violet, (fr. violette): is found in one English example.
    Argent, a chevron sable fretty or between three violets purpure stalked and leaved vert--DIKENS.
    D'argent, a trois violettes au naturel, tigées de sable, et un chef d'azur, chargé d'une molette d'éperon d'or a huit pointes--POL, Comtat Venaissin.
Violin: the violin or fiddle is found named in a few coats of arms. It should be drawn with the handle downwards.
    Gules, three treble violins transposed argent, stringed sable--SWEETING, Somerset.
    Azure, three violins transposed two and one argent, stringed sable--SUTTIE, Inveresk, Scotland.
    Azure, three fiddles argent--SUETING.
Viper. See Adder.
Vires, (fr.): a term derived from the Latin viriœ, and applied to a series of annulets conjoined, generally with the smaller one in the midst. It only occurs in French blazon, and but rarely.
    D'azur, à trois vires d'argent--GLATIGNY, Normandie.
Virgin: a figure of a saint, when the name is not known, may be thus blazoned, but usually only the head, or the upper portion, is shewn, and the term demi-virgin is used, as in the insignia of the MERCERS' Company. (See under Eastern Crown.) Similar figures are sometimes blazoned maidens' heads: and those in the insignia of the See of OXFORD, being veiled, are blazoned nuns' heads(sometimes ladies' heads). See under Head.
    Vert, a demi-virgin couped at the waist proper, mantled gules turned down ermine, her hair dishevelled, on her head an Eastern crown or--Company of PINMAKERS[Inc. 1636].
Virgin Mary: the figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary occurs in the insignia of one or two Sees(that of LINCOLN has already been given, see Nimbus), and of several religious foundations, and of one or two Scotch Burghs; also on those ascribed to a King of England of the tenth century. It will be seen that the Virgin is variously represented, but always with the infant Saviour.
    Azure, our Lady the Virgin Mary with a circle of glory over her head, holding in her dexter arm the infant Jesus, head radiant; in the sinister a sceptre all or--See of SALISBURY.
    Argent, upon three ascents the Virgin Mary standing with her arms extended between two pillars; on the dexter pillar a church; in base the ancient arms of Man on an escutcheon ensigned with a mitre--Seal of the Bishopric of SODOR, and MAN[but often improperly adopted as the Insignia of the see, which are simply those of the Isle ensigned with a mitre].
    Vert, a cross botonne argent; on a canton of the last the Virgin Mary and Child proper[but there are several variations]--GLASTONBURY Abbey.
    Azure, three lions passant gardant in pale or; on a chief gules the Virgin and Child of the second--Augustinian Priory of NEWSTEAD, co. Nottingham.
    Argent, the Virgin Mary looking at the child Jesus in her arms, a radiated glory round each of their heads, all proper, their vestments azure--Burgh of LAUDER, Scotland.
    Gules, the Virgin Mary holding the child Jesus in her arms or--Burgh of BANFF, Scotland.
    Vert, a cross potent fitchy argent; in the dexter chief the Virgin and Child in glory--Arms fancifully ascribed to King EDRED, ob. 955, Harl. MS. 4033[sometimes also King Arthur].
    The charge also appears to be borne in the insignia of the See of TUAM, Ireland; in those of TARANT Nunnery, Dorset; and in those of the Deanery of WORCESTER.
Virols: the rings which commonly encircle Bugle-horns, (q.v.); and hence virolled or virolly, (fr. virolé), is used when a circular band of a different tincture is thus encircled.
Viscount: the fourth order of the peerage of England, being the intermediate rank between earl and baron. The title was originally the official name of the deputy of an earl, whence the name vice-comes, then Shire-reeve or Sheriff of a county. It was afterwards granted as a title of honour of John, Lord Beaumont, to whom King Henry VI., 1440, gave by patent the title of Viscount Beaumont in England and France, and hence the distinguishing affix, 'The Lord Viscount'
Visitations: early in the reign of Henry VIII. it was deemed advisable to collect and record genealogical and armorial information, and from this arose those journeys of the heralds termed visitations. The earliest, made by virtue of a royal commission, seems to be that of Gloucester, Worcester, Oxford, Wilts, Berks, and Stafford, in 1528-29. From this time the several counties were visited at irregular intervals until the Great Rebellion. Soon after the Restoration the practice was revived, but no commission has been issued since the Revolution. The last is dated May 13, 1686. Most of these 'Visitations' have been printed by Societies or by individuals, but some still remain only in MS., the chief being in the collections in the British Museum.
Visor or Vizor: that part of the Helmet covering the face.
Viure, or Wiure, or Wyer. This term, variously spelt, is said by heraldic writers to signify a very narrow fillet or riband, generally nebuly(though no case of nebuly is cited, nor has one been found) which may be placed in bend, in fesse, or otherwise. It is probably only the common English word 'wire,' which some heraldic writer has written according to old spelling.
    Argent, three bars gemels azure, on a chief gules a viure or--HAYDON, co. Devon.
Vivré, a French term(not in any way connected with the previous term) applied to the fesse, bend, &c. It is practically equivalent to dancetty, except that the indentations are more open, i.e. the lines forming them produce right angles, instead of the acute angles which are usually represented in the drawing of indented or dancetty. The illustration of the arms of FITZ-JOCELYNE, given under the latter word, has by chance been drawn according to the French form vivré, and the difference will at once be seen by a comparison of this with the illustration of the arms of VAVASOUR given on the same page. When applied to the bend or chevron, the appearance of rectangular steps is produced.
    D'or, a la fasce vivrée d'azur, accompagnée de trois alérions de sable 2 et 1--SEIGNEURET, Orléanais.
    De gueules, à la fasce d'or, au chef vivré du meme--JAUCHE, Brabant.
    D'or, à la bande vivrée d'azur--LA BAUME MONTREVEL, Bresse.
    De gueules, au chevron d'argent, chargé d'un chevron vivré de sable accompagné de trois croissants d'or--DE LA GRANGE-TRIANON.
Voided, (fr. vidé): this term applied to ordinaries and subordinaries signifies that the middle is removed so that the field is visible through it; thus a plain chevron voided has the appearance of two couple-closes, and a bend voided that of a pair of cottises. Heralds, however, make some minute distinctions, and these will be found noticed under Chevron voided.
    The voiding of certain ordinaries is of ancient practice. It will be observed that the cross 'recercelée' is sometimes blazoned 'voide' (See §32). So also 'faux crois' signifies a cross voided(see §6), while faux lozenge in one roll is used for a mascle, though the mascle itself is sometimes found blazoned voided. See Mascle and Masculy. Again, faux rondelets are found meaning annulets, (see under Roundels); and the 'faux escocheon' is now blazoned an orle. In some cases the term percée, or pierced, is used to mean the same as voided; and in others voided is used of a mullet when pierced is meant; but as a rule the piercing involves only a small aperture, and generally circular, while voiding involves a larger aperture, and one following the outline of the charge.
    When the term is used by itself the tincture of the opening is understood to be that of the field, but an ordinary may be voided of another tincture.
    Argent, a cross voided and double cottised sable, within a bordure or--BROMHOLME PRIORY, Norfolk.
    Monsire Gerard SALVAYN, port d'argent; au cheif de sable deux molletts d'or, voydes vert--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire GORNILL, port d'or; cheif sable, deux molletts d'argent, voydes de gules--Ibid.
    Argent, two bars voided gules; over all a bend sable--BURTON.
Voiders: diminutive of Flanches.
Vol and demi-vol. See Wings.
Volant. See under Wings.
Voluted. See Serpents.
Vorant: devouring or swallowing whole; used of one fish swallowing another, or more accurately of a dolphin, &c., swallowing a fish. (See under Whale.) The terms engoulant, or ingullant, are given by heraldic writers as meaning the same thing. The term devouring is also used.
    Sable, a dolphin naiant proper vorant a fish of the last--JAMES.
    Sable, a dolphin embowed or vorant[otherwise blazoned, holding in the mouth] a fish--SYMONDS, Herefordshire.
    Argent, a serpent erect in pale azure, vorant[otherwise devouring] an infant gules--Duchy of MILAN. [See variations of these Insignia under Serpent.]
Vulned, (fr. ensanglanté): used of an animal wounded and bleeding. Vulning herself is frequently applied especially to the Pelican, q.v. Sometimes the expression distilling drops of blood(or gouttes de sang) is used, but this term is more properly applied to a severed head.
    Vert, a lion rampant argent, vulned on the shoulder proper--BULBECK.
    Argent, a lion rampant vert, vulned proper at the mouth--Tyrwhitt-JONES, co. Salop.
    Or, a lion rampant sable, vulned gules at the breast--SAMMES, co. Essex.
    Per pale azure and gules, a wolf salient or, vulned of the second at the shoulder--HAWK.
    Argent, a stag's head erased gules[otherwise sable], attired or, distilling drops of blood--CRAWFURD, Scotland.
    Embrued, which is used properly of Spears, &c., is also sometimes(but wrongly) applied to animals.
    Or, two wolves passant sable, mouths embrued gules--Oliver PEARD, Mayor of Barnstaple, co. Devon, 1575.
Vulture, (fr. vautour): this bird seems to be named in a solitary instance in English coats of arms, and is not common in French ones.
    Ermine, a vulture seizing her prey gules--SIMINGES.
    D'or, au vautour essorant de sable--VAULTIER, Normandie.