S stands in tricking and heraldic notes and sketches for sable.
Sable, (fr. sable): the heraldic term for black, the term being probably derived from certain animals with black feet called Sabellinœ(mustela zibellina of Linnæus). It is called Saturn by those who fancifully blazon by the planets, and Diamond by those who use the names of jewels. Engravers represent it by numerous perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing each other.
    Arms simply sable are found to have been borne by the following families:--GOURNEY(a Norfolk family); DOMBALE; GLEGG; and LORRAINE.
Sabre: there are several kinds of swords with broad curved blades; and first of all the Sabre(fr.), which is usually represented as in the margin.
    Or, a lion rampant sable holding in his dexter paw a sabre or crooked sword proper, all within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second--MAC CAUSLAND, Strabane, Ireland.
    Gules, a fesse cotised or, over all two sabres addorsed saltireways azure hilt and pomel of the second--AGALL.
    So similar are the Falchion, called also the Hanger, and the Scimetar(the latter sometimes represented with the back engrailed) that practically no difference can be made in the drawing, except that the falchion should have a blade somewhat wider in the middle. The Cutlass is also found.
    Or, a lion rampant double tailed and ducally crowned, brandishing in the dexter paw a falchion all gules--PAUL, Middlesex; granted 1758.
    Azure, a falchion in pale argent hilt gules--TATNELL, co. Chester.
    Gules, three hangers or falchions barwise in pale the points toward the sinister part of the shield argent, hilts and pomels or--HUDGSON, Boston, co. Lincoln.
    Azure, three scimetars in pale argent hilts and pomels or, the points to the sinister--HODGSON, Tooting and Buckland, Surrey.
    Ermine, on a chief gules three cutlasses erect argent hilts or--HODGSON, Framfield, Sussex; granted 1628.
    Or, three bars wavy gules with a scimetar in pale argent, hilt and pomel of the field--DRUMMOND.
    Argent, a cutlass in bend sable--ELAM, Kent.
    Gules, three cutlasses in pale barry argent[?] neufes or--TROSS, co. Devon.
    A French term Badelaire is found sometimes used; it seems to be similar to the sabre.
    De gueules, à trois badelaires d'argent rangés en pal--DU BOIS, Bretagne.
    Seax, (Anglo-Saxon Seax, Icelandic Sax), is also another term used, and signifies a broad curved sword with a semicircular notch at the back of the blade.
    Gules, three seaxes barwise proper, hilts and pomels or[handles to the dexter and edges of blades uppermost]--County of MIDDLESEX.
    Argent, a lion rampant sable; on a chief gules two seaxes in saltire of the first, tilts and pomels or--GOMME[Middlesex, 1761]
Sackbut. See under Pipe.
Sacre, or Saker: said to be a kind of falcon with grey head, dark brown back, and light blue legs, but no example given.
Saddle complete.
Saddle complete.
Saddle, (fr. selle), is at times found represented separately in heraldry as well as in connection with horses which have saddles(fr. sellé), bridles(q.v.), &c. It is represented as in the margin.
    Azure, a chevron between saddles with stirrups[otherwise three manage saddles complete] or--COMPANY of SADDLERS, London.
    Argent, three saddles sable--HARVEY, Norfolk.
    Gules, a horse armed or, bridled and saddled of the first, with a plume on his head, and trappings, and on his shoulder a cinquefoil or the last: on his hip an escutcheon charged with a cross all between three garbs of the second--MALT.
    Le roy de Norwey de goules a un cheval dor selle--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    The Pack-saddle is a saddle employed for the conveyance of burthens, and may be represented as in the margin, and certainly without stirrups.
    Azure, three pack-saddles or--HERVEY, Tiddington, Oxon.
Sagittarius. See under Satyr.
Sail. See under Ship; also under Windmill.
Saints: the figures of Saints and martyrs are scarcely suitable for heraldic bearings: still in the later middle ages, in connection with certain northern Sees and Burghs, Saints are introduced, though perhaps rather as seal-devices than as true coats of arms. A figure of S.Andrew appears as in the Insignia of S.ANDREW'S: of S.Boniface in those of the See of ROSS: of S.Bryce on the seal of the Burgh of KIRKALDIE: of S.Edmund in the Insignia of the Bishopric of the ISLES: S.Giles in those of the See of MORAY; S.Magnus in those of the See of ORKNEY: S.Margaret of Scotland in those of the Burgh of QUEENSFERRY: S.Michael in those of the See of ABERDEEN, as well as of the Burghs of LINLITHGOW and of DUNDEE: and S.Ninian in those of the See of GALLOWAY.
    In the blazon of the Insignia of the Irish Bishoprick of CASHEL, EMLY, &c., simply a Saint is mentioned, but no name; the same also occurs in those of the Burgh of BRECHIN.
    It will be seen that the figures of Saints are variously placed and habited; moreover, the blazon varies considerably, each writer adopting his own method of description, for practically they are without the pale of ordinary heraldry.
    The list here given might be, perhaps, somewhat enlarged, but it is sufficient to shew the way in which Saints are introduced. See also the example of S.Nicholas under Bishop, (generally, but erroneously, blazoned as S.Michael), the Blessed Virgin Mary, &c. Besides these the emblems are often mentioned, e.g. the Cross of S.George, the Cross of Standard of S.Andrew(i.e. the saltire), the knives of S.Bartholomew, the wheel of S.Katherine, the scourges of S.Guthlac, &c., &c.
    Azure, the Apostle S.Andrew proper surrounded with a radiation or, vested of the field, tied to his cross, argent; in base a boar of the last tied to a tree of the second--Burgh of S.ANDREW'S Scotland.
    Argent, S.Boniface on the dexter habited gules his hand cross his breast proper; on the sinister a bishop vested in long robe close girt purpure, mitred and in his sinister hand a crosier or--See of ROSS, Scotland.
    The figure of S.Bryce vested in long garments with a mitre on his head, all proper standing in the porch of a church argent, which is ensigned on the top with a cross pattee of the third; his dexter hand holds a fleur-de-lys or, and the sinister hand is laid upon his breast; the whole between a decrescent and a star in fesse of the last--Seal of the Royal Burgh of KIRKALDIE, Scotland.
    Azure, S.Columba in a boat on waves of the sea all proper; in chief a blazing star or[otherwise dexter chief a star gold]--Bishopric of THE ISLES, Scotland.
    Azure, a church argent, S.Giles standing in the porch in a pastoral habit proper mitred and in this dexter hand holding a passion cross, the sinister hand holding a book proper--See of MORAY.
    Argent, S.Magnus vested in royal robes, on his head an antique crown in his dexter hand a sceptre, all proper--See of ORKNEY, Scotland.
    Argent, in the sea azure a galley, her sails furled sable; in the middle thereof S.Margaret, Queen of Scotland, standing richly apparelled, in the dexter hand a sceptre ensigned with a fleur-de-lis or, in the sinister which is plain on her breast a book folded purpure--Burgh of QUEENSFERRY, Scotland.
    Argent, the Archangel Michael proper vested in a long garment azure; in the dexter hand a crozier or, on the head a mitre, and below his feet a serpent nowed, both proper--Burgh of DUNDEE.
    Azure, S.Michael with wings expanded, treading on the belly of a serpent in base lying fessways with its tail nowed, all argent, with a spear in his dexter hand piercing the serpent's head proper and holding in the sinister an inescutcheon charged with the royal arms of Scotland--Burgh of LINLITHGOW, Scotland.
    Argent, S.Ninian clothed in a pontifical robe purple, on his head a mitre and in the dexter hand a crosier, both or, the sinister hand across the breast--See of GALLOWAY, Scotland.
    Per fesse gules and azure, in base a Cross Calvary supported by a Saint on steps proper; in chief two keys saltirewise or--Bishopric of CASHEL, EMLY, WATERFORD, and LISMORE.
Salamander. See Phœnix.
Salient, (fr. saillant): usually applied to a wild beast when borne as if leaping at his prey. Sometimes also to a goat, (q.v.), instead of clymant, and to a dog, cat, &c.
    Salient appears to have been originally only an accidental variation from rampant, but custom has sanctioned this term being used, in contradiction to the other, where both the hind paws are resting on the ground, and both the fore-paws are drawn as if level with each other.
    Counter-salient is used to signify leaping in contrary direction, that facing the sinister usually being uppermost. See Rampant under LION.
    Argent, a lion salient gules--PETIT, Cornwall.
    Vert, three bulls salient argent--Rowland LEE, Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, 1534-43.
    Azure, a cat salient argent--BLAIR.
    Argent, a greyhound salient party per long sable and of the first--DE LA FORDE, Iver, co. Bucks.
    Argent, a bear salient sable; a canton gules--John BEERE, Kent, 1586.
    Argent, two foxes counter salient in saltire gules, the dexter surmounted by the sinister--WILLIAMS, Anglesey.
Salix. See Willow.
Salmon, (fr. saumon): this fish is frequently blazoned in heraldry, though no very definite drawing has been noted. It is very frequently used for the sake of the play upon the name; sometimes by towns, perhaps, such as Kingston-on-Thames, Peebles on the Tweed, Lanark on the Clyde, in consequence of salmon being plentiful near them; and by families in consequence of the fish thriving on their estates. Mr.Moule, in his work on the heraldry of fish, has collected many stories accounting for the device. That on the insignia of the town of Glasgow is supposed to be in allusion to a remark of S.Kentigern the first bishop.
    Sable, three salmon hauriant argent--John SALMON, Bp. of Norwich, 1299-1325.
    Gules, three salmon hauriant argent--Family of GLOUCESTER.
    Gules, two salmon in pale argent finned or--SAMS, co. Essex.
    Gules, a salmon in fesse argent--PISAGE.
    Argent, a tree growing out of a mound in base, surmounted by a salmon in fesse all proper, in his mouth an annulet or; on the dexter side a bell pendent to the tree of the second--Royal Burgh of GLASGOW.
    Three salmon hauriant in pale argent--Town of KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES.
    Gules, a salmon's head couped argent with an annulet through its nose proper, between three cinquefoils of the second--HAMILTON, Scotland.
    With the salmon is allied the Trout(fr. truite), and there is practically no difference in the drawing. Mr.Moule thinks when a fish is shewn in, or near, a river, and not distinctly named, it is intended for the trout, but does not give conclusive reasons. The French employ the trout, and frequently apply to it the term marqueté, i.e. in reference to the spots.
    Azure, three trout[interlaced, or] fretted in triangle, 'testes aux queues' argent--TROUTBECK of Cornwall.
    Azure, two trout[? ged] in saltire argent--GEDNEY, or GEDENEY.
    Gules, a trout in bend argent--NEVE.
    Argent, on a bend sable three trout or--OSBORNE, London.
    Sable, a chevron or between three trout hauriant argent--FOREMAN, Scotland.
    D'azur, à une truite d'argent en bande, marquetée de sable, accompagnée de 6 étoiles d'or en orle--ORCIVAL, Auvergne.
    There are one or two other fish which should be here noted, such as the smelt(fr. eperlan), known in Scotland as the sparling. The 'grayling' is perhaps intended in the crest of the family of GRAYLEY; while the French name for the same, ombre, may have suggested the fish in the arms of the UMBRELL family.
    Azure, a chevron between three smelts naiant argent--SMELT, co. York.
    Erminois, three sparlings hauriant two and one proper--SPARLING, Petton, co. Salop.
    Argent, three umber fish naiant--UMBRELL.
    The salmon spear occurs on the arms of two branches of the Cornish family of GLYN. The form this spear takes has been given under Eel-spear.
    Argent, three salmon spears points downwards sable--GLYNN, co. Cornwall.
Sprinkling salt.
Sprinkling salt.
Salt-cellar, called also a Sprinkling salt, is the device of one of the London companies. The 'salt,' however, is also borne by one family.
    Per chevron, azure and gules, three salt-cellars[otherwise sprinkling salts] overflowing argent--The SALTERS' COMPANY, London. Arms granted, 1530. [Example on brass at All Hallows, Barking.]
    Sable, a bend argent between three covered salts or--FELLINGHAM.
Saltant, (fr.): a term sometimes applied to small animals springing forward, instead of rampant, e.g. of a goat, or ram; perhaps not to be distinguished from salient.
Saltire, or saltier, (fr. sautoir): this honourable ordinary is supposed to represent the cross whereon S.Andrew was crucified, and the standard or banner of S.Andrew is one bearing the saltire argent on a field azure.
    The plain saltire is nothing but a cross placed in a different position, and whatever was the origin of the one as a device upon a shield, was probably also the origin of the other. Almost all the forms incident to the cross are likewise applicable to the saltire. They may be humetty, and in a French example to which the term engoulé is applied, the arms of the cross are terminated by Leopards' heads, their mouths holding the ends.
    As will be observed, the 'sautoir' occurs in the ancient rolls, and it may be added that in one roll temp. ED. II., out of twenty-eight examples of the saltire only ten are plain and eighteen are engrailed.
    Robert de BRUS, d'or, ung saltoir de goules; et ung cheif de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Foulke de ESCHARDESTON, de goules ung sautoir d'argent engrele--Ibid.
    Sire Raudolf de NEVYLE, de goules a une sautour de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire Rauf de NEVILL, port de gules une salter d'argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire de TIBETOT, port d'argent une salter engrele de gules--Ibid.
    Argent, a lion sejant gardant gules armed and langued azure holding in his dexter paw a thistle proper, and in his sinister a shield of the second, on a chief azure a S.Andrew's cross of the first--LYON OFFICE, or OFFICE OF ARMS AT EDINBURGH.
    Argent, on a saltire gules an escallop or--See of ROCHESTER. [The Cathedral Church being dedicated of S.Andrew.]
    Argent, a saltire counter embattled sable--Richard KIDDER, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1691-1703.
    Argent, a saltire azure botonny or--BASINGHOLD.
    Gules, on saltire argent, another humetty of the field; in chief a mitre coroneted, stringed or--Arms ascribed to GERARD; Bp. of Hereford, 1096; of York, 1100-8.
    Gules, four quatrefoils two and two or; in base a saltire couped argent--PALMER, co. Warwick.
    Argent, a cross moline saltirewise--BANESTER.
    Or, a lion rampant supporting a saltire engrailed humetty gules--John WOLTON, Bp. of Exeter, 1579-94.
    Ecartelé aux 1 et 4 d'azur, au chevron ondé d'argent, accompagné de trois têtes de léopard d'or languées de gueules; aux 2 et 3 de gueules, au sautoir d'or engoulé de quatres têtes de léopard mouvantes des angles chargé en cœur[i.e. in fesse point], d'une autre tête de léopard du champ--DE JACOB DE LA COTTIERE.
    As to the expression a saltire lozengy, as has ben said respecting the Cross Lozengy(see §8), there seems to have ben great carelessness in the blazon by the heralds of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It should be described where there is one tincture, a saltire of so many lozenges, &c. The first example of the following is clear; the others leave it obscure as to what is meant, and how the lozenges, &c., should be arranged.
    Or, a saltire lozengy gules and argent--BELHOUSE.
    Or, a saltire lozengy vert--BELHOUSE.
    Vert, a saltire lozengy or--FRANKES, also MALCAKE.
    Vert, a saltire fusily or--FRANKE.
    The Cross of S.Julian is a saltire crossed, or as otherwise described, a cross crosslet placed saltirewise. It is borne by the Company of INNHOLDERS, in consequence of their claiming S.Julian as their patron.
    Argent, a cross of S.Julian[otherwise cross crosslet in saltire] sable--JULIAN, co. Lincoln.
    Argent, five crosses Julian in saltire sable--THOROWGOOD.
    Azure, a chevron per paly and per chevron gules and argent counterchanged, between three garbs or; on a chief argent two batons crossed at each end sable in saltire, the dexter surmounted by the sinister, commonly called S.Julian's Cross--INNHOLDERS' Company, [Inc. 1514].
    The saltire may be parted per saltire(to which the awkward term saltiery has been given); more frequently the expression quarterly per saltire is used; an example, as it occurs in the see of WELLS before it was united with BATH, has been given under Quarterly.
    Azure, a saltire per saltire quartered or and argent; on the dexter side two keys erect, interlaced at the bows, one or the other argent; on the sinister a sword erect--Bishoprick of Bath and Wells united, as borne by Bp. MONTAGUE in 1608(Edmondson).
Borough of SOUTHWARK.
Borough of SOUTHWARK.
    A singular figure, borne on the insignia of the borough of SOUTHWARK, has been blazoned as a saltire conjoined in base, It has all the appearance of a merchant's mark.
    Azure, an annulet ensigned with a cross pattée or, interlaced with a saltire conjoined in base of the last--Borough of SOUTHWARK.
    Saltirewise, and in saltire, (fr. passé en sautoir), are words used to describe the position of charges placed in the form of that ordinary. The former is properly applied to two long charges, as swords, q.v., fishes, &c., when crossing each other bendwise, and the latter to five charges, placed 2, 1, 2; but, as will be observed, the terms are practically interchangeable, the latter, however, being more frequently used.
    With reference to the former, it is necessary to state that the sword in bend dexter should be uppermost unless otherwise directed, because the dexter side, and consequently any thing placed in bend dexter, in more honourable than the sinister, though the distinction is but little attended to in practice. See examples under Keys, Mace, Scythe, &c.
    Gules, two scythes in saltire argent--PRAYERS.
    Gules, a fesse countercompony or and azure between six crosses crosslet argent placed saltireways--BUCK, Wisbeach, co. Cambridge.
    Gules, five crosslets fitchy in saltire between four escallops or--TOWNSON, Bp. of Salisbury, 1620-21.
    The term saltorel is sometimes used when three or more saltires occur, but it us hardly required. It is needless to say that must be couped; but it should be noted that the ends are not cut at right angles to the arms, but horizontally, and when the saltorel is engrailed the ends are left plain.
    Argent, three saltires vert--GREENLAND.
    Or, a saltire gules surmounted by another ermine, on a chief of the second three saltorels engrailed of the first--DYON, co. Lincoln.
    Per saltire, see Quarterly per saltire.
Sand-glass. See Hour-glass.
Sandbox. See Penner.
Sanglant; bloody, embrued; from fr. ensanglanté.
Sanglé, (fr.): seems to have been used of a horse, &c., with a ceinture round the body.
Sanglier. See Boar.
Sanguine, or Murrey: blood colour, fancifully called by heraldic writers in the arms of princes Dragon's tail, and in those of lords Sardonyx. It is a tincture of very unfrequent occurrence, and not recognised at all by most writers. In engraving it is denoted by numerous lines in saltire.
    Per bend sanguine and vert, two greyhounds courant bendwise argent--CLAYHILLS, Innergowrie, Scotland.
Sans: used by heralds for without, e.g. a dragon sans wings.
Sans nombre: without any definite number. See Semé.
Sapin, (fr.): Fir-tree. See under Pine.
Sapphire. See Azure.
Saracen's head. See Head.
Sarcelled, or Sarcelly. See Cross, §6, §32, and §24: also Recercellé.
Sardonyx. See Sanguine.
Saturn. See Sable.
Satyrs: amongst monsters the human figure came in for its share in combination with the lower animals. The Satyrs and Satyrals are not found in arms except as supporters(e.g. to the arms of Lord STAWELL), bet satyrs' heads, q.v., occur in one coat of arms. The Mantiger or Lampago, called by writers Montegre and Manticora, also occurs, e.g. the body of an heraldic tiger, with the head of an old man with long spiral horns. The supporters, however, to the arms of the Earl of HUNTINGDON are without horns. The Triton, or mer-man, occurs as a supporter, e.g. to the arms of Lord LYTTELTON, and in more than one instance as a crest, e.g. of Sir Tatton SYKES and of the family of LANG in Leicestershire and Suffolk. The Neptune, q.v., in the arms of Sir Isaac HEARD, Garter King of Arms 1750, is sometimes blazoned as a Triton. The supporters to the Insignia of 'The ACADEMY OF THE MUSES,' London, were 'dexter, a Satyr; sinister, a Mer-man.'
    Argent, on a bend sable three satyr's heads couped at the shoulders of the first horned or--WHEYWELL.
    Sable, three man-tigers(or lampagoes) in pale argent--RADFORD, Cheynstone, Chawleigh, co. Devon.
    Sagittarius, or a Centaur, is composed of half man and half horse, the former holding an arrow upon a bended bow. It in one of the twelve zodiacal signs, and King Stephen is said to have assumed it, because the sun was in that sign when he ascended the throne.
    Gules, the bodies of three lions passant to the neck, with man's heads or[otherwise sagittarii]--Fictitious arms ascribed to King STEPHEN.
    Gules, a sagittarius argent, his bow and shaft sable--BLOYS.
    A sagittarius in full speed proper, shooting with a bow or and arrow argent--Crest of ACADEMY OF THE MUSES, London.
Sauterelles, (fr.): grasshoppers.
Sautoir, (fr.). See Saltire.
Savage. See Man.
Saviour. See the Blessed Virgin Mary; also Crucifix.
Saw: this device is rare; an example of a framed saw has already been noted as borne by the company of FANMAKERS. (See Fan.) One also occurs in the crest of HAMILTON. A handsaw is blazoned on one coat of arms, and a crooked saw is sometimes so blazoned on another.
    Out of a ducal coronet an oak-tree fructed proper, cut through the main stem by a framesaw proper, the frame or--Crest of HAMILTON, Duke of Hamilton and Brandon.
    Argent, a chevron engrailed gules between in chief two escallops of the last, and in base a handsaw palewise azure handle or--SAWERS, Scotland.
    Or, within a double tressure flory counterflory with fleur-de-lis sable a lion rampant of the second, holding in his dexter paw a crooked saw proper[otherwise a sabre]--MAC CAUSLAND, Strabane, Ireland.
Saxon. See Head.
Scales. See Balances.
Scallop. See Escallop.
Scalp: the portion of the skull to which the antlers of a deer are attached. See Attires.
Scarpe, or Escarpe: a diminutive of the bend sinister, q.v.
Sceptre: this ensign of royal authority is but seldom borne singly. It is occasionally found in connection with a sword, the two placed saltirewise, or held in the hand of some king or saint. (See example in the insignia of the Town of BERWICK under King; and in those of the See of LINCOLN under Nimbus.)
    Azure, a sceptre in bend between two crowns or; a chief of the last--FOX.
    Vert, a sceptre surmounted of another in saltire or--PERSE.
    Azure, three sceptres in bend or--PORTREA, Barnstaple.
    Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or for Montgomery; quartering in second and third gules three annulets or gemmed azure for Eglinton; all within a bordure gold charged with a double tressure flory counterflory gules; on a surcoat[i.e. escutcheon over all] of the last a sword and sceptre saltireways proper--MONTGOMERY, Earl of Mount Alexander.
Scimetar. See Sabre.
Scissors, as used by tailors, are borne by one of the Companies, and shears, (fr. force), will be found noted under Weavers' implements.
    Azure, a pair of scissors expanded in saltire, their points in chief or--Company of TAILORS, Edinburgh.
Scoop: this singular device is a part of the arms of SCOPHAM, of Scopham, Lincolnshire. Being sometimes obscurely drawn they have occasioned an extraordinary blazon, namely, a Jew's harp. (See under Harp.)
    Argent, a scoop sable, with water therein wavy purpure, between four leaves in saltire of the second--SCOPHAM, co. Lincoln.
Scorpion: this is generally borne erect, and represented as in the margin. When it is borne with the head downwards it is described as reversed.
    Argent, a fesse between three scorpions erect sable--COLE, Somersetshire.
    Argent, a fesse engrailed between three scorpions reversed sable--COLE, Brancepeth, Durham.
    Argent, a chevron between three scorpions reversed gules--COLE, co. Devon; and Walden, Essex.
    Argent, a bend of five lozenges conjoined azure between two cotises vert, and as many scorpions sable--O'SINAN, Ireland; Harl. MS. 4039, fo. 235.
Scourge: scourges with three lashes to each, which occur in the insignia of Croyland Abbey, (See under Knife), are referred to as S.Guthlac's scourges.
Scotland, Insignia of: the heraldic insignia of this ancient kingdom are mythically said to have been assumed by FERGUS I., who is supposed to have reigned from A.D. 403 to 419, viz.
    Or, a lion rampant gules--SCOTLAND.
The lion first appears distinctly upon the seal of Alexander II., 1214-49, but whence derived, or whether then first assumed, it is impossible to say. Afterwards the Lion was surrounded by a double tressure.
    The parliament of James III. in 1471, "ordanit that in tyme to cum thar suld be na double trezor about his armys, bot that he suld ber hale armys of the lyoun, without ony mur." Notwithstanding this enactment, the double tressure is still a prominent part of the arms of Scotland.
Crest of Scotland.
Crest of Scotland.
    The arms are now blazoned as follows:--
    Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure, flory counterflory gules.
    The Crest[Upon an imperial crown proper.] A lion sejant affronté gules, imperially crowned or, holding in his dexter paw a sceptre, and in his sinister a sword[both proper].
    Supporters. Two unicorns argent, gorged with a royal coronet and chained or.
    The double tressure is sometimes referred to as the Bordure of Scotland.
Scrip, Palmer's. See Pilgrim's.
Scrogs. See under Tree.
Scroll. See Escroll.
Scutcheon. See Escutcheon.
Scythe. See Sickle.
Sea, The. See Ocean; also examples under Ships, &c.
Sea-aylet. See Cormorant.
Sea-bear. See Bear.
Sea-calf. See Seal.
Sea-Gull, (lat. larus): to the family of Gulls(laridœ) belong the sea-gulls and sea-mews, as well as the terns, all of which are found in coats of arms. Probably the general term sea-fowl, and the name sea-pewit(perhaps given to the gull from its manner of flight), both of which occur, should be referred to the common sea-gull.
    Azure, three sea-gulls argent--David LLWCH.
    Gules, a fesse wavy argent between three sea-gulls proper; a crescent for difference--MEDLAND, Launceston, co. Cornwall; granted 17 May, 1730.
    Gules, three sea-mews argent beaked and legged or--MEWY, co. Devon.
    Azure, three mews argent beaked and membered gules--ASHE.
    Azure, a fesse ermine between six sea-mew's heads erased argent--SPENCER, Wormleighton, co. Warwick.
    Gules, a fesse engrailed between three sea-mews argent--SYER, Isham, co. Northampton; granted 1614.
    Gules, a fesse between three tern-fowls argent--YERLE.
    Or, a fesse dancetty ermine, in chief a sea-pewit vert beaked and legged gules--QUARLES, co. Northampton.
    Gules, a chevron between three sea-pewits argent--SAYER, Preston, co. Durham.
    Sable, a chevron between three sea-fowl closed argent--SEAFOWLE.
Sea-horse: this monstrosity is in heraldic drawing represented by the upper part, i.e. head and fore-legs of a horse joined to the tail of a fish, which is twisted back, as shewn in the illustration; at the same time when correctly drawn the legs terminate in slightly webbed feet instead of in hoofs. Further a scalloped fin is substituted for the mane, and is continued down the back. Besides appearing as supporters to the insignia of the towns of Cambridge and of Ipswich, sea-horses appear in the following coats of arms.
    Argent, in a sea vert a sea-horse issuing rampant proper--ECKFORD, Scotland.
    Azure, a chevron between three sea-horses or--TUCKER, of Milton, Kent.
    Barry wavy argent and azure; on a chevron crenelly or, between three sea-horses silver, finned and unguled of the third, seven gouttes-de-poix--TUCKER, co. Devon.
    Azure, four bars argent between three sea-horses or; over all on a chevron crenelly of the last five gouttes-de-poix--TOOKER.
    Per pale or and azure; on the dexter compartment a tower gules, and on the sinister on a mount vert a sea-horse argent, mane, fins, and tail of the first; on a chief gold three mullets of the second--GARRICK, Middlesex.
    Argent, on a fesse gules between three sea-horses sable a cross crosslet fitchy between two trefoils slipped of the first--NORDEN, Kent.
    Barry of six argent and azure; surtout three sea-horses naiant or--William GLYNN, Bp. of Bangor, 1555-58.
    Chequy argent and gules, a lion rampant gardant or; on a chief of augmentation wavy azure a sea-horse naiant proper between two Eastern coronets or, and above the word "Havannah"--POCOCK, co. Durham, Bart.
    Similar to this is the sea-lion(or as it is sometimes called from the French lion poisson). is which the upper part is that of a lion, the lower that of the body and tail of a fish. The mane is sometimes also represented crested or escalloped. Besides occurring as as the supporters of the arms of Viscount FALMOUTH, it appears in the following coats of arms.
    Argent, a sea-lion couchant azure, crowned, armed and langued gules--SILVESTER.
    Azure, a bridge of three arches embattled at top in fesse argent, masoned sable, between three sea-lions passant or--BRIDGEN, Lord Mayor of London, 1764.
    Or, on a bend wavy between two sea-lions sable three buck's heads caboshed argent--Sir Robert HARLAND, Bart., Orwell Park, Suffolk. [A sea-lion supporting an anchor, crest of the same.]
    The sea-dragon is also to be classed amongst monstrosities, though it has been suggested it is intended for the conger-eel, and thus the heads in the insignia of KING'S LYNN have been blazoned 'dragon's heads.' Again, when the term occurs in the blazon of the crest of Sir Jacob GERRARD, Bart., 1662, it is said to be a wyvern.
    Per chevron gules and or; three sea-dragons ducally crowned counterchanged--EASTON, co. Devon.
    The sea-dog is still more uncertain. It has been suggested that the device is intended for a crocodile, but this results only from had drawing. With better reason it is suggested to be a fanciful representation of the otter: but like all monstrosities the origin must be looked for in the imagination of the draughtsman rather than in the realm of nature. It is drawn like a talbot, with the whole body scaled, and the tail of a beaver. The feet are webbed and the back scalloped like that of a sea-horse.
    Argent, three demi dea-dogs passant in pale sable--JESSE.
    Per fesse nebuly ... and ... three sea-dogs passant counterchanged--HARRIS, Cornwall.
    [Baron STOURTON has two such animals, sable, scaled or, for his supporters.]
    The sea-wolf also belongs to the same category, and this has been supported only to be the seal.
    Argent, a chevron engrailed gules between three marine wolves(or sea-dogs) naiant sable finned, ventred, and dented of the first, langued of the second--FENNOR, Sussex; granted 10 November, 1557.
    It should be added that the French treat several land animals in this manner by adding the tails of fish to them, and they have a special term to signify the same, viz. mariné.
Sea-lion, &c., See Sea-horse.
Sea-pewit, Sea-mew, Sea-fowl, &c. See Sea-gull.
Sea-pye. See Lapwing.
Sea-urchin: the figure representing the commonest existing species of the Echinidæ on our own sea-shore seems to have found a place amongst heraldic devices, though when blazoned from had drawing the figure may often be described as a Hedgehog, (q.v.), or even a Porcupine.
    Azure, three sea-urchins erect argent[Otherwise Gules, three sea-urchins in pale argent]--ALSTANTON.
    Azure, three urchins passant in pale or--WOOD.
Seals: attached to a book, q.v.
Seaweed: the laver occurs in the insignia of the town of Liverpool, (in allusion to the name). The same arms were borne also as an augmentation by the Earl of Liverpool, created Earl in 1796. In a French example feuille de varech, i.e. of wrack, has been observed in one blazon.
    Argent, a[lever or] cormorant sable beaked and legged gules, holding in the beak a branch of seaweed called laver inverted vert[originally the eagle of S.John holding a penner and inkhorn]--City of LIVERPOOL.
    D'argent, a une feuille de varech de gueules accostée de deux crois sants d'azure--BEUARD, Normandie.
Seal's paw.
Seal's paw.
Lord LEY.
Lord LEY.
Seal: this marine mammal has adopted in some few coats of arms. It seems to have been fancifully called by some heraldic writers the sea-calf, and sea-wolf; possibly, too, by the sea-bear in meant the seal(see under Bear). The whole animal, however, does not appear to be represented; only the paws and the head, and then but rarely.
    Argent, a chevron between three seal's paws erased and erect sable--Town of YARMOUTH, Norfolk.
    Or, a seal's foot erect and erased proper--BERINGBURGH.
    Azure, a ducal coronet or between three seal's heads erased argent--BURMAN, Stratford, co. Warwick.
    Argent, a chevron between three seal's heads bendwise couped sable--LEY, co. Wilts, Barony, 1625; also LEY, co. Devon.
Seax. See Sabre.
Sedant, or Segeant, i.q. Sejant.
Seeded: a word chiefly used with relation to the heraldic rose, &c.
Segreant: applied by most writers to the griffin instead of rampant. It includes the wings being expanded. Applied also to the Leopard in arms of HETHERFIELD.
Sejant, (fr. assis): this term when applied to beasts signifies that they are in a sitting position; but the position of a squirrel sejant differs from most others, from having the fore paws raised. A lion thus borne would be sejant rampant.
    Argent, three conies sejant--STRODE, co. Somerset, 1716.
    Argent, a chevron between three spaniels sejant gules--HOMLING.
    Sable, a chevron sable between three lions sejant gardant azure--LYONS.
    Or, a bear rampant sejant sable--BERNEK.
    Gules, a lion sejant on a chair, and holding in the paws a battle-axe or--Fictitious arms assigned to ALEXANDER the Great.
    Sejant affronté is applicable to a lion borne in full aspect. See the crest of Scotland.
Sellé, (fr.): of a horse with a saddle on.
Semé, (fr.), sometimes written semy: means that the field is sown or strewed over with several of the charges named, drawn small and without any reference to the number. Various synonyms are used by heraldic writers. In a roll temp. HEN. III., poudré is most frequently used, meaning precisely the same; in another roll plein de in found. More modern writers used such terms as aspersed, replenished with, and two old French terms averlye and gerattie are also given in glossaries. Some writers use sans nombre, and a very fanciful distinction has been made between this and semé, namely, that when all the charges are drawn entire sans nombre should be used, but if the outline of the field or any ordinary cuts any of the charges that then semé should be used. In the case of semé of crosslets, billets, bezants, the special term crusily, billetty, and bezanty, already noted in their proper places, are preferable. Platy, hurty, and tortoily, are not so. The term is somewhat awkwardly applied to Chequy in the blazon of the arms of the Bishop of ELY as given in Wharton's 'Anglia Sacra.'
    Sr JOHN de Bretaigne, porte eschekere d'or et d'azur, ou le cantell d'ermyne ou le bordure de gulez poudre ou lepars d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Per fesse gules and sable, a lion rampant argent semy of crosses croslet of the first--LODGE, co. York.
    Gules, semy of nails argent, three stems of a flower vert--ASHBY.
    Azure, semy-de-lis and a lion rampant argent--HOLLAND.
    Gules, semy-de-lis or, a lion rampant and a canton ermine--MARKS, Suffolk.
    Or, semy of hearts and in chief a lion rampant gardant azure--GOTHES.
    Or, on a chevron gules, within a bordure azure semée of mitres[better, charged with eight or more mitres] of the first--Edmund STAFFORD, Bp. of Exeter, 1395-1419.
    Chequy argent, semée of torteaux, and azure semée of fleur-de-lys or--Louis de LUXEMBOURG, Bp. of Ely, 1438-43, [and Archbishop of Rouen, 1443-56].
    Le REY DE FRAUNCE, de asur poudre a flurette de or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Rauf le FITZ NICOLE, de goules, ung quintefueil de or; le champ pleyn des escallopes d'argent--Ibid.
    Or, the field replenished with estoiles azure, a lion rampant gules--GALLYHALT.
Senestré par, (fr.): having another charge on the left hand.
Senestrochère, (fr.): a sinister arm represented starting from the dexter side of the shield.
Sengreen is a name for the plant called house-leak(the saxifraga nivalis of Linnæus): it occurs only in the very extraordinary arms of one of the founders of a college in Cambridge. The illustration here given is from the college book-plate, with the words of the grant as printed by Gibbon.
    "Gold semied with flowers gentil, a sengreen in chief over the heads of two whole serpents in pale, their tails knit together(all in proper colour) resting upon a square marble-stone vert, between these a book sable garnisht gules buckled gold"--Dr.John KAYE[co-founder with GONVILLE of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, temp. Queen Mary].
Sepurture: a term applied to the wings of birds, q.v.; synonymous with endorsed.
Seraph. See Head.
Serpent: the serpent or snake, for they are in heraldry absolutely synonymous, (fr. serpent), is found in the ancient rolls under the name of bis; the word survives in the Italian biscia, or cobra of Milan. The reptile occurs rather frequently in coats of arms, and its position should be described. As seen in the case of the arms of CAIUS above, it may be represented erect. It may also be drawn gliding or fessways.
    It may be involved or encircled(both terms meaning the same), as shewn in the margin, in which position it occurs in the arms of WHITBY Abbey. The device was probably suggested by the fossil Ammonites, found in the lias clay there, and which were at first supposed to be petrified snakes. When involved, the French heralds seem to use the word guivre for snake.
    Le Counte de TRERSTEYN, dor a un byse de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Monsire William MALBIS, d'argent a une cheveron de gules a trois testes de bys rases gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three serpents erect proper--COTTER, Bart, 1763.
    Argent, two serpents erect endorsed--LONGSHARE.
    Or, three serpents erect wavy sable--CODLEW, or CUDLEW.
    Argent, three serpents gliding in pale azure--DUCAT.
    Argent, two bars gules; over all as many serpents erect, respecting each other, vert--REFUGE.
    Argent, a serpent involved vert--O'DRONE, Ireland. [Another family, three snakes involved vert.]
    Argent, three serpents voluted--DIGON, or TROGONE, Ireland.
    Azure, three serpents encircled or; two and two--WHITBY Abbey.
    D'argent à la guivre d'azur, tortillante en pal, [generally blazoned 'couronnée d'or,'] 'engloutissante un enfant' issante de gueules--Duché. de MILAN.
Nowed reversed.
Nowed reversed.
    Snakes are also represented nowed, (q.v.), or twisted in a knot. In the crest of CAVENDISH the reptile is represented as in the margin, and theoretical heralds contend that if represented as in the lowest of the two figures it would be nowed reversed. Also, as will be seen, there are complications of the nowed position.
    One or two other varieties are given, but heraldic writers such as Holme devote several pages to imaginary positions of serpents, and fanciful terms to fit them, none of which, however, are found to occur in any coats of arms. They are sometimes represented with tails in their mouths; at others round a pillar, or round necks of children. (See arms of VAUGHAN under Enveloped.)
    See also Adder, from which there is little or nothing to distinguish the charge in heraldic drawing.
    Argent, two serpents nowed and linked together in pale between two stars gules--ARWELL, Scotland.
    Gules, three snakes nowed in triangle argent--EDNOWAIN AP BRADWEN, Merionethshire.
    Gules, three snakes nowed in triangle argent, within a bordure engrailed or--LEWIS, Warwickshire.
    Vert, a serpent bowed embowed debruised, the head erect, the tail torqued or--BLOORE.
    Azure, three serpents, each encircled, their tails in their mouths argent[in French blazon, 'D'azur, a trois serpents d'argent arrondis se mordant la queue, posées 2 et 1']--DE LAUZON, Poitou.
    Azure, a bend or in chief three boy's heads couped at the shoulders argent, each enwrapped about the neck with a snake proper; in base as many griffin's heads erased of the third--MADOCK, co. Gloucester.
    Gules, a stellion[?] serpent proper--BUME.
Serrated: having a saw-like edge, e.g. of a sickle blade.
Sesant: i.q. Issant.
Sex-foil: the term sex-foil is found in one or two old rolls of arms, and seems to be used for what are elsewhere blazoned as roses: but though the five-foil or cinque-foil is very common, it has not been observed in modern coats. See also Narcissus.
    Simon de VEER, de goules trois sixfueilles d'ermyn--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Monsire de PIERPOUNT, port d'argent, a une lyon de sable rampant et une urle de seyfoils[often drawn as cinquefoils] gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Sire Johan DARCY de argent, a un escuchon de sable, od les rosettes[otherwise blazoned sistefoils] de goules assis en la maniere de bordure--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Argent, ten six-foils[intended for roses] gules, four, three, two, and one--Joan ROSELEE, Roll, temp. ED. I.
    Sable, three sixfoils within a bordure engrailed or--Walter de WIGTONE-[From the coloured roll in possession of Society of Antiquaries].
    Angemmes, (fr. from lat. ingemmœ), are described as a series of round ornaments drawn like quatrefoils, but with six leaves, and seem to be confined to French heraldry.
    De gueules, à un écusson d'argent à la bordure d'angemmes d'or--TANCARVILLE.
Shacklebolt. See Fetterlock.
Shadowed, (fr. ombré or tracé). See Adumbration.
Shafferoon. See Corruption of Chaperonne.
Shafted, (fr. futé): applied to the shaft of an arrow; also to the quill of a feather; but seldom needed.
Shake-fork: this is a bearing resembling a pall couped and pointed, and is almost entirely confined to Scotch families, and chiefly to those of CUNNINGHAM, who bear it in a variety of ways. It is in one instance blazoned a Pale furché.
    Argent, a shake-fork sable--CUNNINGHAM.
    Argent, a pale furché between two cotises sable--CUNNINGHAM.
    Argent, a shake-fork sable charged with a cinquefoil of the first--CUNNINGHAM, Glengarnock.
    Argent, a rose vert between three shake-forks sable--SMALLSHAW, Bolton, co. Lancaster.
    Azure, on a shake-fork between two mascles in chief, and a boar's head erased in base or, three laurel leaves vert--KINLOCH, Scotland.
Shambrogue, or Shambrough, is defined by Berry and other heraldic writers as a kind of ship; but it is more probably a kind of boot, (cf. Irish brogue under boot).
    Azure, on a bend or three shambrogues gules--PEDE, Bury, Suffolk.
    Or, on a bend sable, three shambroughs argent[otherwise Or, on a bend sable three legs in armour couped at the thigh, and erased at the ankle proper]--BLAGRAVE.
Shamrock. See Trefoil.
Shapourne: a corruption of Chaperonne. See also Point champaine.
Shark: this fish occurs in one or two coats of arms, and in one or two crests: the dog-fish occurs also in the same way.
    Azure, a shark or; a chief of the last--VALLIANT.
    A shark issuing regardant swallowing a man--Crest of family of YEATES, Ireland.
    A shark's head regardant and swallowing a negro--Crest of family of MOLTON.
    Argent, three dog-fishes naiant in pale sable--GESSE.
    A demi dog-fish--Crest of family of MEER, Dorset.
Shave. See Currier's shave.
Shavehook. See Plumber's instruments.
Shaving-iron occurs in the insignia of the Company of FANMAKERS. See Fan.
Shears. See Weaver's.
Sheaves of Arrows, Reeds, &c. q.v. also of Corn. See Wheat and Garbe.
Sheep: although the Ram and Lamb are found frequently blazoned in British Heraldry the sheep is not found so. With the French heralds both mouton and brebis are found, the former used generally, the latter only when it is feeding(paissante).
    D'azur, a trois moutons passant d'argent, accornés de sable, accolés de gueules, et clarinés d'or; à la bordure engrêlée et gueules; au chef cousu de France--BOURGES.
    D'azur, a une brebis d'argent--BERBISY, Bourgogne.
Sheldrake. See Duck.
Shepherd's Crook. See Staff.
Shield, (Anglo-Sax. Scyld): from the earliest times no doubt the shield borne on the arm to protect the bearer in battle was ornamented with various devices, one object of which was that the bearer should be recognised by his friends in the midst of the fight; and to the devices on these shields there can be no question armorial bearing chiefly owe their origin. The fact that the devices were afterwards pourtrayed on the mantles and on the surcoats, on the trappings of the horses, or on flags and pennons, does not militate against this origin, since such were later developments. The crest on the helmet, however, may perhaps be considered in theory to have as early an origin as the device on the shield, but throughout the middle ages it was the device on the shield which marked the man, and afterwards his family, far more than the crest.
    From the much more frequent occurrence on the earlier arms of the simpler devices, such as the fesse, the bend, the chevron, &c., it may reasonably be presumed that these had their origin in the structure of the shield itself, i.e. from the bars of wood, or more probably of metal, which passed athwart the shield to strengthen it. The example so frequently referred to as an early device, namely, the escarboucle, (q.v.), is essentially such as a thirteenth-century armourer would adopt to strengthen woodwork, and a similar device is not unfrequently found on doors of churches. It was not originally deemed a charge but merely an ornament, like diapering was. Cf. old fr. bouclier, and English synonym buckler.
    Concurrently with the plain devices(which have in systematic heraldry received the name of ordinaries, see Synoptical Table), devices derived from the animal, and perhaps in a few cases from the vegetable, kingdom were adopted, and since these gave far greater variety they tended to supplant, as well as to supplement the others. The Lion, as the emblem of strength and courage, was of course the favourite device amongst animals, as the Eagle amongst birds, and the Dolphin amongst fishes.
    The shield, in its practical sense, was pourtrayed in sculpture and in stained glass throughout the middle ages for the purpose of containing the device; and though the outline was frequently modified--particularly in later years--to harmonize with the architectural details surrounding it, the shield form, ending in a point, was nearly always retained. The various modifications of the outline, as found carved on monuments, or engraved on brasses, or painted in glass of windows, or outlined on the seals, &c., at different periods is an interesting study, but beyond the limits of a glossary. In some cases, though rarely in England, a circle is adopted on Seals instead of a shield, but there is no evidence that this was due to anything but the fancy of the artist, since ecclesiastics and laymen, warriors, and religious or municipal communities, have sometimes the shield, sometimes the circle.
    Women of all ranks(the sovereign alone excepted) are now supposed to bear their arms or lozenge-shaped figures rather than on shields(see Achievements), but formerly all ladies of rank of bore shields upon their seals.
    The shield is, for convenience sake, partitioned our into certain divisions, usually reckoned as nine in number, and called Points, q.v.
    Shields in more rare instances are themselves borne as armorial bearings, usually blazoned as Escutcheons, q.v. In one modern case the mythical shield of Pallas is named, and a plain shield is the crest of FORTESCUE.
    Azure, on a chevron sable, a gauntlet of the first between two pairs of swords in saltire of the last, hilts and pommels or; on a chief of the second, an oval shield of the field charged with a cross gules encircled with a carved shield of the third, between two peer's helmets proper garnished gold--Company of ARMOURERS, incorporated temp. HEN. VI.
    Argent, on a mount in base the trunk of an oak tree sprouting out two branches proper with the Shield of Pallas hanging thereon or, fastened by a belt gules--BOROUGH, co. Derby.
    The target may be reckoned amongst shields, occurring as it does in the feudal coat of the Lordship of ROTHSCHILD. An archery Target seems also to have been adopted.
    Gules, a target between three antique crowns or--GRANT, Ballindalloch, co. Elgin.
Ship, (fr. navire or vaisseau): this is a very frequent device, and especially in the insignia of sea-port towns and merchant companies. The form varies greatly in different examples, being for the most part copied from the existing fashion. When ships are named they should be most scrupulously blazoned, care being especially taken to state the number of masts and top-masts, whether there are any sails(fr. voiles), and if any, whether they are furled or not. The rigging, too, it will be seen is often of a different tincture. It will be noted that the hulk of the vessel is often named, and sometimes the stern. Ship and Castles are so exceedingly varied in form that they present greater difficulties than almost any other bearings.
    It will be found that a ship proper is generally represented with three masts; if with one mast it is perhaps better blazoned as a Lymphad(q.v.), (which may have oars as well), or a galley, though the latter may have three masts.
    Argent, a three-masted galley, her sails furled proper[otherwise a ship with three masts, sails furled and shrouded proper]--MEARES.
    A ship of three masts of in full sail of the waves of the sea; the mainsail charged with a lion rampant, and the sail on the foremast charged with a cross of S.George; on the round top of each mast are four spears with their barbed points upwards--Seal of town of ALDBOROUGH, Suffolk; granted 1561.
    Gules, a fesse ermine, in base a ship with three masts, sails furled proper--CRAWFURD, Passell.
    Argent, in base a lion passant gules and in chief a three-masted ship sails set ... --O'LEARIE, Ireland.
    Azure, semy-de-lis or, a lion rampant of the last; on a canton argent, a ship in full sail proper--POOLE, co. Chester.
    Argent, on waves of the first and azure a three-masted ship in pale sailing to the sinister sable; on a chief of the third a lizard or--MAC SHEELEY.
    Quarterly, first and fourth or, a lion rampant gules; second azure a ship at anchor within a royal tressure or; third azure, a ship in full sail or; over all dividing the quarters, a cross engrailed gules--SINCLAIR, Mey, Scotland.
    Azure, in base a sea with a dolphin's head appearing in the water all proper; on the sea a ship of three masts in full sail all or, the sail and rigging argent, on each a cross gules; on the dexter chief point the sun in splendour; on the sinister chief point an estoile of the third; on a chief of the fourth a cross of the fifth charged with the lion of England--Company of SPANISH MERCHANTS.
    Azure, on a sea in base proper a ship with three masts in full sail or, between two rocks of the second, all the sails, pennants and ensigns argent, each charged with a cross gules; a chief engrailed of the third; in base a sea-horse proper--LEVANT COMPANY[TURKEY MERCHANTS].
    Azure, three ships of as many masts rigged and under full sail, the sails, pennants and ensigns argent, each charged with a cross gules, on a chief of the second ... (see Pale)--EAST INDIA COMPANY; arms granted 1600.
    Barry wavy of six argent and azure; over all a ship of three masts in full sail proper, sails, pennants, and ensigns of the first each charged with a cross gules all between three bezants; a chief or, on a pale between two roses gules seeded or barbed vert a lion passant gardant of the fifth--RUSSIA MERCHANTS, incorporated 1555.
    With the French when the masts are of a different tincture the term equipé is used, and when the sails are so, habillé.
    D'azur, au navire d'or, equipé et voilé d'argent, flottant sur des ondes de même--HERAIL, Languedoc.
    De gueules, au navire d'or, habillé d'hermine, voguant sur des ondes au naturel; au chef cousu d'hermine--Ville de NANTES.
Demy Hull.
Demy Hull.
    The hull or hulk of the vessel is sometimes figured separately on arms, and in a few cases(the insignia of the CINQUE PORTS being the characteristic examples), a portion only of the hull is shewn. Often, too, the hulk is conjoined to some other charge. The sails and the masts are also as devices; the former is sometimes drawn with a portion of the mast, of at least of the yardarm.
    Barry of six argent and azure three hulks sable; on a chief gules three lions passant gardant or--City of WATERFORD.
    Per pale gules and azure; on the dexter three demi-lions passant gardant issuing from the centre and conjoined to so many demi-hulks of ships on the sinister argent--CINQUE PORTS.
    Per pale gules and azure, three demi-lions passant gardant in pale or; joined to as many demi-hulks of ships argent; over all in pale a crosier or--FEVERSHAM ABBEY.
    Gules, a lion rampant gardant or impaled with azure, three demi-hulks of ships joined to the impaled line of the last--Town of IPSWICH, Suffolk; confirmed 1561[elsewhere Per pale gules and azure a lion rampant or between three sterns of ships argent].
    Gules, three pieces of masts couped, with the tops argent two and one--CROMER.
    Gules[otherwise vert], three sails argent--CAVEL.
    Argent, three sails of a ship fastened to their yards gules--LOCAVELL, or CAVELL.
    The term antique or ancient ship sometimes means the Lymphad, q.v. When oars are named(a in the arms SINCLAIR), though the charge is called a ship, it is meant probably far a galley. A Spanish merchant-ship occurs in the arms of FAVENC(see under Mulberry), and the Noah's ark, borne by the Company of SHIPWRIGHTS, has been mentioned in its proper place. The shambrogue(q.v.), which writers refer to as a ship, seems not to be a ship at all.
    An antique vessel with one mast; two men in the vessel, one blowing a horn, and two men lying on the yard arm--Seal of the Corporation of HYTHE, Kent.
    Azure, an ancient ship of three masts, sails furled or--WRANGHAM.
    De gueules, au navire antique d'argent, voguant sur des ondes de même; au chef semé de France--Ville de PARIS. [The ship is variously drawn, and the chief has been several times altered.]
    Azure, a ship at anchor, her oars in saltire within a double tressure flory counterflory or--SINCLAIR or ST.CLAIR, Baron Sinclair.
    Or, a galley, sails furled and oars in action gules, flags azure--NOBLE, Ireland.
    Or, on a fesse azure between in chief a bull's head couped, and in base a galley with oars erected saltirewise sable, a Saint Andrew's cross argent--RICHARDSON, Scotland.
    Barry wavy of six argent and azure; over all a fishing vessel of one mast sans sail or--ROYAL FISHING COMPANY.
    It has been said that several towns bear ships on their insignia. The following represents a list of those which have been noticed. Where an asterisk is placed the statement is derived only from the seal.
    *ALDBOROUGH, Suffolk; *BEAUMARIS; BERWICK, (North); *BIDEFORD, Devon; BRISTOL; BURNTISLAND; CAMBRIDGE; *CARDIGAN; DARTMOUTH, Devon; *DUNWICH, Suffolk; *EAST LOW, Cornwall, *FOWEY, Cornwall; *HARWICH, Essex(crest); HASTINGS, Sussex; *HYTHE, Kent; IPSWICH, Suffolk; LYDD, Kent; *LYMINGTON, Hants; *MALDON, Essex(rev.); *NEWTOWN, Hants; PLYMOUTH, Devon; QUEENSFERRY, Scotland; RENFREW, Scotland; SANDWICH, Kent; TENTERDEN, Kent; TRURO, Cornwall; WATERFORD, Ireland; WEXFORD, Ireland; WEYMOUTH, Dorset; WINCHELSEA, Sussex; *YARMOUTH, Hants.
Ship-lantern. See Lantern.
Shods. Used for the metal points of arrows. See under Palewise.
Shoe. See Boot.
Shoemaker's Knife. See Knife.
Star Stone.
Star Stone.
Shot: there are one or two names given to the kinds of shot used. The star stone, as it is sometimes called from its appearance, is figured in the margin. Possibly the chain shot is synonymous--called by Guillim 'a murdering chain shot.' (See also Fireball).
    Gules, on a chevron argent a rose between two lions counterpassant of the first, in base a star stone proper--George HEPBURN.
    Azure, three chain shots or[quartered by CLIFFORD, Earl of Cumberland].
    Or, two chain shots, one in chief and the other in base sable--SOMBRÉ.
Bar Shot.
Bar Shot.
    An ancient form of shot is represented in the margin, where the two ends are united by a bar instead of by a chain. The gun stones, though no doubt called so from their use as projectiles from guns, are considered as one of the roundles. (See Pellets.)
Shovel. See Spade.
Shoveller. See Duck.
Shrimp: besides the crab and the lobster we find the shrimp, which in one or two cases is blazoned prawn. There appear to be, however, only one or two families bearing the device. The position, unless otherwise described, is displayed tergiant barwise, the head to the dexter.
    Barry wavy of six ermine and gules, a chevron between three shrimps[otherwise prawns] or, charged with a rose of the second barbed vert seeded gold between two lilies in line with the chevron slipped vert--William ATTWATER, Bishop of Lincoln, 1514-21; granted 1509.
    Gules, on three bars wavy or, as many shrimps of the field, [otherwise barry wavy of six argent and gules, three shrimps or]--ATSEA.
    Or, two bars wavy between three shrimps in pale gules, [otherwise 'Or, on two bars gules as many shrimps naiant argent']--ATSEA.
    Barry wavy of six or and gules, three prawns naiant of the second--SEA or ATSEA, Herne, Kent.
Shrine. See Church.
Shruttle. See Basket.
Shuttle. See Weaver's Shuttle.
Sickle, (fr. faucille), or ordinary reaping-hook, is borne but by few families, and is represented as in the margin.
    Sable, three sickles interwoven argent--SICKLEMORE, co. Suffolk.
    Vert, on a fesse between two garbs in chief or and a sickle in base argent, handled of the second, an arrow barways gules headed and flighted of the third between two estoiles azure--DUBERLY, co. Monmouth; granted 1766.
    Gules, three reaping-hooks argent--SASSELL or SAWSEFELE.
    Per chevron sable and or; in base a moorcock of the first combed and wattled gules, in chief two pair of reaping-hooks endorsed and entwined, the blades argent the handles gold--HOCKMORE, Buckyate, co. Devon,
    Argent, three reaping-hooks, their bows conjoined in fesse[point] sable--TREMERE, co. Cornwall.
    De gueules, à trois faucilles d'argent emmanchées d'or les pointes au cœur de l'ecu--MAYÈRE, Flandre.
    Similar to the above is the pruning-hook, the only difference, perhaps, being that the handle should be drawn somewhat longer. Pruning-hooks occur notably in the crest of TAY and NANFANT, the former bearing two, the latter three.
    Gules, three pruning-hooks, blades argent, handles or--CUTCLIFFE, Ilfracombe, co. Devon.
    The Scythe(fr. faux) is also frequently found.
    Argent, a scythe in pale, blade in chief, the sned[or handle] in bend sinister sable; in the fesse point a fleur-de-lis of the last--SNEYD, co. Stafford.
    Argent, a scythe sable--SNELSON, co. Chester; also Sir James LEE, co. Stafford.
    Argent, a fesse gules between three scythes sable--ALCOCK, co. Chester.
    Gules, a scythe argent, handle in pale, blade in chief--BOGHEY, co. Stafford.
    Per chevron sable and or, in base a moorcock of the first, in chief four scythes conjoined two and two argent, the handles of the second--HUCKMORE, co. Devon.
    Or, on a chief gules three scythes erect argent--SETHINGTON.
    D'azur, à trois faux d'or--FAUQUIÈRES, Bourgogne.
    Scythes are also borne by the families of SNELYTONE, London; MAINWARING; KEMPLEY or KEMSEY, co. Salop; PRAYERS or PRAERS, co. Chester; PARTRIDGE, co. Stafford; RIDLER, co. Gloucester.
    It will be observed that the blades of the sickle and scythe(fr. rangier) are sometimes borne without handles.
    Gules, two scythe blades, the edges inward and points upward in saltire, the dexter surmounted of the sinister argent--VAN MILDERT, Bishop of Llandaff, 1819; Durham, 1826-36.
    Argent, the upper half of a sickle blade serrated on the inner[dexter] edge erect sable--ZAKESLY.
    De gueules, à trois rangiers d'argent--SORNY DES GRESLETS, Champagne.
Side: a portion of the shield, not more than one sixth of its breadth, cut off by a perpendicular line. Theoretically it may be dexter or sinister; but it seems not no be adopted by any English family, though it appears in the arms of a German family resident here. In one MS., too, a quartering bearing a side is introduced into the arms of Bp. Edward FOX.
    Argent, on a mount vert, three pine-trees proper, a side dexter or--GROTE, Kent.
    Argent, on a bend sable, three dolphins embowed bendwise naiant or--Edward FOX, Bp. of Hereford, 1535-8. Quartering, argent, a plain inescutcheon and a side dexter indented sable--Cotton MS., Tiberius D. 10, fol. 865.
Silk: in the insignia of the SILK-THROWERS' COMPANY, in London, occurs the only reference to this product. Of the three hanks or bundles of silk, it will be seen that the central one is drawn differently from the others. In the chief is a representation of the silk-throwers' mill.
    Argent, three bundles or hanks of silk in fesse sable; on a chief azure a silk-thrower's mill or--Company of SILK-THROWERS, London; incorporated 1630.
Silkworm-fly: this occurs but in one coat of arms.
    Per chevron argent and vert; in chief three silkworm-flies paleways en arriere in fesse; in base a mulberry branch; all counterchanged--BASSANO, Lichfield, co. Stafford.
Silphium: this plant occurs but in one coat of arms, and that a singular one. The flower is similar to that of the chrysanthemum.
    Vert, a chevron gules between two couplecloses erminois[sic] and three Turk's heads couped proper turbaned or; on a chief argent a silphium plant proper issuant from a mount vert inscribed with the letters KYPA gold--Admiral SMYTH.
Silver. See Argent. The word is used to avoid repetition.
Sinister, (fr. sinistre): the left hand side. As shields are always supposed to be upon the arms of the bearer, it is his left-hand side which is meant; consequently the sinister is on the spectator's right hand.
Sinistré par, (fr.): signifies having something on the left of sinister side.
Sinople: old French term for vert, and now always used by French heralds.
Siren. See under Mermaid.
Skean or Skene. See Dagger.
Skiff. See Boat.
Skull, human. See Bones; also Heads.
Slea, or Slay. Weaver's, q.v.
Sleeve. See Maunch.
Sling: the ancient means for hurling missiles against the enemy(called also a swepe) occurs in one or two coats of arms, though not in any ancient ones, so far as has been observed. The sling, or staff-sling, is represented as in the margin.
    The sweep(more correctly spelt swepe) is used as if synonymous. It is, however, the same as the balista, and is so blazoned in one coat; it is a more formidable engine of warfare, similar to the catapult or mangonel, whence in one case the play on the name.
    Sable, a staff-sling in bend between two pheons argent--CAWARDEN, or CARDEN, co. Cheshire and Hereford.
    Gules, a sling or hand-bow between two broad arrows argent--CAWARDEN, co. Stafford.
    Argent, a sweep(or sling) azure charged with a stone or--MAGNALL.
    Argent, on a mount vert a balista azure charged with a stone proper, a chief per fesse embattled or and gules--MAGNALL, Manchester and London; granted 1765.
Slip. See Tree.
Slipped, (fr. tigé): (1) applied to the stalks of trefoils, and of leaves, sprigs of trees, &c., implying that they are it were torn off, not couped. See Trefoil. (2) Applied to flowers when they have stalks and leaves to denote the tincture. See Rose.
Slippers. See Weaver's Spindle.
Slogan, or Sloghorn, [Scottish]. See Motto.
Smelts. See Salmon.
Smew. See Duck.
Snagged. See under Tree.
Snail, or House-snail, (fr. limaçon): this occurs but rarely.
    Sable, a fesse between three house-snails argent--SHELLEY.
    Gules, three snails argent in their shells or--BARTAN, Scotland.
    Argent, a fesse vert between three house-snails azure--STUDMAN, Scotland.
    Argent, a fesse vert between two snails in their shells in chief azure, and in base a thistle, leaved proper--STEDMAN.
    Quarterly, first and fourth, per fesse or and gules a lion rampant counterchanged; second, or, a lion rampant with two heads azure; third, argent, a chevron gules between three snails sable--MASON, Yorkshire.
Snake. See Serpent.
Sned, (written sometimes snathe); handle of a scythe. See under Sickle.
Snipe: of birds belonging to the family of the scolopaidœ we find single instances of the snipe, of the curlew, and of the avocetta, as follows.
    Gules, a snipe argent gorged with a crown or--SNITTERTON.
    Azure, a fesse dancetty between three curlews or--SCOGAN.
    Azure, the head of an avocetta proper--BINDER.
Snout: of a mole, &c., when of a different tincture.
Soaring or rising. See Wings.
Sol. See Or.
Soldering iron. See Plumbers' Instruments.
Sole. See Turbot.
Soleil. See Sun and Rose en soleil.
Sommé par, (fr.): when one charge has another in chief of it.
Song-book. See Book.
Souche, (fr.): a stump of a Tree shewing the roots.
Soutenu par, (fr.): when one charge has another below it.
Sovereign: an old French term found in some Rolls, signifying chief or upper. In the examples of the arms of BORDET and FLEMING it would refer to the uppermost bar, and in those of CUSANCE it would mean in the upper part of the bend.
    Sire Robert BORDET, [de azure a ij barres de or] en la sovereyne barre iij merelos de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire John FLEMINGE, barre d'argent et d'asur a trois oreillers de gules en la sovereign barre.--Ibid.
    Monsire William CUSANCE, port d'argent a une bend engrele sable a une escalop en le sov'reign peice--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Spade: the spade is generally pointed and shod with iron. The handle is sometimes like that of the figure in the margin, but often merely a short piece of wood at right angles with the upright piece. The half-spade is also borne, and is some instances the term shovel is used.
    Azure, two spades or--DAMPORT.
    Azure, three spades argent within a bordure or--AYNESWORTH.
    Azure, three spades argent, helved or--KNIPERSLEY.
    Argent, on a bend vert three shovels bendwise in bend of the first--SWETTENHAM. [Various branches of the family vary the arms.]
    Paly of six argent and gules, on a bend vert three half-spades of the first--SWETENHAM, Somerset.
    Azure, three shovels argent--BEECHTON.
    Azure, three irons or digging spades or--BECHETON.
    Azure, three half-spades or, the side of each spade to the sinister--DAVERPORT.
    Argent, a chevron between three half-spades[otherwise garden-spades] sable--STANDELFE.
    The Spade-iron: the iron edge of a wooden spade, but it is not impossible that the figure is intended for a boteroll, or crampet.
    Azure, three spade-irons or, [otherwise blades of spades]--BECKTON.
Spalding: a fish. See under Herring.
Spancelled. See Horse.
Spaniel. See Dog.
Sparling. See Smelt under Salmon.
Sparrow: the common sparrow has been chosen for the sake of the name of one family, and in imperfect blazon may be noted as regards another family, the name Phillip being sometimes applied to a tame sparrow.
    Argent, six sparrows, three, two and one sable; on a chief indented gules, two swords in saltire between as many wolf's heads erased or--SPAROW, London; granted 1516.
    ... three sparrows ... --PHILLIP, Brignell, co. York.
Sparrow hawk. See Falcon.
Spatula: this occurs only in the insignia of the Company of BARBER SURGEONS. See under Fleam.
Spear: it might have been expected that this charge would have been found in ancient arms, but so far as has been observed it is not the case. It is, however, not unfrequent in later arms. The tilting-spear proper should have the vamplet shewn, i.e. the funnel-shaped projection near where the hand holds it. The cronel also belonging to the tilting-spear has been already mentioned.
    With the spear must be included the lance(fr. lance), dart, or javelin(fr. javelot). (See Pheon). It is different to distinguish them, but the lance is much longer than the dart or javelin, and the head is not barbed. The dart may, perhaps, be represented as a long arrow(q.v.), and like the javelin should have a barbed head. A broken spear(fr. eclarté) signifies the lower half, the upper having been broken off. Spears may be represented in parcels. A half spear signifies the upper half of the spear.
    Or, on a bend sable, a[tilting] spear of the field headed argent--SHAKSPERE, Warwick. [Granted by Dethick to the father of the dramatist, 1546.]
    Argent, five barrulets gules between three martlets in chief, and as many tilting spears paleways in base, azure--M'CALZIEN.
    Azure, a battle-axe and tilting-spear in saltire argent headed or, in chief an arrow barways of the second headed and feathered of the third--GARBRAND.
    Gules, a fesse ermine, over all two spears in saltire argent--CRAWFURD, Scotland.
    Argent, seven half spears sable headed azure, three, one and three--DOCKER.
    Sable, three spear-heads argent--PRYCE, Hunts.
    Sable, a chevron between three leopard's heads or; on a chief as many spear-heads of the first embrued proper--PRICE, Marden, co. Hereford.
    Or, on a bend azure a star between two crescents of the first, in chief a broken lance gules--SCOT, Whitislaid, Scotland.
    Vert, a dart between two garbs or; on a chief azure a cherub's head proper between two estoiles argent--THACKERY.
    Sable, a hand couped at the wrist grasping three darts, one in pale and two in saltire argent--LOWLE, Somerset.
    Sable, a chevron between three darts, points upwards, shafts broken argent--AKENSIDE.
    Sable, on a cross or between four unicorn's heads erased argent, armed, maned and tufted of the second, a cross engrailed gules charged with a javelin erect gold, headed as the third--WRIGHT, Manchester.
    Sable, nine tilting-spears argent in parcels, three in each, viz. one in pale, two in saltire, wreath or--GARTEN, Sussex.
    Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, two and one; in chief spears issuing from the top of the field argent, each having a hook of the second, and beard on the dexter side--UNWYN, Horton, Yabington, co. Hants.
    For salmon-spear and eel-spear, see under Eel-spear.
Spear-rest. See Rest.
Spectacles: besides appearing in the insignia of the Company, these are borne by one or two families.
    Argent, three pairs of spectacle vert, garnished or--Company of SPECTACLE MAKERS, London; Inc. 1629.
    Gules, a chevron between three pairs of spectacles argent--STURMYN.
    Argent, an oak-tree growing out of a mount in base vert; on one of the branches a pair of spectacles azure; on the top of the tree an eye proper--WAITE.
Sperver. See Tent.
A terrestrial sphere.
A terrestrial sphere.
Sphere, (fr. sphére): the Terrestrial Sphere, or Globe, is rare in arms but not uncommon as part of a crest, e.g. of families of HOPE, DRAKE, &c. It is often environed with a meridian, and sometimes placed in a frame or stand. A remarkable example of late heraldic invention, and one of the worst, is seen in the arms of Sir John ROSS.
    Similar to the sphere, but plain and(as a rule) surmounted by a cross, is the mound or Orb, q.v.
    Azure, a sphere or--HARME, Surrey.
    Azure, a pelican or, vulned proper, standing on a globe argent--John PIERSE, Bishop of Rochester, 1576; Salisbury, 1577; Archbishop of York, 1588-94.
    Gules, three estoiles in chevron between as many lions rampant argent; [for augmentation] a chief or, thereon a portion of the terrestrial globe proper, the true meridian described thereon by a line passing from north to south sable, with the arctic circle azure; within which the place of the magnetic pole in latitude 70deg;5acute;17acute;acute;, and longitude 96deg;46acute;45acute;acute;west, designated by an inescutcheon gules, charged with a lion passant gardant of the first; the magnetic meridian shewn by line of the fourth passing through the inescutcheon with a correspondent circle, also gules, to denote more particularly the said place of the magnetic pole; the words following inscribed on the chief, viz., "Arctæos Numine Fines"--Sir John ROSS, C.B., Capt. R.N.
    Azure, a globe, whereon are represented the Straits of Magellan and Cape Horn all proper; in the sinister chief point two herrings haurient in saltire argent crowned or; on a canton the united arms of Great Britain of the second--SOUTH SEA COMPANY, Established 1712.
    Azure, a cross patty fitchy or; on a chief of the last three globes azure--ELDRED, Olavers, Stannaway, Essex.
Crest of the Company of CLOCKMAKERS.
Crest of the Company of CLOCKMAKERS.
    Both the Armillary and Celestial sphere are named; the latter with a foot occurring in the crest of the Company of CLOCKMAKERS.
    Gules, an armillary sphere or within an orle argent charged with eight mullets azure--CHAMBERLAIN, Baronetcy, 1828.
    Upon helmet properly mantled gules, doubled argent, and wreath of three colours, a celestial sphere with a foot, or--Crest of the Company of CLOCKMAKERS.
    On a wreath argent and gules, a cloud proper, thereon a celestial sphere azure, with the circles or; on the zodiac the signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, and Cancer--The crest of BULL, Watchmaker to Queen Elizabeth.
    A Hemisphere, or Demi-globe, occurs only as part of a crest.
Sphinx, (fr. sphinx), is a monstrosity of Egyptian origin, composed of the head and breast of a woman, the body of a lion, and the wings of an eagle. It is more often used as a crest than in coats of arms.
    Argent, on a fesse engrailed azure three mullets of the field, in chief a sphinx proper, all within a bordure engrailed gules--MOORE[as borne by Sir John Moore, K.B., the hero of Corunna].
    Gules, three bars or, on a bend ermine a sphinx between two wreaths of laurel proper; on a chief embattled, a view of a fortified town with the word ACRE thereunder--CAMERON, co. Argyll.
    Ermine, on a fesse engrailed azure three fleurs-de-lis or; in chief two branches of palm in saltire vert; in base a sphinx couchant proper--BERRY, Catton, Norfolk; extinct Baronetcy, created 1806.
    Harpy, (fr. harpie): an imaginary creature represented as a vulture with the head and breast of a woman.
    Vert, a fesse engrailed argent surmounted of another gules between three harpies of the second crined or--MOODY, co. Wilts; Baronetcy, 1621.
    Azure, a harpy displayed, crined, crowned and armed or--Given as the Insignia of NUREMBURG. [Guillim, ed. 1632, p. 263.]
    De gueules, semé de fleurs-de-lis d'argent à une harpie de même--CALOIS DE MESVILLE.
    Allied to the harpy is a badge which is found sometimes carved on stonework during the reign of Richard III., and is usually attributed to this king. It is supposed, however, to represent a falcon, not a vulture, with the head of a woman.
    The Chimera is said to have the face of a maiden, the mane and legs of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, but is only used as a crest.
Spiders are found but very rarely on coats of arms. One example only has been noted.
    Or, three spiders azure--CHETTLE.
Spike. See Nail.
Spindles, Weaver's, q.v.
Spire: the term is sometimes found in connection with towers of castles, &c., to describe the conical roofs. In one case only, so far as has been observed, it is used as a charge.
    ... on a mount vert a castle with five spires argent--Town of QUEENBOROUGH, Kent.
    Gules, three spires argent, on each a ball and cross or--DAKECOMBE, or DAKEHAM, Linc. and Salop. [Originally of Stepleton, Dorset.]
Spires of Grass, q.v.
Splendour, In his. See Sun.
Spokeshaves. Probably an erroneous blazon. See under Glaziers' Nippers.
Spool. See Spindle.
Spoon: a single example is given of this charge in Glover's Ordinary.
    Sable, three spoons erect or--SPONELL.
Spoonbill. See Heron.
Spot: rarely used to denote marks on an animal, e.g. a Lion with spots, q.v. See also ermine spots. See also spotted cat, spotted dog, &c.
Sprats. See Herring.
Spread, i.q. Displayed.
Sprig. See Tree.
Springing: a term sometimes applied to beasts of chase instead of salient; also to fishes borne bendwise.
Sprouting afresh: a trunk of an oak tree so blazoned.
Spur, (fr. éperon): gilt spurs are proper to knights, and white ones to esquires. When employed as heraldic charges they are generally borne with the straps pendent, and the rowel downwards.
    Spurred is also used(see examples under Leg). The spurs are generally represented with the leathers attached.
    Gules, a dexter hand holding a spear bendways between two spurs with leathers argent--GIB, Caribeer, Scotland.
    Argent, three palets gules; on a canton of the second a spur with the rowel downwards leathered or within a bordure engrailed sable--KNIGHT, Ruscombe, co. Berks.
    Paly of six argent and azure; on a canton as the last a spur or--KNIGHT.
    Gules, a spur-leather and buckle or; on a chief argent three cock's heads erased of the field, combed and wattled gold--COCKES, Somerset.
    Argent, a chevron gules, between in chief two spurs, and in base a battle-axe azure, shaft or--CONNELL, Ireland.
    The term Spur-rowel is sometimes used in modern heraldry to signify a mullet, of six points, pierced. See old fr. rouwel, &c., under Rowel.
    Azure, two talbots in chief and a spur-rowel in base or--VIVIAN, France.
    Vert, a horse argent caparisoned or; on a chief of the second three spur-rowels gules--STUDHOLME, co. Cumberland.
    Argent, a bend engrailed between in chief two spur-rowels gules and in base a hunting-horn of the second garnished sable--GLASSFORD, Borrostounness, Scotland.
Square: an instrument used by carpenters, also by masons. With the carpenter's square may be noted the single instance of the carpenter's reel.
    Argent, a chevron between three carpenter's squares, points dexter sable--ATHOWE, or ATLOWE.
    Argent, a chevron between three carpenter's squares, the angles in sinister chief, gules--Elias SYDALL, Bishop of St.David's 1731; Gloucester, 1731-33.
    Per pale argent and sable, a chevron between three mason's squares counterchanged--MASON.
    Sable, a carpenter's square or--BEVILL.
    Argent, on a chevron between three pairs of compasses extended sable, a joiner's square or, and a golden reel of line as the first--Company of CARPENTERS, London(Cotton MS. Tib. D. 10), [elsewhere, 'and a reel as the last,' stringed azure].
    The term square is found sometimes written for squire or Esquire, q.v., in the arms of MORTIMER, &c., and per square is found fancifully and improperly used for quarterly.
Square pierced: pierced with a small square orifice. See Cross quarterly pierced, §5.
Squire, (as in the arms of Mortimer). See Esquire.
Squirrel, (fr. écureuil): this animal is always borne sejant, and usually cracking a nut.
    Argent, two squirrels addorsed gules--SAMWELL.
    Argent, a chevron azure, between three squirrels sejant, cracking nuts sable--LOVELL, Norfolk.
    Gules, a squirrel sejant cracking a nut or; on a chief of the last three fleurs-de-lis azure--STOKES.
    Azure, a fesse between three squirrels argent cracking nut or, within a bordure engrailed of the second--STOCKWOOD.
    Ermine, on a chevron sable between three squirrels proper, with heads and chains of gold about their necks, three roses argent--Company of TAUYERS[or GREYTAWYERS, i.e. dressers of white leather], London; [Arms granted, 1531].
    Two squirrels proper are the supporters of the arms of BOYD, Merton Hall, co. Wigton.
SS. Collar of. See Collar of SS.
SSS, Collar of. See Collar.
Staff: the term is usually qualified by some word expressing its special purpose or character, such as Pilgrim's or Palmer's staff, q.v.; pike-staff, generally drawn like the first figure of the pilgrim's staff, but without the hook; flag-staff; quarter-staff, used by foresters, &c.; Cross-staff, q.v., and pastoral-staff, see under Crosier. Sometimes the kind of staff is implied, as a Banner and staff(see under Paschal Lamb); a crozier with the staff of such a tincture, &c.
    Sable, three pikestaves argent, two and one, on the top of each an annulet or--PIKE, Gottenburgh, Sweden; granted 1751.
    Argent, a chevron erminois between three flag-staves proper--HAWKE.
    Azure, a chevron between three quarter-staffs argent--LONGSTAFF.
    Gules, a griffin segreant or, holding a flag-staff bendy argent and sable, thereon a banner flowing to the dexter of the third, charged with an imperial eagle of the fourth--GABOTT, Acton-Burnell; also GARBETT. [Given by the Emperor Maximilian, Visit. London, 1568.]
    Per chief indented azure and or; over all in bend a crosier, the staff gules, the crook of the first--Cistercian Abbey of BUCKLAND, co. Devon.
    The staff raguly, or ragged-staff, occurs very frequently, and the term implies a branch of a tree, with the twigs lopped, and resembling a club. It is generally drawn couped, and then the term trunked is used; when throughout the better blazon would be a fesse or bend raguly. It will be observed that it is sometimes represented flammant, but perhaps in that case a fire-brand raguly would be the better blazon.
    Azure, a fesse quarterly sable and argent between three ragged staves bendways or--WOODHOUSE, Calais.
    Argent, a ragged staff embowed to the sinister gules--ALTEN.
    Argent, two ragged staves couped at the ends embowed one to the other sable--BOWSTOCK.
    Argent, a lion rampant sable supporting a ragged staff azure--WILLISBY.
    Sable, an eagle displayed argent, armed and standing upon a ragged staff fesswise or--BARLOW, co. Lancaster.
    Sable, on a chevron argent between three staves raguly or, inflamed proper, a fleur-de-lys azure between two Cornish choughs--MERYCK, Bp. of Sodor and Man, 1575-99.
    Argent, three staves raguly sable, flammant at the top proper--LAYLAND.
    The shepherd's staff or crook is a long staff slightly curved at the top, or at least less so than the staff represented under crosier.
    Vert, two shepherd's crooks in saltire or between three lambs passant, two and one argent--James SHEPHERD, New Green, Surrey.
    Sable, two shepherd's crooks in saltire or between three garbs of the second--BENNETTE.
    Some peculiar names occur, e.g. a Jacob's staff(possibly a shepherd's crook, but probably St.James' pilgrim's staff); the crutch staff, i.q. potent, and the Jedburgh staff. The Patriarchal staff is a staff surmounted by a double or Patriarchal cross, See Cross, §28.
    Azure, a Jacob's staff in pale between two estoiles or--John THURLOW, Burnham Overy, Norfolk; [granted 1664].
    Gules, on a horse salient argent furnished azure a chevalier armed at all points grasping in the right hand a kind of lance called the Jedburgh staff proper--Burgh of JEDBURGH, Scotland.
    The term staves is used in the sense of the handles of axes. See battle-axe, (hafted is a better term). Also of the rays of an escarboucle, q.v. Staved is also applied to branches; see under Tree.
    With the staff may be grouped examples of the club(fr. massue), see Mace; also the truncheon; the first being usually held by a savage or woodman(see under Man), and is not uncommonly held by such when appearing as supporters. The club also has been drawn so as to be mistaken for the icicle. See Gouttes.
    Argent, a savage gules, holding a club over the shoulder vert--GILHAM.
    Argent, three spiked club sable--BARSTON.
    Argent, a chevron between three truncheons, each held in a sinister hand couped at the wrist or--STEVENSON.
    Azure, three clubs[? icicles] in bend or--HARBOTTLE.
    D'argent, a trois massues garnies de pointes de gueules rangées en fasce--BRUSSE, Pays Bas.
    De gueules, à trois massues renversées d'argent--MACE, Normandie.
Staff-tree: this shrub is the Celastrus of Linnæus, and its leaves are borne in one coat of arms.
    Azure, a chevron argent between three staff-tree leaves slipped or, as many bees volant proper--LEAF, Streatham, Surrey.
Stafford's Knot. See Cords.
Stag. See Deer.
Stag-beetle. See Beetles.
Stainand colours, used in theoretical heraldry, are tinctures, which being applied to the figures called abatements, are supposed to be disgraceful. They are sanguine and tenné.
Stalked; used mostly of ears of wheat; but sometimes of plants, flowers, &c. Cf. slipped.
Stalking: sometimes applied to long-legged birds, instead of 'walking.'
Standard. See Flag; also Arrow.
Standish. See Dish.
Stangue, (fr.): shank of an anchor.
Staple: this charge is borne in several instances for the sake of the play upon the name. Sometimes the term door-staple is used.
    Argent, on a pile sable, a staple affixed to the centre of the pile interlaced with a horseshoe or--DUNSTAPLE PRIORY, Beds.
    Argent, three staples sable--STAPLETON.
    Argent, on a lion rampant sable a staple or on the shoulder--STAPLETON, co. Lancaster.
    Argent, a chevron ermine between three staples sable--STAPLES.
    Argent, a chevron between three door-staples gules--BRETON.
    Argent, a saltire gules between four door-staples sable--STOCKTON.
Star: for the conventional heraldic form of star see Estoile. In some late example of arms, however, the polar stars are represented. See also under Telescope and Neptune. A comet, q.v., is sometimes called a blazing star.
    Sable, a fesse wavy between the two polar-stars argent--Sir Francis DRAKE(the first English circumnavigator).
    Azure, on a rock proper an eagle rising or, between in chief the arctic and in base antarctic polar stars; on a canton of the third a wreath of laurel vert fructed of the second--SOMERSET, London; granted 1771.
    Azure, a mast of a vessel issuant from the base, thereon a sail hoisted and pendent flying proper between two estoiles in fesse or, representing the arctic and antarctic polar stars--ENDERBY, London; granted Aug. 12, 1778.
    Azure, the sun and full moon in chief, and the seven stars in orbicular form(?) in base, all or--DE FONTIBUS, Bp. of Ely, 1220-25.
Star-fish. See Mullet.
Starling: this bird occurs but rarely. Probably the stern in the arms of DUKE means the same, and not as sometimes supposed the stern of a vessel.
    Sable, an escutcheon between starlings in orle argent--CALVERLEY.
    Or, six starlings between three mullets sable, each charged with a bezant--PELTON.
    Erminois, a fesse wavy azure between three starlings sable, beaked and lagged gules--GAMBIER, Baron Gambier.
    Azure, a chevron between three sterns argent, beaked and lagged gules--DUKE, co. Suffolk.
Statant, (fr. arrêté): a term signifying standing still with all the feet touching the ground, applied generally to animals, e.g. to a lion and wolf, q.v.; to some birds, e.g. a stork, q.v.; the heron being generally drawn so. Frequently it is applied to the griffin. To stags when in this position and gardant the term 'at gaze' is applied. The head of an animal statant may be gardant, but if so it should be mentioned.
    Argent, a griffin statant sable, armed azure--HALTON.
    Azure, a griffin statant or--GARDENER, London.
Staved: applied to a branch. See under Tree.
Steeple. See Spire, and Temple.
Stem: the stem of flowers, &c., is frequently referred to as of a different tincture, when the term Slipped is generally used.
Steps or degrees. See Cross, §15.
Stern. See Ship, also Starling.
Still. See Distillatory.
Stilts: this singular charge seems only to be borne by one family. The stilts thus borne are represented as shewn in the illustration given in the margin.
    Argent, two stilts in saltire sable, garnished or--NEWBY, Yorkshire.
Stirrup, (fr. étrier): generally borne pendent, attached to a leather strap, with a buckle: in one case the leather is borne separately.
    Gules, three stirrups with leathers in pale or--DEVERELL.
    Azure, three stirrups with leathers or--GIFFORD, Staff.
    Gules, three stirrups leathered and buckled or--SCUDAMORE, co. Hereford.
    Azure, three stirrups or--PUREFOY, co. Leicester.
    Azure, a stirrup between three mitres argent--Benedictine Abbey, EVESHAM, co. Worcester.
    Vert, a chevron engrailed argent between in chief semy of torteaux two stags statant at gaze or, and in base a stirrup-leather gold--ROBINSON, co. Leicester.
Stock(1) of a Tree, q.v., (2) of an Anchor, q.v.
Stone-bow: probably only on ordinary cross-bow, or arbalette, but called thus on account of the name of the bearer, HURLSTONE. See Bow.
Stoned: adorned with precious stones, e.g. of a gem-ring.
Stones. These are very seldom found separately. Two remarkable cases of cranes holding a stone by their feet are given under Crane. The stones in walls are represented by Masoning. They flag-stones are found in the insignia of the PAVIOURS' Company; and a marble-stone will be found in the singular coat of arms given under Sengreen. Tombstones and Millstones will be found under their several headings; while the Star-stone is only another name for a Shot(q.v.) of a particular sort, and gun-stone for Pellet(q.v.). Also used with a balista. See Sling. As regards the flint-stone, it is supposed by some to mean a shot, but most probably it is simply a flint which is intended.
    Argent, three wall-stones[? bricks] in pale or--BRICKLEY.
    Or, a chevron quarterly azure and gules between three flint-stones of the last--STONE, co. Gloucester.
    Vert, three flint-stones argent--FLINT.
    See also stone Billets; stone-bills under Wedge; and stone-fountains under Wells.
Stork: this bird is found in several coats of arms, as well as the heron and crane, although in the actual drawing it is difficult to distinguish them. The bird is frequently represented with the right leg raised.
    Or, a stork statant--John de EGLESCLIFF, Bp. of Connor, afterwards of Llandaff, 1323-47.
    Argent, on a chevron between three storks, as many swans proper--POULTERERS' Company, [Inc. 1504].
    Or, a stork proper--SERJEANTS' INN, Chancery Lane.
    Argent, a stork sable, beaked and membered gules--STARKEY, co. Derby.
    Azure, three storks, wings expanded argent--GIBSON, Swindon, co. Wilts.
    Azure, three storks rising argent--GIBSON, Bp. of Lincoln, 1716, and of London, 1723-48.
    Party per fesse argent and sable, a pale counterchanged, three storks close of the second--Edward STOREY, Bp. of Carlisle, 1468, and of Chichester, 1478-1502.
Straps: these only incidentally occur in connection with armour, collars, stirrups, &c. In one case they are distinctly mentioned, namely, as wrist straps, and in another case they are named as part of a badge of office.
    Azure, three clubs argent, with wrist straps gules--MAZZINGHI, London.
    Azure, on oak-tree growing out of a mount in base or, and on one of the branches two keys of the first fastened by straps gules[for the office of Thane of Fettercairn]--WOOD, Balbegno, Scotland.
Straps. See examples introduced under Staff(club), and under Tree.
Strawberry: the leaf only is the part usually borne, though in one case sprigs fructed occur. The more frequent term for the strawberry-leaf is the frasier, which is a Scotch term for a cinquefoil; hence some contend that this charge should be represented merely as such.
    Sable, on a bend between in chief a greyhound courant bendwise and in base a dolphin haurient argent, three torteaux; a chief of the second charged with three sprigs of strawberry fructed proper--HOLLIST, Midhurst, Sussex.
    Azure, three garbs or with a strawberry leaf in the centre--CUMING, Moray, temp. James V.
    Azure, three frasiers argent--FRASER, Pitcallain.
    Azure, a lion rampant argent crowned with an antique crown or armed and langued gules within a bordure of the second charged with six frasiers of the first--MAC DOUGALL, Mackerston, co. Roxburgh.
Streamer: a long narrow flag.
Strewed, used by some writers for Semé.
Stringed: applied to bugle-horns, harps, bows, mitres, &c., when their strings are of a different tincture.
Studded: applied to a collar with studs of a different tincture.
Stump. See Tree.
Sturgeon: this fish occurs in two coats of arms, evidently on account of the play upon the name.
    Azure, three sturgeons argent fretty gules--STURGNEY.
    Azure, three sturgeons naiant in pale or, over all a fret gules--STURGEON, Whipsted, Suffolk.
Subinscribed: i.e. with Letters, or a name written beneath the charge; found only in very modern arms.
Sufflue: a curious name applied to the Rest, q.v.
Sugar-cane: a modern bearing, no doubt first assumed by persons who had accumulated wealth in the West Indian colonies.
    Argent, two sugar-canes in saltire proper surmounted by a fleur-de-lis gules; on a chief azure three plates, each charged with a mullet sable--FOULKS.
    Argent, on a fesse wavy azure, between in chief two bucks trippant and in base two sugar-canes in saltire, surmounted by a bill in pale all proper, three estoiles or--TIMPORIN, co. Hertford.
    Or, on a chevron gules, between three martletts sable, two sugar-canes of the first--FENWICK.
Sugar-loaves were borne by one family in Somerset, and Dr.Sugar added a Doctor's Cap in chief.
    Sable, three sugar-loaves argent, in chief a Doctor's cap--Dr.SUGAR, New College, Oxford.
Sun, (fr. soleil): this luminary is usually borne in his glory, or splendour, that is to say, with a human countenance(fr. figuré), and rays(sixteen or more), alternately straight and waves. When depicted without a face, the French blazon it ombre de soleil.
    Rays of the sun, or beams, are occasionally borne singly, and so in the ancient rolls, but more frequently they are represented issuant from charges, when the term radiant, rayonné, or rayonnant is used. (See under Ray.) It is not improbable that some families have adopted it on account of the play on the name, e.g. THOMPSON, JOHNSON, &c.
    Gules, the sun in his glory argent--RICHMOND.
    Argent, the sun in splendour or--DELAHAY.
    Or, on a pile azure, between two lions rampant combatant in base gules, the sun in splendour proper--PEARSON, co. Lincoln.
    Azure, a sun in splendour or--Town of BANBURY.
    Gules, two bars ermine in chief three suns in glory or--NICHOLSON, co. Down.
    Azure, the sun rising from behind a bill or--HILL, Edinburgh.
    Gules, an eagle displayed or looking against the sun in its splendour placed toward the dexter chief--The feudal coat of the lordship of CARDROSS.
    Or, a sun gules[otherwise radiated gules]--HAYS, co. Dorset.
    Per pale or and azure, sun counterchanged--ST.CLERE, Tidwell, co. Devon.
    Azure, seven suns or, three, three and one--ELHAM.
    Azure, on a fesse, between three goat's heads couped argent collared gules, the sun radiated or between two mascles sable--GASON, Kent[temp. Hen. VIII.].
    D'or, à l'ombre de soleil d'azur--DUPONT, Languedoc.
    Sun Eclipsed: the sun or moon when borne eclipsed is drawn exactly as when in his glory, or her complement, but sable.
    Argent, a sun eclipsed issuing out of the dexter chief, the beams or--WELDAY, Wheelhurst.
    Azure, the sun half-eclipsed[i.e. per pale, sable and or]--DYSON, co. Worcester.
    See also the curious example in the insignia of the DISTILLERS' COMPANY under Distillatory.
Sunflower, (fr. soleil): this appears only in one English coat of arms, and in this case the family is of foreign extraction. It is blazoned heliotrope, just as the French tournesol is sometimes used for the sunflower.
    Azure, a heliotrope(or sunflower) or issuing from the stalk sprouting out of two leaves vert; in chief the sun in splendour proper--FLORIO[originally of Spain; granted 1614].
    D'argent, au tournesol d'or tigé feuillé et terrassé de sinople--GUILLOIS, Ile de France.
Super charge: a charge surmounting another is by some writers referred to by this term.
Super inscribed: i.e. with the name written above the charge; generally over some fort or castle, and in two or three cases Indian names.
Supplanting: said to mean bestriding. See the example under Apollo.
Supporters, (fr. supports and tenants, the former applied to animals, the latter to human beings): the figures placed on each side of the shield to support it. There is much difference of opinion concerning their origin. They are found attached to the arms of Edward III. and Richard II., but the only examples(e.g. in glass, &c.) are of later date, and cannot be accepted as authorities. Perhaps the earliest for which there is contemporary evidence are those supporting the arms of Henry VI. Not many supporters are found even for peers much before the reign of Henry VIII.
    At present supporters are used in this country by.
    The Sovereign and Princes of the blood. (See ARMS, Royal.)
    Peers and Peeresses, the supporters being hereditary.
    Knights of the Garter and Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath are also degnified with supporters granted to them by Garter King of Arms at their creation.
    Some Baronets and untitled Gentleman have also the right of bearing supporters, either by patent, or because their ancestors bore them before their ordinary use was restricted to the peerage. In the case of baronets they are usually confined to the holder of the title.
    Supporters have been granted to several cities and towns as well as to the principal Mercantile Companies of the city of London. They are generally of later date than the insignia which they support, and in some instances is very bad taste.
Supporting: applied to animals holding up some other charge, e.g. of a Lion holding a battle-axe. See under Altar and Saltire. The terms supporting and supported by are also sometimes used very irregularly for surmounting, or surmounted by.
Suppressed by: used rarely to mean debruised, or surmounted by some other ordinary or charge.
Sur le tout du tout, practically equivalent to the former.
Sir Richard(?) TURVILLE.
Sir Richard(?) TURVILLE.
Surcoat: a coat embroidered with the arms of the wearer, or in the case of heralds, &c., those of his lord. It was at first without sleeves and girt with a belt, but in later times sleeves were added and the belt laid aside. The first English king on whose seal a surcoat appears is King John.
    The usual practice was for the arms, whether single or quartered, to appear upon the surcoat both before and behind, and also upon each of the sleeves.
    The figure given is that of one of the TURVILLE family, from glass in Wolston Church, Warwickshire, the arms(upon the surcoat and emerasses) being.
    Gules, a chevron vair, between three mullets pierced argent--TURVILLE.
Sir John TALBOT.
Sir John TALBOT.
    The other figure represents John TALBOT, Earl of Shrewsbury, temp. Hen. VI., and is taken from an ancient painting at Castle Ashby.
    The quarters seen upon the body of the surcoat are, Argent, a bend between six martlets--FURNIVALL: and checquy or and azure, a chevron ermine-arms of the ancient Earls of WARWICK. On the sleeve, Gules, a lion rampant with a bordure engrailed or--TALBOT: Azure, a lion rampant with a bordure or--DE BELESME: Gules, a fesse between six cross-crosslets or--BEAUCHAMP: Argent, two lions passant gules--STRANGE of Blackmere: together with FURNIVALL, and WARWICK as before.
    Ladies formerly wore the arms of their husbands upon their mantles, and their own upon their close-fitting vests. Eleanor, Countess of Arundel, who died 1372, is thus depicted in the east window of Arundel church, Sussex. At a later period the arms were borne impaled on the outer garment; e.g. Elizabeth, wife of John SHELLEY, Esq., on a brass at Clapham, Sussex, 1513.
    Surcoat is sometimes improperly used instead of an escutcheon over all. See an example under Sceptre.
Surgerant, or surgeant, rising: said of birds, and especially of the falcon, q.v. See Wings.
Surmounted by: a term used when a bearing is placed over another of a different tincture. In cases where more than one ordinary or charge is surmounted by another, the term Over all, q.v., must be used. It is needful to mark the distinction between surmounted and charged, which will appear from the arms of DYXTON. If the pile had been charged with the chevron, the latter would not have extended beyond the bounds of the former. The term may also be rightly used of two charges placed in saltire to denote the uppermost one. (See under Mace, Scythe, &c.) Debruised, q.v., has also a similar meaning to surmounted, and is frequently used, as also the terms depressed and oppressed.
    Sable, a pile argent, surmounted by a chevron gules--DYXTON.
    Gules, a cross patonce or, surmounted of a bend azure semy of fleurs-de-lys of the second--HUGH LATIMER, Bp. of Worcester, 1535-39.
    Gules, a chevron chequy or and azure surmounted by a bend ermine--HANSTED.
    Argent, a fir-tree growing out of a mount vert in base, surmounted by a sword in bend proper; on a dexter canton azure a royal crown proper--GREG, co. Chester.
    Gules, a fesse argent surmounted by a chevron azure[From Burke's Armory]. Gules, a fesse argent, over all a chevron azure[From Papworth's Ordinary]--BROADHURST.
    The above being the correct signification of the term it must not be overlooked that it is sometimes used irregularly for describing one charge above, i.e. in chief of, another, and this is especially the case in modern French heraldry, when surmonté or sommé de is very frequently, if not always, used with this signification. The terms brochant(or bronchant) sur le tour are more usually employed by French heralds for the true signification of surmounted by. (See Over all.)
    Argent, a heart gules, surmounted by[should be ensigned with] a regal crown, on a chief azure three mullets argent--DOUGLAS. [From Burke's Illustrations.]
    Per chevron argent and gules three skenes surmounted with as many wolf's heads[better, 'on the point of each a wolf's head'] counterchanged--SKENE, Newtile, Scotland. [From Burke's Armory.]
    Gules, a castle surmounted with a tower argent; in base a lion passant gardant or--City of NORWICH. [From Papworth's Ordinary.]
    De gueules, au chêne d'argent surmonté d'une fleur-de-lis d'or[i.e. with the fleur-de-lis in chief]--DE REALS, Languedoc.
    De gueules, à une forteresse d'or a trois tours du même, celle du milieu sommée d'une grue, tenant sa vigilance du même[i.e. the crane stands on the top of the central turret]--DE BOILEAU DE CASTELNAU, Languedoc.
Surtout, also sur le tout(fr.): the English 'over all' is more usually substituted; while the French used the term brochant sur le tout; it is especially applied to an escutcheon of pretence.
Sustaining, (fr. soutenant): a similar term for supporting, e.g. a Lion rampant sustaining a battle-axe.
Swaddled. See Child.
Swallow, (fr. hirondelle), and from the French word a family of ARUNDEL, as well as the borough of that name in Sussex, are supposed to have taken their arms. The bird, however, in found adopted by several other families. When the martin is named it is probably intended for the martlet.
    Sable, six swallows 3, 2, 1, argent--Family of ARUNDEL of Wardour.
    Argent, a swallow volant in bend sinister sable--Town of ARUNDEL, Sussex.
    Or, a fesse azure between four barrulets wavy of the last: on a canton of the second two barrulets argent, charged with three swallows volant sable, viz. on the first two, second one--ALLOTT, co. York; granted 1729.
    Argent, a fesse between three swallows volant sable--SWALLOW.
    Argent, a cross raguly gules between four swallows[otherwise 'birds'] azure legged of the second--ANSTIS, Cornwall.
    Argent, a chevron between three martins sable--MARTINSON, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Swan, (lat. cygnus, fr. cygne): this graceful bird has for various reasons been a favourite charge in armorial bearings. Swans are generally blazoned as proper, i.e. white, else they are described as argent, but they are frequently beaked and legged of other tinctures. The bird is generally borne with expanded wings, and it seems desirable that the position should be noticed, though as a fact it is only seldom so. Sometimes they are drawn swimming towards each other, and for this the word 'respectant' or 'incontrant' seems to have been used by some heraldic writers.
    Azure, two swans close in pale argent between as many flaunches ermine--MELLISH.
    Azure, a swan proper--SWAN, Kent.
    Azure, a fesse between three swans argent--SWAN, ob. 1487.
    Gules, three swans argent--SWANLAND, Lord Mayor of London, 1329.
    Sable, a swan its wings expanded argent, within a bordure engrailed or--MOORE, Hants.
    Azure, a fesse or, between three swans argent beaked and legged gules--GISLINGHAM, Suffolk.
    Gules, a bend sable between two cotises or, and as many mullets and as many swans argent--RUSSELL.
    Per saltire; in chief argent, a cross gules; in the dexter flank gules, a lion passant gardant or; in the sinister flank or, a red rose; in base azure, a swan eating an eel proper--Town of GOREY, Ireland; granted 1623.
    Sable, two swans in pale, wings addorsed argent, between as many flaunches or, on a chief gules a garb between two fleurs-de-lis of the third--FITLER.
    Per pale sable and gules, a swan, wings expanded argent, ducally gorged and[sometimes] chained or--Town of BUCKINGHAM.
    Azure, a fesse engrailed or, surmounted of another gules charged with three roses argent, all between as many swans sans legs proper--RIVERS, Kent; Lord Mayor of London, 1573.
    Sable, two swans[rather geese] incontrant[otherwise in fesse incontrant regardant] argent--TREGOSSE.
    Swans are borne by the following families amongst others:--
    ATWATER, Kent.--BADBY, Suffolk.--BALDEN, Norfolk.--BOLDEN, Lancaster,--BRACY.--BRODERIP.--BRYSE.--CAZIER, London.--CHARLTON, London.--CLARKE(see under Pellet).--COBB(see under Herring).--COBLEY.--COPPARD, Sussex.--CRESSINGHAM.--DALE, York and Northumberland.--DAWES, Norfolk.--DELANEY.--ELKINGTON.--FATTOR, Norfolk.--FOLNARBY.--HOBBES, Wilts.--JENYSONN, Norfolk.--LANNOY, Hammersmith.--LEIGHAM.--LIGHT, Oxfordshire.--LOVENHAM.--LYTE, Somerset.--MICHELL, Somerset.--MOLSFORD, Devon.--MORE, Devon.--PELFYN.--PHILLPOT, Hereford.--PICKERELL, London.--REDDIE.--SCOTER.--SHELDON.--STORMER.--SUTER.--SYNNOT, Wexford.--SWABEY, Bucks.--VAUGHAN.--WALTON, Lancashire.--WATERS[York Herald, temp. Ric. II.].--WOLRICH, Salop.--WYBERNE, Kent.--YEO, Devon.
    The head and neck of a swan are blazoned a swan's neck; the wings are also met with.
    Argent, five swan's necks erased argent--LACY, alias HEDGES, London; also co. Oxford.
    Sable, three swan's heads couped at the neck argent--Samuel SQUIRE, Bp. of S.David's, 1761-66.
    Argent, a martlet sable; on a chief azure three swan's wings endorsed of the first--SWANSTON, Scotland.
    The Cygnet sometimes occur; and a cygnet royal implies a swan gorged with a ducal coronet, having a chain affixed thereunto and reflexed over its back. It should rather be blazoned a swan proper, ducally gorged and chained or, a cygnet being properly a young swan. It was one of the badges of Henry V. The term, however, may properly be used when there are two or more swans in one coat, like lioncel.
Badge of HENRY V.
Badge of HENRY V.
    Azure, a bend engrailed between two cygnets argent gorged with ducal crowns, with strings reflexed over their backs or--PITFIELD, Dorset.
    Gules, a cygnet argent--Thomas ASDALE.
    A beacon, inflamed proper.--An antelope gorged with a crown and chained.--A swan adorned in a like manner. Three badges of HENRY V., from cornice of his chantry, Westminster Abbey.
Sweep. See Sling.
Swivel: a charge generally drawn something like a pair of Shackbolts(see under Fetterlock). It appears only to be borne by the IRONMONGERS' Company.
    Argent, on a chevron gules between three steel gads azure as many swivels, the middle one palewise, the other two in the line of the chevron or--Company of IRONMONGERS; arms granted, 1455: confirmed, 1530.
Sword, (fr. epée), or arming sword: the usual form is a long straight blade, with a cross handle, and it is borne is a variety of ways, so that its position should be distinctly stated. The sword in the insignia of the city of London is sometimes called the sword of S.Paul, that apostle being patron of the city. The blade may be waved, embrued, &c. A sword is often represented piercing an animal or a human heart.
    The hilt and pomel are also frequently named, as they are often of a different tincture from the sword itself. A sword proper is argent with hilt and pomel or.
    Or, a sword in bend sable--SMALLBROOK, co. Worcester.
    Sable, a sword erect in pale argent, hilt and pomel or--DYMOCK.
    Azure, three swords, one in pale, point uppermost, surmounted by the other two in saltire, points downward, argent--NORTON.
    Gules, a man's head couped at the shoulders between three swords proper headed or--SWORD.
    Gules, a lion rampant argent between two swords, pomels downwards, points to the dexter and sinister chief proper--DEMSEY.
    Gules, three pairs of swords in saltire argent, hilts and pomels or, viz. two pairs in chief and one pair in base--CUTLERS' COMPANY, [Incorporated 1417; arms granted 1476].
    Argent, a sword in pale azure, hilted or; a chief gules--MENZIES, Culdairs.
    Gules, on a chief argent two swords in saltire azure--BRADDYLL.
    Argent, a two-handed swords in pale azure--SPALDING, Scotland.
    Gules, a two-handed sword bendwise between two mullets or--SYMONSTON, Symonston.
    Azure, a waved sword erect in pale proper, hilt and pomel or, between two mullets in fesse pierced argent--DICK.
    Argent, a sword erect, point upwards; from the blade issuing drops of blood--O'DAVOREN, Ireland.
    Gules, a fesse between three pheons argent on a canton or, a dexter gauntlet sable holding a broken sword erect of the second embrued in blood--EGERTON, Dublin.
    Azure, two swords in saltire, blades argent, hilts and pomels or, pierced through a human heart proper; in chief a cinquefoil azure--PARSONS.
    Or, three sword points proper, two and one--PROCTOR.
    There are different kinds of swords mentioned in blazon, e.g. the arming sword, the sword of state, the Irish sword, the Highlander's Claymore, &c.
    "The Highlander, whose red claymore                                         
    The battle turned on Maiden's shore."                                       
      Scott's Marmion, Introd. to Canto VI.                                     
Others also will be found already given under Sabre, q.v.
    Sable, an arming sword, the point in chief argent--MARMION.
    A sword of state palewise, point downwards, surmounted of two lions passant; impaling quarterly, first and fourth chequy argent and sable, second and third gules, two barrows[sic but Qy.] or--Seal and Arms of the Corporation of DROITWICH, co. Worcester.
    Argent, issuing from the sinister side of the shield a cubit dexter arm vested gules, cuffed azure, the hand proper grasping an old Irish sword, the blade entwined with a serpent proper--O'DONOVAN, Ireland.
    Azure, a cat rampant argent, on a chief the standard of St.Andrew and a claymore, point downwards, in saltire proper--SMITH, London.
    The sword may be sheathed, i.e. in its scabbard, the termination of which is called the crampet, chape, or boteroll, (fr. bouterol); and this termination is sometimes found as a separate charge. [The habick of the CLOTH-WORKERS' Company is found wrongly blazoned as a crampet.]
Badge of DE LA WARR.
Badge of DE LA WARR.
    Argent, two swords in their scabbards in saltire sable, hilts and chapes or--GELLIBRAND, co. Kent, temp. HEN. VIII. [N.B. Brand is a word for sword.]
    Sable, a sword in pale, point downwards, scabbard and belt argent, on the sinister side a Katherine wheel argent--GARAT GROCH.
    A crampet or, the inside per pale azure and gules, charged with the letter r of the first--Badge of Earl DE LA WARR.
    Azure, three bouterolls or--BECHETON[or Becketon].
    Sable, three sword chapes or--ADDERTON, co. York.
Sword-fish: this fish has been observed named but in one of arms.
    Gules, a blade of a sword-fish argent crowned or--LESSIEURE, Middlesex.
Sykes. See Fountain.
Synobolt, Sinople, is spelt thus in the Boke of S.Albans.
Syren. See Mermaid.