Tabard, a surcoat: the surcoats of officers of arms are so called; but it was originally the name of the frock worn by the peasantry. Mentioned in Chaucer and gave the name to the Inn in Southwark.
Tabernacle: i.q. Tent.
Table d'attente, (fr.): a fanciful term given to shields of a single tincture without any charge.
Tacheté, (fr.): speckled; applied to the salamander.
Tadpole. See Frog.
Tail, (fr. queue, old fr. couwe, cowe, and other spellings), is referred to very frequently in the blazon, and several examples have already been given under Lion. It will have been observed that in the old rolls of arms the lion is very frequently represented with the tail forked(od la couwe fourchée), or, as is sometimes, but erroneously, blazoned double queued. Also that the tail may sometimes be nowed(for which the old French croisé and the modern French passée en sautoir seem to be equivalent); double nowed, and even forked and nowed(fourchée et renouée) occur, but such are rare, The tail may be erect(for which the fr. term estroict is found) or extended, the latter only in the case of the lion passant, meaning that the tail is stretched out horizontally. Tails, it will be seen, are blazoned as inverted, introverted, and turned over the head; also coward, when the tail hangs down between the hind legs. The end of the tail is called the brush or tuft.
    Le counte del MONTE, d'argent, a un lion rampant de goules a la cowe croyse, corone d'or, a une labeu dazur--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    De sable, au lion d'argent, armé, lampassé, et couronné d'or; la queue fourchue, nouée, et passée en sautoir--BOURNONVILLE, Champagne.
    De gueules, a deux lions adossés et passés en sautoir d'or; les queues en double sautoir--FOSSEZ de COYOLLES, Valois.
    Argent, a lion rampant double tailed gules, one of the tails coward--WALLIS.
    The same varieties are found in the tails of other animals than Lions, but not so frequently, e.g.
    Sable, a bull statant argent, the tail between his legs[i.e. coward]--FITZ-GEFFREY, co. Bedford.
    Ermine, a griffin segreant coward gules, beaked and legged azure--GRANTHAM, co. Lincoln.
    Argent, two bars sable, on the upper one a wivern volant, tail extended of the field--MANFELD.
    The tail is also sometimes borne separately from the animal, and when so, is generally erased at the lower extremity.
    Sable, three lion's tails erected and erased argent--CORKE, Cornwall.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three beaver's tails erect proper--LEWES, co. Kent.
    Argent, three lion's tails double queued erect sable--PINCHBECK.
    Or, on a mount gules three lion's tails erect of the second, tails turned to the sinister--TAYLARD.
    Different names have been fancifully given by some heralds to the tails of different animals, such as the single, the wreath, the scut, &c., but no instances have been observed of their use.
Taillé, (fr.): used when the shield is divided diagonally, from left to right, into two equal parts=party per bend sinister.
Talbot. See Dog.
Talent: a bezant.
Talons of an Eagle, q.v.
Taon, (fr.): the oxfly in the arms of the family of THOU, Ile de France.
Tapestry: mentioned in the arms of NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. See Castle.
Taré, (fr.): a technical term applied to the Casque or Helmet for describing its position=posé.
Target. See Shield.
Tarjant: i.q. Torqued.
Tassel. See Cushion; also Purse.
Tassy vairy. See Potent.
Tau. See Cross, §34.
Taupe, (fr.): mole.
Tawney. See Tenné.
Teal. See Duck.
Teazel. See Thistle.
Teeth are very rarely referred to, but are included in the term armed. Boars, &c., are, however, often represented tusked. In French arms the term denté occurs.
Telescope: this is fancifully used in one coat of arms.
    Argent, on a mount vert a representation of the 'forty-feet reflecting telescope' with its apparatus proper, a chief azure, thereon the astronomical symbol of 'Uranus' or 'Georgium Sidus' irradiated or--HERSCHEL, co. Bucks; Baronetcy, 1838.
Templars. See Knights Templars.
Temple: examples of this device occur rarely, e.g. in the See of ABERDEEN, where the church is blazoned as a temple(see under Bishop). The antique temple occurs, but as steeples are named, it is probable the charge is meant for an ancient church.
    Argent, on a mount in base vert an antique temple of three stories, each embattled; from the second battlement two steeples, and from the top, one, each ending in a cross sable--TEMPLAR, [granted 1765].
    Quarterly azure and gules, the perspective of an antique temple argent, on the pinnacle and exterior battlements a cross or; in the first quarter an eagle displayed; in the second a stag trippant regardant of the last--TEMPLER, co. Devon.
    Azure, a temple or--TEMPLE, Scotland.
Tenants, (fr.). See Supporters.
Tench. See Barbel.
Tenné, Tawney, Orange, or Brusk: Orange colour. In engravings it should be represented by lines in bend sinister crossed by others barways. Heralds who blazon by the names of the heavenly bodies call it Dragon's head, and those who employ jewels, Hyacinth, or Jacynth. It is very rarely found mentioned, but was one of the colours forming the livery of the royal House of Stuart. Further, it is one of the colours which when applied to abatements is called in heraldic treatises stainand.
    Argent, a maunch tenne--TICKELL.
Tent, (fr. tente): this is represented as in the margin. It often has a pennon attached, which should be named. A tent royal should be made more ornamental than the figure, and should have a split pennon flowing towards the sinister. [See example of MERCHANT TAYLORS, given under Robe.]
    The terms Pavilion and Tabernacle generally imply a tent like the above, while in the grant of arms to the UPHOLDERS' COMPANY the tents are termed spervers.
    Argent, a chevron between three royal tents sable--TINTEN, St.Fudy, Cornwall.
    Azure, a chevron between three tents argent--MAYBANK.
    Sable, three pavilions argent, lined ermine--Company of UPHOLDERS' Chester.
    Sable, three pavilions[or spervers] ermine, lined azure, garnished or; within the pavilion in base a lamb couchant argent, on a cushion or tasselled of the last; over the head a cross fitchy gules, [Elsewhere blazoned Sable, on a chevron or, between three tents without poles, ermine, lined azure(another, 1730, gules); as many roses gules]--Company of UPHOLDERS, granted 1465.
    In French arms a Pavilion, or tent, was sometimes adopted fur surrounding the shield-especially the Royal shield-instead of the Lambrequin or Mantle. For one form also the term Capeline seems to be used.
Tenter-hook. See Hook.
Tergiant: of a Tortoise, &c., having the back turned towards the spectator.
Tern. See Seagull.
Terrassé, (fr.): having a mount in base, and represented as covered with verdure. Especially applied to Trees.
Terrestrial globe. See Sphere.
Terrier. See Dog.
Tertre, (fr.): a hill or hillock. See Mount.
Testes aux queues, (fr.): heads to tails, used of a fish.
Thatch-rake and Thatcher's-hook. See Rake.
Thicket. See Wood.
Badge of the STUARTS.
Badge of the STUARTS.
Thistle, (fr. chardon): this plant, though occurring in coats of arms, is found more frequently as a badge; it is generally represented slipped, as in the margin. The leaves are found also separate.
    Per pale azure and gules three lions rampant argent; a chief per pale or and argent, charged on the dexter side with a rose gules, and on the sinister with a thistle vert--PEMBROKE COLLEGE, Oxford, founded 1620.
    Azure, on a fesse argent between a thistle in chief or and a trefoil in base of the second a cinquefoil gules--STEERS, Ireland.
    Gules, a crosier or and sword argent saltirewise; on a chief of the second a thistle vert--KIRK, Scotland.
    Argent, a lion passant gardant gules gorged with an open crown and crowned with an imperial one proper, holding in the dexter paw a sword of the last defending the thistle placed in the dexter chief point vert, ensigned with a crown or--OGILVIE, co. Kincardine.
    Gules, a bend engrailed argent, in chief a thistle leaved or--GEMMILL, Scotland.
    Or, a fesse azure between three thistles slipped vert, flowered gules--Miles SALLEY, Bp. of Llandaff, 1500-16.
    A thistle slipped and leaved, ensigned with the imperial crown, all proper--Badge of SCOTLAND; [it occurs also amongst the badges of the STUARTS].
    D'azur, a trois chardons d'or--De CARDON, Lorraine et Artois.
    Argent, on a fesse gules three oval buckles or; in base three thistle-leaves conjoined vert--LESLIE, co. Monagham.
    With the thistle may be grouped the Teazel, used especially in dressing cloth, and it will be seen to be used both in the insignia of the Exeter WEAVERS' Company(see under Weavers), and of the CLOTH-WORKERS(see under Clothiers).
    Argent, a chevron sable between three teazels stalked and leaved proper--FULHAM.
    Argent, three teazels slipped proper--BOWDEN.
Thistle, Order of the. See under Knights.
Thorn. See Hawthorn.
Crown of thorns.
Crown of thorns.
Thorns, Crown of: this sacred emblem is very similar to the other chaplets(q.v.) already described. It is borne in arms of a private family and in the insignia of a See.
    Argent, a cross Tau gules, in chief three crowns of thorns vert--TAUKE, Sussex.
    Azure, a crown of thorns or, between three saltires or--See of CAITHNESS, Scotland.
Three, two, and one; a term often used in blazon, q.v., to shew the position of six charges.
Throughout: means extending to the sides of the escutcheon, and is used when the charge under ordinary circumstances does not do so. An ordinary Cross is properly so, but for Cross pattée throughout, see §26. The words firm, fixed, and entire, have been used by writers with a similar signification. Passant, q.v., when used with reference to the plain cross, is supposed to be equivalent to throughout.
    Azure, a lozenge throughout or, charged with a crescent gules--PRAED.
    Baudewin de FRIVILLE de veyr a une croyz passant de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Jupiter's thunderbolt.
Jupiter's thunderbolt.
Thunderbolt: a bearing derived from the classic mythology, in which the emblem is ascribed to Jupiter. In one instance it is only outlined or chased on the escutcheons. It is the crest of the families of CARNAGIE and HAWLEY.
    Azure, Jupiter's thunderbolt or, shafted and winged argent--TOMYRIS.
    Azure, a chevron between three escutcheons or, on each a thunderbolt chased--EDMONDS.
    Azure, a sun between three thunderbolts winged and shafted or--STRICKSON, granted June 14, 1707.
Tiara with rays.
Tiara with rays.
Tiara: the pope's triple crown occurs in the arms of one Company, and has not been observed elsewhere. It is said that the royal crown in the insignia of the Church of York was originally a tiara.
    Azure, three clouds proper, rays issuing therefrom downwards or, surmounted by as many tiaras[or triple crowned], the caps gules, the crowns gold--DRAPERS' Company, London; granted 1439.
Tierce, (fr.): a charge occurring in some French arms, consisting of three triangles arranged generally in fesse. There may be two tierces in the same shield.
Tiercé, (fr.): tierced, or triparted: in French arms the term is generally of the shield when it is divided into three parts per fesse; but the shield also may be blazoned as tiercé per pale or per bend. See under Party.
Tierce-feuille: a trefoil leaf, but without a stalk.
Tigé, (fr.): used when stalks or stems are of a different tincture.
Tiger: thus beast, as drawn by ancient painters, is now often called the heraldic tiger, as distinguished from the natural. Such distinctions of course are not real, since the old heralds drew the tiger as they did many animals, conventionally. The heraldic form of the tiger is shewn in the margin. The tiger looking into a mirror(q.v.) is a very remarkable bearing. Amongst other extraordinary ideas which our ancestors entertained respecting strange animals was this-that in order to rob the tigress of her young, it was only necessary to lay mirrors in her way, in which she would stop to look at her own image, and thereby give the robbers time to escape. Tigers' heads and faces also occur.
    Vert, a heraldic tiger[possibly a wolf, i.e. loup] passant or mane and tuft of the tail argent--LOVE, co. Norfolk; granted 1663.
    Argent, a tiger rampant collared and chained or--O'HALIE.
    Or, a tiger passant gules--LUTWYCHE, Salop.
    Gules, a chevron argent, between three tigers, regardant[into mirrors] of the second--BUTLER of Calais.
    Per fesse ermine and sable a heraldic tiger argent, in chief two mascles of the second--DANIELS, Lymington, co. Hants.
    Vert, within two bars ermine between two heraldic tigers passant, one in chief and one in base or, three garbs of the last--MINTON, Stoke-upon-Trent, co. Stafford.
    Or, two bars gemel gules between three tiger's heads[otherwise boar's heads] sable, two and one--JENKINSON.
    Sable, a lion rampant regardant argent, on a chief embattled or a sword erect proper, hilt and pomel gold, enfiled with an eastern crown gules, between two[natural] tiger's faces also proper--FLOYD.
Tilting-spear. See Spear.
Timbre, (fr.): this French term, for which there is, perhaps, no exact English equivalent, comprises the exterior ornaments of the escutcheon, this is (1) the helmet, (2) the mantelling, (3) the crest. By some, however, it is held to include(4) the escroll, (5) wreath, (6) the motto, (7) the supporters, as well as (8) the cap of dignity and crown.
Tincture, (fr. email, pl. emaux): the metals, colours, and furs used in armoury are called tincture.
    As a general rule, a charge of metal should never be placed upon a metal field, nor a coloured charge upon a coloured field, but to this there are some exceptions. First, what the French call armes pour enquerir, or armes à enquerre, as the insignia of the kingdom of JERUSALEM(See cross, §31), where gold appears on silver; and in other cases where colour appears on colour, e.g.
    Gules, a cross vert--DENHAM, Suffolk.
    Secondly, the rule dose not extend to chiefs, cantons, and bordures, which, however, are in such cases by some heralds represented as cousu, i.e. giving the idea of the charge being sewed to, and not laid upon, the field. Marks of cadency also, such as labels, bendlets, and batons are exempt from the rule.
    The third exception is of a party-coloured field(as quarterly, gyronny, barry, checquy, vair, &c.), which may receive a charge either of metal or colour indifferently, and vice versa.
    Barry of ten argent and azure, a lion rampant gules--STRATFORD, Gloucester.
    Barry of ten or and gules, a lion rampant argent--STRATFORD, Coventry.
    Per pale azure and gules, an oak-tree proper supported on the sinister side by a lion rampant argent--THOMAS, co. Hereford.
    The fourth is, when charges are borne of their natural colour, not being one of the recognised tinctures of heraldry. (See Colours.) Such charges are nevertheless generally placed upon a field of a contrasted tincture.
    The fifth and last exception, and the most frequent case to which this rule does not extend, is when animals are armed, attired, unguled, crowned, or chained of a tincture different from that of their bodies.
    The nine tinctures are as follows, though numbers 8 and 9 are not so clearly recognised as the seven others. See also Colours and Proper.
  1. Or   .  .  .  . Gold   .  .  .  . Sun .  .  .  Sun    . Topaz.             
  2. Argent  .  .  . Silver .  .  .  . Moon   .  .  Moon    . Pearl.             
  3. Gules   .  .  . Red    .  .  .  . Mars   .  .  Mars    . Ruby.              
  4. Azure   .  .  . Blue   .  .  .  . Jupiter   .  Jupiter    . Sapphire.          
  5. Sable   .  .  . Black  .  .  .  . Saturn .  .  Saturn    . Diamond.           
  6. Vert    .  .  . Green  .  .  .  . Venus  .  .  Venus    . Emerald.           
  7. Purpure    .  . Purple .  .  .  . Mercury   .  Mercury    . Amethyst.          
  8. Tenné  .  .   . Tenny  .  .  .  . Dragon's Head .  .  . Hyacinth.          
  9. Sanguine   .  . Blood colour    . Dragon's Tail .  .  . Sardonix.          
    The furs are in a sense tinctures, and to a certain extenfollow the rule of the others; that is to say, Ermine is considered as argent, and Ermines as sable, so far as the tinctures of the superimposed charges are concerned.
  Ermine.            |Ermines.           |Pean.              |Vair.             
  Erminois.          |Erminites.         |Meirri.            |Verry.            
    A brief notice of each of the above will be found beneath their respective headings.
    The mode of representation of the tincture by lines was an invention which must be attributed to Silvester Petra-Sancta, an Italian Jesuit, whose book, entitled Tessarœ Gentilitiœ, printed at Rome in 1638(or rather his earlier book, De Symbolis heroicis, libri ix., 1634), seems to have been the first work in which the system was used. The claim of Marie Vulson de la Colombiere will not hold, as his work did not appear till 1639.
    Some whimsical heralds have called the tinctures borne by kings by the names of Planets and other heavenly bodies, as given above; and this method so far made way that in some few heraldic MSS. the tincture are expressed in the tricking by the astronomical marks denoting the planets.
    Other heraldic writers again have given to the tinctures of the arms of peers the names of precious stones, also shewn above, but this practice is now looked upon as absurd, and calculated to bring the science into ridicule. Sir John FERNE, in his Blazon of Gentry issued in 1586, enumerates fourteen different methods of blazon as follows:--1. By colours; 2. By planets; 3. By precious stones; 4. By virtues; 5. By celestial signs; 6. By the months of the year; 7. By the days of the week; 8. By the ages of man; 9. By flowers; 10. By the elements; 11. By the seasons of the year; 12. By the complexions of man; 13. By numbers; 14. By metals. Such fanciful arrangements, however, tend to degrade the study of heraldry into a mere amusement. Happily they were never much used.
Tines: of stags' antlers. See Deer.
Tipped: sometimes used of ends of horns and the like when of a different tincture.
Tire. (fr.): a term used for the several rows in vair.
Tires. See Attires of stags; also under Deer.
Toad. See Frog.
Tobacco: this plant is found in the insignia of a Company; also on the arms of a Spaniard naturalised in this country.
    Argent, on a mount in base vert three plants of tobacco growing and flowering all proper--Company of TOBACCO-PIPE MAKERS, London; incorporated 1663.
    Sable, five bezants in saltire; a chief indented argent, thereon three stalks of tobacco, each consisting of three leaves proper--CARDOZO; granted to Samuel Nunez Cardozo, Hackney, near London.
Tobias. See Ararat.
Tod. See Fox.
Toison. See Fleece.
Tomahawk. See under Danish Axe.
Tombstone: the seat of Prester-John(q.v.) in the insignia of the See of CHICHESTER, and of S.Mary in those of the See of LINCOLN(see Nimbus), is so called, though in neither case is it at all probable that the bearing is intended for such. The Tombstone, sometimes called an Alter, or which the Holy Lamb stands, in the Arms of the College of ASHRIDGE is probably a Tomb, the device signifying the Resurrection. Other examples occasionally occur, e.g.
    Argent, a tombstone gules--ALBON.
    Vert, three tombstones argent--TOMBS[represented as coped stones crossed].
Tongs. See Founders'.
Tongue (1) of a buckle, q.v.; (2) of animals, e.g. boar, lion, &c.
Topaz. See Or.
Tops: a very few example of this toy are found.
    Sable, three bars nebuly vert, in chief as many playing tops argent[otherwise, Sable, three bars vert; on a chief indented gules as many tops argent]--TOPP.
    Sable, on two bars argent three water-bougets vert, two and one; a chief gules charged with three playing tops of the second--TOPP.
    Argent, three playing tops sable, two and one--ANVINE.
    .... a chevron .... between three pegtops .... --TOPCLYFF, [in the church at Topcliffe, co. York, 1391].
Torch, (fr. flambeau), or fire-brand, is often borne raguled; and a Staff raguly flammant(q.v.) is practically the same.
    Argent, three torches proper--COLAN.
    Azure, three torches or, fired[or lighted] proper--COLLINS, Ottery S.Mary, co. Devon.
    Azure, three fire-brands proper--COLLENS, Barnes Hill, co. Devon.
    Argent, a fire-brand(or staff) with one ragule on each side, sable, and inflamed in three places proper--BILLETTES.
Torqued: bowed-embowed, especially of a serpent's tail; also wreathed.
Torse: given as a name for a Wreath.
Torteau, (fr. tourteau de gueules): the name now always applied to a roundle gules. At the same time the French apply the word to roundles of all tinctures, including even or and argent. (See Roundle.) Literally tourteau(and it is found in ancient rolls) means a little tart or cake, and the figure is said to have been intended to represent the sacred Host. The term gastel is also used(which in the form gâteau is still used for a cake), and in the older rolls, though the torteau is found more frequently tinctured gules, both that and the gastel are found tinctured as a metal. The examples of the blazon of the arms of CAMOYS in different rolls will clearly illustrate the variety of terms used.
    Walter de BASCREVILE, argent, ung chevron et trois torteux de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Hugh WAKE, d'or, a deulx barres de goules, ove trois torteux de goules en le cheif--Ibid.
    Sire Hugh WAKE, de or, a ij barres de goules, en la chef iij rondels de goules, el un baston de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Rauf de CAMOIS, d'or; ung cheif de goules a trois torteux d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Rauf de CAMOYS, dor; al chef de goules a tres gastelles d'argent en chef--Ibid. [Harl MS. 6589].
    Sire Rauf de CAMOYS, de or; od le chef goules a iij rondels de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Le Sire de CAMOYS, port d'or, au cheif de gules, a trois pellets en le chief d'argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, on a chief gules three plates--CAMOYS, Broadwater, Surrey.
    Argent, a torteau between three escutcheons sable--LOUDON, Scotland.
    Or, six torteaux, two, two, and two--WALSHALL.
    Argent, three cups sable, a torteau[? for difference]--Richard GRENEACRES.
    It is said in books that tortoilly may be used for semé of torteaux, but it has not been observed.
    Argent, semy of torteaux; on a pile azure a lion rampant of the field--HENSLEY.
    Sable fretty argent, on each crossing a torteau gules--EAGAR.
Tortilly, (fr. tortillant): a term applied to Ordinaries which are wreathed, as shewn in the margin; the term wreathy is also found. The French apply the term tortil to the wreath or turban with which heads, and especially those of Moors, are adorned in heraldry. See Wreathed.
    Argent, a fesse tortilly[or wreathed] azure and gules[otherwise, but not so well, a wreath in fesse throughout]--CARMICHAEL.
    Argent, a cross wreathed gules and azure[otherwise, a fesse wreathed gules and azure, depressed by a pale wreathed as the fesse]--SERESBY.
    Or, a lion rampant gules, a chief tortilly gules and vert charged on the first with a crescent argent between two mullets of the last in the second--MACRITCHIE, Edinburgh.
    Argent, a bend tortilly azure and or--OARE, Sussex.
    De gueules, au tortil d'argent--ZBONSKI DI PASSEBON, Provence.
Tortoise: this animal is usually borne displayed tergiant in fesse, which position is sometimes described as passant. The term gradient seems to be used to mean the same, and tergiant seems to be implied though not expressed. When upright it should be blazoned erect, though haurient is found.
    Argent, a tortoise displayed, tergiant barwise[otherwise passant] vert--GAWDY, Norfolk.
    Argent, on a cross azure between in dexter chief and sinister base a tortoise gradient vert five fleurs-de-lis of the first--LE NEVE, London.
    Azure, a tortoise erect or--COOPER.
    Vert, three tortoises haurient or--HARPENY.
Tower, (fr. tour): towers and turrets are more frequently named in connection with the Castle(q.v.), but they are also found in some cases as distinct charges. Though a castle is sometimes represented as consisting of a single tower, it generally has at least three. The ordinary tower is drawn as the first example given in the margin.
TOWERS, Northampton.
TOWERS, Northampton.
    Azure, a tower or--TOWERS, Northampton.
    Gules, in chief a castle surmounted with a tower argent; in base a lion passant gardant or--City of NORWICH.
    Sable, three high towers argent--DE TOUR, Shrewsbury.
    Sable, a plate between three towers argent--WINSTON.
    Argent, five towers, two, two and one gules--CORNELL.
    But the tower is also frequently represented as bearing three smaller towers or turrets, and then it is blazoned triple towered, or triple turretted: in that case it is drawn as the annexed figure in the margin, sometimes with the turrets slightly sloping outwards, sometimes upright. It is frequently described as having a dome or cupola, both terms being used for the same thing; and sometimes a spire or conical roof. Also as provided with a port or entrance, port-holes or windows, battlements, &c.
TOWERS, Isle of Ely.
TOWERS, Isle of Ely.
    Azure, a tower triple-towered or--TOWERS, Isle of Ely.
    Argent, on a mount vert a tower triple-towered sable--CHIVERTON, Lord Mayor of London, 1658.
    Azure, a castle triple-towered argent, port-holes and gate gules--M'LEOD.
    Azure, two lions rampant argent chained or, supporting a tower triple-turretted of the second--KELLY, Ireland.
    A tower triple-turretted of the second--OWEN, co. Montgomery.
    Azure, a tower[otherwise with a cupola] argent, embattled and domed, the port gules--Gilbert DE LA TOUR, Dorset.
    Azure, on a mount vert a castle embattled with three towers domed, on each a pennon, all or--Town of CLITHEROW, Lancashire.
    Azure, on a mount proper couped a castle triple-towered argent, the middle tower with dome and pennon--NIELSON, Bothwellshiels.
    Gules, a four-square castle in perspective with as many towers and cupolas, one at each angle, argent, standing in water azure--RAWSON, co. York.
    Azure, on a bend between two water-bougets or three leopard's faces gules; a chief as the last charged with a castle triple-towered argent, having from the centre tower of a pyramidical shape a banner displayed like the first--HUNT, Limerick.
    Sable, a quadrangular tower with four towers in perspective argent, masoned proper; the base of the escutcheon water of the last--Town of PONTEFRACT, Yorkshire.
    Gules, a triple circular tower in a pyramidal form or, the first with battlements mounted with cannon of the last, all within a bordure azure charged with eight towers domed or--Town of LAUNCESTON, co. Cornwall.
    Azure, a square castle embattled above the gate and at the top, triple-towered, the central tower larger than the dexter and sinister; on each side the central tower a sentinel-house or watch-tower, which are with the three towers pyramidally roofed, all argent, masoned sable, the portcullis and windows gules; the middle tower ensigned with a staff and banner charged with Royal arms of Scotland--Burgh of FORFAR.
    The term turret is sometimes used alone, separate from the tower, and can only be represented as a smaller tower. The terms tourelle and torele are also found.
    Le Roy de PORTUGAL, de goules poudre a turelles d'or a une labeu lazur--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le Counte de POYTERS, party dazur et de goules; per le goules poudre a turelles dor; lazur poudre o flurettes dor--Ibid.
    Gules, three turrets or--TERRETZ.
    Gules, three bars argent, on a quarter of the last a "torele" or a castle sable--John DENE.
Town, (fr. ville), or city: this device has been introduced occasionally into late coats of arms. An example of the city of NAKSIVAN will be observed under Ararat, and of ACRE under Sphinx. Examples more frequently occur in French arms.
    .... the castle, church and town of Tiverton with Lowman's and Exe bridges; beneath them a woolpack ... --Seal of the Town of TIVERTON.
    De sable, au lion d'or surmonté d'une ville d'argent--MAVAILLES.
    D'argent, la ville en perspective du côté du midi, l'hotel de ville girouetté, les églises, le château et les bâtiments ajourés du même, essorés de gueules, les tours ajourées et maçonnées de sable, la porte ouverte et dans l'ouverture un maillet d'or--Ville de JOIGNY, Bourgogne.
Trabe, (fr.): the stock of an anchor, q.v.
Tracé, (fr.): said to be the same as ombré.
Traits, (fr.) pieces: e.g. pily of six traits, or chequey of six traits.
Trammels(?). See under Tremoiles.
Tranché, (fr.): is the equivalent of party per bend.
Trangles, (fr.): used by French heralds for bars and barrulets when their number us uneven, instead or burelles, but the examples shew a want of consistency in this respect.
    Palé d'argent et d'azure de six pieces a une trangle de sable brochant sur le tout--DUPORT.
    D'or, a cinque trangles de gueules--AUBERY, Poitou.
    D'argent, à quatre trangles ondées d'azur--AUTRET, Bretagne.
Transfixed: pierced through.
Transfluent; applied to a river running under a bridge.
Transparency, i.q. Adumbration.
Transposed: reversed, or otherwise placed contrary to the usual position: e.g. of a Pile, q.v., or of the arrangement of three charges when one is in chief and two in base, and so contrary go the rule. See under Apple, Violin &c.
Trappings. See under Horse.
Traverse, (1)=transverse, i.e. across the shield horizontally; (2) a traverse with French heralds seems to be a filet, though Guillim implies it is the figure called by the French embrassé. See under Emanche.
Traversed=contourné, that is, turned to the sinister.
Trecheur: i.q., Tressure.
Tree, (fr. arbre): the tree is a very common bearing in later heraldry, but is very rare, if used at all, in early arms. In the arms of Sir Rauf de CHEYNDUT the cheyne probably means only the acorn, as in the arms of MORIENS the leaves only of the mulberry-tree are intended. But in later arms several examples will be found, both of trees generally and special kinds of trees and shrubs(fr. arbustes). Amongst these are found the oak(fr. chêne), (the most frequent); apple(fr. pommier); orange(fr. oranger); fig(fr. figuier); ash(fr. frêne); elm(fr. orme and ormeau); hawthorn(fr. aubépin); holly(fr. houx); laurel(fr. laurier); maple; palm(fr. palmier); pine(fr. pin); fir(fr. sapin); cedar; cypress(fr. cyprès); poplar(fr. peuplier); willow(fr. saule); and yew. Also the leaves and branches of several other trees, e.g. beech(fr. hêtre); mulberry(fr. murier); olive(fr. olivier); walnut(fr. noyer); nut(fr. noisetier). (See Synopsis.)
    In French arms, besides those noted above, have been observed, baume(balsam); buis(box); cormier(service-tree); châtagnier(chestnut); aubier(sap-wood); gui(mistletoe); neflier(medlar); but no English examples of these have been observed.
    When the term tree only is named without any adjunct, it may be considered to be that of the oak, and may be drawn like the example given under that term. But more frequently it is subjected to some special treatment, e.g. it may have the appearance of being torn up by the roots, to which the term eradicated(fr. arraché) is applied(and this is a better term than erased, which should only be applied to parts of animals). The tree is often trunked, i.e. truncated(fr. étêté), pollard(fr. écimé), or lopped(fr. écoté); or it may be couped, so that the section is seen in perspective, and in that case the term snagged should be applied. Again it may be withered(fr. sec); or it may be broken, or blasted, or without branches(fr. ébranché). A full-grown tree is said to be accrued. A tree may be fructed(fr. fruité), and this applied to the oak(q.v.) would signify with acorns(fr. englanté). When the trunk is a different tincture from the rest of the tree the French use the term fûté.
    Argent, a tree growing out of a mount in base vert, in chief three mullets gules--WATT, Scotland.
    Argent, on a mount in base a branched tree vert--BARETREY.
    Gules, the stem and trunk of a tree eradicated as also couped, in pale, sprouting out two branches argent--BOROUGH, Leicester.
    Per pale argent and gules, a lion rampant of the first on the sinister side, supporting a tree eradicated proper on the dexter--WINSTONE, co. Brecknock.
    Gules, an oak-tree eradicated proper; crossing the stem and near the root a greyhound courant argent--BOLGER, Arklow, Ireland.
    Argent, an oak-tree erased proper; over all a fesse wavy azure--NEAL.
    On a mount a withered tree; in sinister a representation of a cherub's head with wind issuing therefrom towards the tree; on a chief an eagle displayed crowned with a celestial crown--PIOZZI.
    Argent, a tree in bend couped at the top and slipped at the bottom sable--TANKE.
    Argent, an arm proper, habited gules, issuing out from the side of the escutcheon and holding the lower part of a broken tree eradicated vert, the top leaning to the dexter angle--ARMSTRONG, Scotland.
    Coupé d'or et de gueules, à l'arbre sec au naturel brochant sur le tout--BESCOT, Ile de France.
    D'argent, à un murier(mulberry) de sinople fûté de sable; et un chef d'or chargé d'une tête de Maure de sable tortillée d'argent--MOREL, Burgundy.
    But besides the trees themselves, parts of trees are frequently borne. We find the trunk(fr. tronc d'arbre), stock, stem, stump(fr. souche), or body, the terms appearing to be used indiscriminately by heralds, but meaning the same thing; these are generally blazoned as couped, and if not it is implied; they are also frequently eradicated, and it should be stated when they have branches(as in the arms of BOROUGH above) or slips, as in the arms of STOCKDEN below.
    We find also the term limb used, and this is generally represented raguly(similar to which, perhaps, is the fr. noueux). It should be drawn so as to give the appearance of wood, and not to be mistaken for a fesse or bend raguly; and its positions should be denoted; if not it should be drawn in pale.
    We next find branches(fr. branches), boughs(fr. rameaux), twigs, sprigs, slips, and the term scrogs: to these terms certain differences are assigned, but the rules laid down are not very rigorously followed. The branch, if unfructed, should consist of at least three slips, but if with fruit then four leaves are sufficient; the sprig should have at least five leaves, the slip should have but three. The branches represented borne in the beaks of doves are no doubt olive branches. Many of the terms noted on the previous page as applied to the tree are also found applied to the branches, &c. As to staved branches(if the word is not a misreading of starved=withered), it may mean that they are lopped to represent staves.
    Gules, the trunk of a tree eradicated and couped[otherwise snagged] in pale, sprouting two slips argent--STOCKDEN, Leicester.
    Vert, three trunks of trees raguly and erased argent--STOCKTON, Ipswich, co. Suffolk.
    Argent, three trunks of trees, couped under and above sable--BLACKSTOCK, Scotland.
    Argent, the trunk of an oak-tree sprouting afresh--HERE.
    De gueules, deux troncs écotés d'or passés en sautoir soutenant une tour donjonnée de deux tourelles d'argent--LA SALLE DE PUYGERNAND, Auvergne.
    Argent, three stocks[or stumps] of trees couped and eradicated sable--RETOWRE.
    Argent, three stocks of trees couped and eradicated sable, sprouting anew--GEALE, Ireland.
    Per fesse, argent and azure, a stock[or trunk] of a tree couped and eradicated in bend or--AHLEN.
    Argent, the stem of a tree couped and eradicated in bend proper--HOLDSWORTH, Warwick.
    Gules, the stem of a tree couped at both ends in bend or--BRANDT.
    Argent, a fesse embattled gules, in base a stump of a tree proper--RICHARDS.
    Argent, three stumps of trees couped and eradicated vert--CORP.
    Gules, a chevron between three stumps of trees or--SKEWIS, co. Cornwall.
    D'or, a trois souches de sable--WATELET DE LA VINELLE, Flanders.
    Argent, on a mount in base vert, the body of a tree sable, branched and leaved proper, between two lions rampant combatant gules--BOYS.
    Gules, the limb of a tree with two leaves in bend argent--BESSE.
    Argent, a limb of a tree raguled and trunked, with a leaf stalked and pendent on each side vert--BOODE.
    Sable, an eagle displayed argent, armed or, standing on the limb of a tree raguled and trunked of the second--BARLOW.
    Ermine, on a chevron sable, three withered branches argent--FRESE.
    D'argent, à la branche de frêne de sinople posée en bande--BAUTHER.
    De gueules, au saule[=willow] terrassé et étêté d'or, ayant six branches sans feuilles, trois a dextre trois a senestre; au chef cousu de France--Ville de MONTAUBAN.
    Argent, a fesse vairy or and azure between three doves proper, bearing in their beaks a branch vert--BUCKLE, Warwick.
    Argent, three staved branches slipped sable, two and one--BLACKSTOKE.
    Per fesse, argent and gules, a bird standing upon the top of a tree vert, with a bell hanging from a sinister bough, and over all in base a fish on its back[otherwise blazoned, a salmon in fesse], with a ring in the mouth--City of GLASGOW.
    Gules, three trefoils, the stalks embowed at the end, and fixed to a twig, slipped, lying fesswise argent--BROMMEN.
    Argent, three sprigs conjoined in base vert; on a chief gules a crescent between two mullets of the field--CHAWDER, Scotland.
    Argent, a slip of three leaves vert--BROBROUGH.
    Or, a chevron azure between two scrogs in chief, and a man's heart in base proper--SCROGIE, Scotland.
    Argent, three scrogs blasted sable--BLASTOCK of that Ilk. [Cf. BLACKSTOCK above.]
Tree of Life. See Paradise.
Trefoil, (fr. trèfle): the term 'iij foils,' i.e. 'trefoils' seems to occur in blazon as early as Edward II.'s reign; but whether the 'three leaves' were conjoined or separate there is no evidence to shew; the term may possibly afterwards have been adopted to represent the clover leaf.
    The ordinary form is that shewn in the margin, but it is subject to variations. It is, however, always borne with a stalk, generally ending in a point, when the term slipped is used.
1.Double slipped.
1.Double slipped.
2.Raguly and couped.
2.Raguly and couped.
    If however, the stalk is not represented as torn off(which the term slipped implies) it must be described as couped. A trefoil doubly slipped would be drawn as the first figure in the margin; but if raguly and couped, as the second figure. With French heralds the trèfle is distinguished from the tiercefeuille by the former having a stalk and the latter not.
    Sir Edmon de ACRE, de goules, a les iij foilles[probably=semé of trefoils] de or e iij escalops de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Thomas FILOL, de or, a une fesse e ij chevrons de goules; en la fesse iij treyfoyls de argent.
    Argent, three trefoils slipped sable--CHAMPION, Berks.
    Or, a trefoil double slipped raguly proper[i.e. vert]--ASKERTON.
    Gules, a chevron between three trefoils slipped raguly and couped or--NICOLL.
    Argent, ten trefoils in pale[otherwise blazoned 4, 3, 2, and 1] slipped vert--Thomas TURTON, Bp. of Ely, 1845-63.
    Per fesse sable and argent, in base two trefoils slipped of the first--RODD, co. Cornwall.
    Argent, three trefoils slipped paleways in bend sinister azure--RAUNSTON.
    Gules, three trefoils pierced argent--BACON, co. Suffolk.
    Per chevron argent and sable, three trefoils slipped counterchanged--KNIGHT.
    Sable, a trefoil or, charged with a German text r--LINNE, London.
    D'or, a un trèfle de sinople vêtu de gueules[i.e. Or, on a lozenge throughout gules a trefoil vert]--BENTOUX, Gapençois.
    With the trefoil may be classed the shamrock, i.e. the three-leaved clover, which is considered the badge of Ireland, being traditionally associated with S.Patrick, who is said to have adopted it as a symbol of the doctrine of the Trinity.
    Gules, on a bend or three bald-coots sable beaked and legged of the first; in the dexter chief a key with a sprig of shamrock; in the sinister chief a unicorn's head erased gold holding a sprig of shamrock in the mouth proper--William MARSDEN Secretary to the Admiralty, temp. George III.
    Azure, three hake fishes haurient in fesse argent; on a chief of the second three shamrocks proper--HACKETT, co. Carlow.
    The Cross botonny, §14, is by some called treflée, and not inappropriately, but the former is the more usual term.
Trellised, (fr. trelissé, or treillé): sometimes used, perhaps, for fretty when with a smaller mesh; and this is usually so with French heralds; but with English heralds it is said to be equivalent to Lattised, q.v.
Tremoile or Tremaille: this puzzling name occur in an ancient roll, and the copyist in 1562 supposed the bearing to be 'men's hearts.' It has been thought that they were trefoils, and that both the name and the drawing had been mistaken. Mr.Wyatt Papworth puts them under 'mill-hoppers' (Qy. the wooden troughs belonging to a corn-mill) in noting these arms, but given no reason. The family of TREMAYLE seem to bear three brogues(see under Foot), but in one blazon they are described as bearing trammels, the meaning of which is doubtful,
    Monsire ELMINDBRIGHT, gules, une cheif d'or; en le cheif trois tremoiles vert--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Trench. See Castle.
Tressel: a three-legged frame to support a table, borne chiefly by branches of one family.
    Gules, a fesse humetty between two tressels argent--John STRATFORD, Abp. of Canterbury, 1333-48.
    Gules, a fesse humetty or[=the board for placing on the tressels] between three tressels argent--Robert STRATFORD, Bp. of Chichester, 1337-62. Also of Nicholas STRATFORD, Bp. of Chester, 1689-1707.
    Sable, a hawk argent, belled or, standing on a tressel of the second--HAWKER, Essex.
Tressure, (old fr. tressour, fr. trecheur): a subordinary, considered by some as a diminutive of the orle. It may be single or double(and some say even triple), but is mostly borne double, and fleury-counterfleury, as in the royal arms of Scotland, q.v., whence the charge is sometimes called 'the royal tressure.' When impaled, it is said to follow the rule of the bordure, and not to be continued on the side of the impalement, but several exceptions may be found. When an ordinary is described as within a tressure it should extend only to the inner side of the tressure.
    Three owls within a tressure counterfleurée--Dr.John BRIDGES, Bp. of Oxford, 1618. Impaled with the arms of the Episcopal See. [From the brass in Marsh Baldon church.]
    Sire Johan CHIDEOK, de goulys a un escouchon de argent a un double tressour de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Azure, three mullets, within a double tressure flory and counterflory--MURRAY, Duke of Atholl.
    Azure, a ship at anchor, her oars in saltire, within a double tressure flory counterflory or--ST.CLARE, Gloucester.
    Or, a lion rampant sable, in the dexter forepaw a heart gules, within a bordure of the second charged with a double tressure flory counterflory of the first--BUCHANAN.
    Or, a fesse chequy azure and argent, surmounted by a bend engrailed gules between two lion's heads erased of the last, all within the royal tressure of the fourth--STUART, Mains, Scotland.
Trian aspect, In: neither passant, nor affronty, but the medium between those positions. Rarely used. See Aspect.
Triangle, (fr. triangle): is simply a charge in the shape of the mathematical figure so called.
    Sable, on a triangle voided argent, twelve torteaux--SHONE.
    Argent, two triangles voided and interlaced sable; in the centre a heart gules--VILLAGES.
    D'azur, a trois triangles d'or posés 2 et 1--CIPRIANIS, Provence.
    De gueules, à deux triangles d'or entrelacés l'un dans l'autre en forme d'étoile--BONCHAMPS, Poitou.
    Charges may be described as fretted in triangle, e.g. in the arms of TROUTBECK(under Salmon), or nowed in triangle, as in those of BRADWEN under Serpent. The insignia of the Isle of MAN are sometimes blazoned as flexed in triangle(see under Leg; also Arm). The term has also been awkwardly applied by some writers to cases where charges are borne transposed(as is very rarely the case), i.e. one(in chief) and two(in base).
Trick: In trick, or tricking, is an expression used when the arms instead of being blazoned in the ordinary way are roughly sketched in, and the tinctures added, and other notes(such e.g. as the repetition of the charge) by abbreviations or signs. The letters usually adopted by the heralds, many of whose note-books we possess, compiled during their visitations, are o for or, a for argent, b for azure(instead of az. which might be mistaken for ar.); g for gules; v for vert; s for sable; p for purpure; er for ermine(rarely; Ermine spot being more often used); ppr for proper. The accompanying figures are taken from a copy made by Nicholas Charles in 1606[Harl. MS. No. 6589, fol. 5 and fol. 6 verso] of a Roll of Arms temp. Ed. I. Besides copying the blazon, he has also here and there added the coats of arms in trick. It will at once be seen how simple the system is. At the same time in some of the visitations of heralds the arms are very difficult to decipher, and the animals and birds are generally drawn very roughly.
    Andreio de SAKEVILLE, quarterly or and G., a bend verry.
    Michaell de POYNINGS, barry 6 or and vert, a bend gules.
Tricorporated: having three bodies, e.g. of a Lion, q.v.
Trident: a fork of three prongs barbed, sometimes associated with Neptune(q.v.) in heathen mythology. It is borne in the arms of one or two families.
    Argent, a fesse between three tridents sable--RUSSELL.
    Gyronny of eight argent and azure, an eagle displayed erminois; on a chief wavy ermine a trident or surmounting in saltire a flagstaff proper, thereon hoisted a pennant gules, both passing through a chaplet of laurel vert--NICOLAS, Cornwall, granted 1816.
    Azure, on a lion rampant argent, holding in the dexter paw a trident or, a key in pale of the field--OCHTERLONY, certified 1779.
    Per chevron embattled or and gules, in base two battle-axes in saltire argent; on a chief azure; parted from the field by a fillet wavy, a demi-lion rampant naissant of the third holding in both paws a trident of the first--DYCE.
Trinity: the symbol of the Holy Trinity in an azure field was the heraldic ensign of the Priory of Black Canons, near Aldgate, in the city of London, called CHRIST CHURCH.
    Shield charged with this device are of frequent occurrence in churches, but they are not to be considered as heraldic in any case except where referring to this monastery, or(perhaps) to that of the Holy Trinity, IPSWICH. A banner of the Holy Trinity having this device in a red field is recorded to have been borne at Agincourt. An ingenious attempt to blazon the device heraldically has been made, but it is naturally unsatisfactory, and is therefore not given here.
    Azure, a representation of the Trinity argent, inscribed sable--CHRIST CHURCH, London.
Triparted, or triple-parted. See Cross, §8.
Triple crown. See Tiara.
Triple towered. See Castle and Tower.
Trippant of Stags: equivalent to passant of other animals. See Deer.
Tristram knot. See Cord.
Triton. See under Satyr.
Trivet: a frame of iron standing on three feet. It is sometimes drawn circular, at others triangular. Occasionally it is ornamented with cuspings.
    Argent, a round trivet sable--TRYVETT, Somerset.
    Argent, a triangular trivet sable--BARCLAY, Devon.
    Argent, a trivet within a bordure engrailed sable--John TRYVETT.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three trivets azure--BASKERVILL.
    Argent, three bars sable, in chief as many trivets of the last--REVETT, co. Cambridge.
Trois-deux-un, (fr.): three, two, and one. See Blazon.
Tronçonné, (fr.): i.q. Dismembered.
Trotting of a horse, q.v.
Trout. See Salmon.
Trowel: used by plasterers, and borne by the PLASTERERS' Company, in which it appears as in the margin. The arms will be found blazoned under the word Hammer.
True lover's knot. See Cord.
Trumpet: this musical instrument is found not unfrequently in the older rolls of arms, and has several shapes, but that annexed is the most common; sometimes it is drawn flexed, taking the shape of the letter S. The trumpet in the insignia of the Benedictine Abbey of ATHELNEY is shaped like a cow's horn.
    Sire Giles de TROMPINTONE, de azure crusule de or a ij trompes de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire de TRUMPENTON, port d'asure a deux trumpes d'or[et] croisèle or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Azure, two trumpets in pile between twelve crosses crosslet or--TRUMPINGTON. [From the ancient brass to Roger Trumpington. ob. 1289, in Trumpington Church, Cambridgeshire.]
    Sire James de NEYVILE, de goules, crusule de or ij trompes de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire James de NEVILL, port gules a deux trumpes d'or[et] croisele or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, a chevron engrailed between three trumpets barwise sable--THUNDER, Ireland, 1619.
    Or, a cock mounted on a trumpet sable--HODDING.
    Azure, semy of trefoils two trumpets in pale or garnished gules--WADRIEPONT.
    With the trumpet may be classed the Hautboy, a form of which is represented as in the margin, and appears to be chosen in the first instance for a play on the same(i.e. the fr. bourdon).
    Azure, three hautboys, wide ends downwards, two and one, between as many crosses crosslet or--BOURDEN.
    Gules, two hautboys in saltire between four crosses crosslet or--NEVELL, Sussex.
Truncated, applied to a Tree, or parts thereof, when couped.
Truncheon. See Staff.
Trundles. See Embroiderer's.
Trunk. See Tree; also Elephant.
Trunked: i.q. truncated of a tree, or branch, &c., which is couped.
Trussed: of a bird; synonymous with close.
Trussing is used for preying. See under Falcon.
Tub. See Tun.
Tubbe fish. See Gurnet.
Tufted: applied to an antelope or goat when the tuft is of a different tincture, and in one or two cases to the extremity of a tail.
Tufts of grass, q.v.
Tulip: this flower appears in the blazon of only one coat of arms.
    Argent, a horse(bay colour) passant, holding in his mouth a tulip slipped proper--ATHERTON.
Tun, (fr. tonneau, but if small, barillet): a large barrel, represented usually as in the margin, that is lving length ways. They are sometimes represented with the hoops of another tincture. It occurs in the insignia of the BREWERS' and VINTNERS' Companies, as well as in the arms of a few families. Sometimes the term hogshead, or barrel, or even tub, is used, and perhaps in that case the charge should be drawn upright. It was very commonly used in the Rebus, q.v., so many names ending in ton. [See example of the lion hopping on a tun for name of Hopton under Lion.]
    Sable, a chevron between tuns barwise argent, [sometimes erroneously given as Argent, a chevron between three barrels sable]--The VINTNERS' Company, London; granted 1442.
    Gules, on a chevron argent between three pairs of barley garbs in saltire or, as many tuns sable hooped of the third--BREWERS' Company, incorporated 1438; arms granted 1468, confirmed 1560. [On a brass in All Hallows, Barking.] The same arms are borne by the Company of BREWERS, Exeter.
    Barry of five argent and azure; on a canton of the second a tun or--KNIGHTON, co. Hertford.
    Argent, on a fesse azure between three crosses crosslet fitchy sable, two tuns or--CROXTON, co. Chester.
    ... three hogsheads, two and one ... --Adam de ORLETON, Bishop of Hereford, 1317-27; Worcester, 1328; and Winchester, 1334-45. [From carving on gatehouse at Esher.]
    Gules, three barrels in pale argent--MATON.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three barrels[or tuns] standing on their bottoms sable, hooped or--NORTON.
    Argent, three tubs gules--BRICKMAN.
Tunique: the Surcoat, or Tabard of King of Arms, called so in distinction from that worn by a Herald or Pursuivant.
Turbot: both the turbot and the sole are made use of in English heraldry, apparently on account of the name only, as the following examples shew.
Crest of LAWRENCE.
Crest of LAWRENCE.
    Azure, three turbots argent, two and one, joined or--TURBUTT, Ogston Hall, co. Derby; [same borne by TURBUTT, co. York; three turbots naiant proper by TARBUTT of Scotland, and three turbots fretted by TARBUTT of Middlesex].
    Argent, a chevron gules between three soles haurient[proper] with a bordure engrailed gules--SOLE, Bobbing Place, Kent; also SOLES, Brabanne, co. Cambridge.
    Gules, three solefish argent--John de SOLES, Kent.
    Vert, a chevron between three soles naiant--SOLEY, Shropshire.
    Per pale or and gules, a chevron counterchanged between three soles azure and argent--SOLEY, Worcestershire.
    A demi-turbot erect tail upwards is the crest of the family of LAWRENCE, [and so borne by Sir Thomas Lawrence, the celebrated painter].
    With the above must be grouped the flounder, or flook, as it is called in Scotland, which is probably not to be distinguished from them. Mr.Moule also finds that at Yarmouth this fish is called a butt; in Cornwall he has found the local name to be the carter fish, hence he concludes that the fish borne respectively in the arms of BUTTS and CARTER are meant for a fish of this kind. What the bret fish is, or the birt, he does not seem to have determined. The following examples are taken from his work.
    Argent, a saltire gules between four ermine spots; on a chief of the second three butt fish haurient of the first--BUTTS, Dorking.
    Gules, three flooks(or flounders) argent--ARBUTT.
    Sable, a flook argent--FISHER.
    Sable, a chevron ermine between three carter fish haurient argent--CARTER, London.
    Azure, three brets naiant--BRETCOCK.
    Azure, a birt fish proper--BIRT.
Turk's head. See Head.
Turkey: this bird occurs in the arms of one or two families, and like the peacock, it may be borne 'in his pride.'
    Argent, a chevron chequy azure and vert between three turkeys proper--WIKES, co. Devon.
    Argent, a chevron sable between three turkey-cocks in their pride proper--YEO, co. Devon.
Turnip: only one family seems to bear this. Randal Holmes gives the word wisalls(? wurtzels), as meaning the green tops of this or some similar roots.
    Sable, a turnip leaved proper; a chief or, goutty de poix--DAMMANT.
Turnpike. See Turnstile; also Gate.
1 and 2.Turnstiles.
1 and 2.Turnstiles.
Turnstile, sometimes called turnpike: the charge has been in one case blazoned a reel, but this is probably an error. Three forms occur, as shewn by the figures in the margin.
    Argent, three turnpikes[elsewhere blazoned turnstiles or reels] sable--WOOLSTON. White.
    A turnpike or, on a wreath argent and gules--Crest of SKIPWORTH, Linc. (Bart. 1622). Fig. 3.
    Possibly the cross-gate mentioned in the following coat of arms may be of the same character.
    Argent, a saltire between a cross-gate in chief and another in base and a crescent in each flank gules--HEGENS, Scotland.
Turret. See Tower.
Twig. See Tree.
Two and one, (fr. deux un): when there are three charges two are placed in chief and one in base, so that this term is not needed; when the contrary, i.e. one and two, the charge are said to be transposed. See Blazon.
Two and two: neither this expression, nor in quadratum, are needed for four charges: they would naturally be placed in this position.
Twyfoil. See Foil.
Tyrwhitt. See Lapwing.