Bacchus faces. See Faces,
Backgammon Table: this singular device is borne by the following family.
Azure, three pair of backgammon table open of the first, pointed argent, edged or--John PEGREZ.
Badelaire, (fr.): a broad-bladed sword, or scimetar, slightly curved. The sabre comes nearest to it.
Badge, or Cognizance: a mark of distinction somewhat similar to a crest, though not placed on a wreath, nor worm upon the helmet. They were rather supplemental bearings quite independent of the charge of the original arms, and were borne on the banners, ensigns, caparisons, and even on the breasts, and more frequently on the sleeves of servants and followers.
The badges borne by the Kings of England are very numerous, and are to be found on tombs, carvings, embroidery, stained glass, and paintings. The earliest which can be any way reckoned as a badge, is the Planta genista, or Broom; and of the others, of which a list is given, it must be admitted that several rest upon solitary instances, or on the authority of the writers whose names are appended.
STEPHEN. A Sagittary? HEN. VI. Antelope collared and
Ostrich feathers(Guillim). chained.
HEN. II. Escarbuncle(Mackenzie). Two feathers in saltire(MS. Bib.
Sword and olive-branch(Cotton). Reg.)
RIC. I. Star within crescent(Great Spotted panther passant guard.
Seal). (MS. Harl.)
Star and crescent separate(Great YORK.
Seal). A white rose.
Armed arm holding lance(Cotton). White rose en soleil(MS. Bib. Reg.).
Sun on two anchors(Guillim). ED. IV. Falcon within fetterlock
JOHN. Star within crescent(Silver (ironwork)
penny). Bull sable[for Clare].
HEN. III. Star within crescent Dragon sable[for Ulster].
(Great Seal). Sun in splendour(Baker).
ED. I. Rose, stalked(MS. Harl). White hart.
ED. II. Hexagonal castle(Great White wolf(MS. Lansd.)
Seal). ED. V. Falcon within fetterlock
ED. III. Rays from clouds(Cam- (painting).
den). RIC. III. Rose and sun separate
Stump of tree(MS. Harl.) (Great Seal).
Ostrich feathers(MS. Harl.) Falcon with maiden's head(Sculp-
Griffin(Private Seal). TUDOR.
Sword and three crowns(MS. Red and white roses united.
Harl.) Roses separate and crowned.
RIC. II. Sun in splendour(MS. Portcullis.
Harl.) Fleur de lis.
Sun behind cloud(effigy). HEN. VII. A red dragon (Baker).
A branch of broom(?) (effigy). Hawthorn bush crowned(glass).
White hart couchant. Dun cow(Baker).
Stump of tree. Greyhound courant(for Beaufort).
White falcon(Hollingshed). HEN. VIII. Greyhound courant.
LANCASTER. ED. VI. Sun in splendour(Cotton).
Red rose. MARY. Double rose impaled with a
Red rose en soleil. sheaf of arrows within a semi-
Collar of SS. circle(MS. in Coll. of Arms).
HEN. IV. A genet(on his tomb). Rose and pomegranate,
Eagle displayed(ibid.) ELIZABETH. Harp crowned[for
Tail of a fox pendent(Camden). Ireland].
Crescents(Hollingshed). A rose.
Panthers and eagles crowned(MS. STUART.
Harl.) Roses united[for England].
HEN. V. A beacon inflamed. Fleur de lis[for France].
Antelope gorged with a crown. Thistle, leaved[for Scotland].
Swan gorged with a crown. Harp[for Ireland].
The above representative badges for the four kingdoms were continued by the House of BRUNSWICK and in George the Third's reign(i.e. 1801) they were settled by sign manual, the old badge for ENGLAND, namely, the Cross of S.George, being retained in the national banner of the Union Jack(q.v. under Flag).
A white rose within a red one, barbed seeded, slipped and leaved proper, and ensigned with the imperial crown, for ENGLAND.
Certain OFFICERS also wore badges; thus: Crown-keepers, or yoemen of the crown, bore on their left shoulders a crown, which, under the Tudor sovereigns, surmounted a rose. Four examples have been noticed on brasses: one of them is in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, from which this illustration is taken.
A thistle, slipped and leaved proper, and ensigned with the imperial crown, for Scotland.
A harp or, stringed argent, and a trefoil vert[i.e. shamrock] both ensigned as before, for Ireland.
Upon a mount vert, a dragon passant, wings expanded and endorsed, gules, for Wales.
From about the time of Richard II. badges have been occasionally borne by SUBJECTS. This practice is alluded to by Shakspere, who mentions bath the cognizance and the crest.
Old Clifford.--Might I but know thee by the household badge.
Warwick.--Now by my father's badge, old Nevil's crest,
The rampant bear chained to the ragged staff, etc.
The PERCIES have a crescent for their badge, and the VERES used a mullet.
Badges are frequently represented on brasses, and often beneath the feet. Occasionally a badge was engraved on the dress; thus a swan(or as some say a pelican) is embroidered on the collar of Lady Peryent, 1415, as represented on the brass in Digswell church, Herts.
The Hame of Saint-John will be found in its alphabetical order, and the cognizances of several other families under Knots.
Another class of distinguishing marks may also be included under the head of badges, though not heraldic badges, namely, those connected with TRADE. The theory of the grant of armorial bearings was such that engagement in commerce was incompatible with the bearing of arms, which was permitted only to gentleman; and this was strictly the case throughout the middle ages. Still the merchants had their badges; the Guilds and Companies, of which the great London Companies are the survivors, had their distinctive marks or devices, and no doubt it is these which in later years, when the dignity of successful commerce came to be recognized, were incorporated into the arms of their companies. Similar also were the Merchants' Marks, and these will be noted in their place. Lastly, there were the signs, i.q. ensigns, of the chief houses of trade, by which the house was known, e.g., at the "Bible and Crown in Fleet-street." With scarcely an exception(and those mostly cases of revival) these signs have been only retained by inns and hostelries.
Badger, (fr. blaireau): in blazon this is often called a Brock, and occasionally a Gray.
Or, a badger passant sable--BADGER.
Bagpipes are only named in connection with the hare playing on them.
Or, on a fesse sable between three brocks passant proper two cinquefoils pierced argent, on each foil an ermine spot--James BROKS, Bp. of Gloucester, 1554-8.
Argent, three brocks proper--BROCK.
Argent, a chevron between three badger's legs erased sable--YARMOUTH.
Argent, three hares sejant playing upon bagpipes gules--HOPWELL, Devon.
Argent, three hares sejant gules, playing upon bagpipes or--FITZ-ERCALD, Derby.
[The illustration of a hare playing upon the bagpipes is from MS. Harl. 6563, written in the fourteenth century.]
Bague, (fr.): a gem, or finger-ring.
Bagwyn: an imaginary beast like the heraldic antelope, but having the tail of a horse, and long horns curved over the ears, was the dexter supporter of the arms of CAREY, Lord Hunsdon.
Baillonné, (fr. baillon: a gag). Of animals when they have a baton in their mouth.
Balances, a pair of, (fr. balance): besides appearing in the arms of the Company of BAKERS both of London, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Exeter(in which they are sometimes blazoned as a pair of scales), the following may be noted.
Azure, a pair of balances within an orle of eight estoiles or--STARR.
Balcanifer, or Baldakinifer: the standard-bearer of the knights Templars.
Azure, a pair of balances supported by a sword in pale argent, hilt of pomel or, within a balance of the last--JUSTICE, Scotland.
Baldcoot. See Coot.
Baldrick. See Belt and Bend.
Bale, or bag: a package of merchandise corded: one containing silk occurs in the arms of the Company of SILKMEN, while a bag of madder occurs in that of the DYERS. Madder was a plant, much used in dyeing, and is named but in this one instance. It is to be noted especially that the cords are of a different tincture from the rest. The bale, or bag, is to be distinguished from the bundle, or hank(e.g. of cotton, silk, &c.)
Argent, a ship of three masts in full sail on the sea in base, all proper; on a chief or, a bale of silk corded proper, between two bundles of silk pendant of the last--Company of SILKMEN, London[Inc. and arms granted, 1631].
Balista, See Sling.
Sable, a chevron engrailed argent, between three bags of madder of the last, corded or--Company of DYERS[Inc. 1471].
Ball. See Fire-ball.
Balm: this plant, the common balm(melissa) of our fields, seems to be used only in a canting coat.
Argent, three sprigs of balm flowered proper--BALM.
Bandé, (fr.): for bendy.
Bande, (fr.): for a bend dexter.
Banded, (empoigné): is used when two or more objects(e.g. a garb or branches of a tree) are bound together with a band of a different tincture.
Banderolle, (fr.). See Flag.
Banner, (old fr. ban, also baniere): a kind of flag painted or embroidered with arms, and of a size proportioned to the rank of the bearer. The banner of an emperor is prescribed to be six feet square, that of a king five feet, that of a prince or duke four feet, and that of a nobleman of any rank from marquess to baron three feet, that of a Knight banneret was still smaller. Whether these rules were at any time strictly observed is very doubtful. Banners were often(but not, it would seem, until a rather late period) fringed with the principal metal and colour of the arms.
The chief distinction between the term banner and other flags such as standards, pennons, &c., is that it is square(or nearly so), while the others are, as a rule, elongated. See under Flag.
The Funeral banner, or Banneroll, was a square flag whereon the arms of the deceased, and those of his ancestors, were painted, with crest of coronet, but without helmet, mantle, or supporters. The colour of the banner itself follows the same rules as that of the grounds of achievements. It was usually fringed with the principal metal and colour of the arms. The great banner, used at funerals, contained all the quarterings of the deceased, occupying the entire field, the edge being fringed. Funeral banners are not restricted to Knights banneret and persons of higher rank, but may be carried at the interment of gentleman bearing arms, and even at funerals of women.
The Beauseant, or Ancient, was the name of the banner of the Knights Templars in the thirteenth century, though it might be described as an oblong flag, per fess, sable and argent, one of the longer sides being affixed to the staff.
Le baucent del HOSPITALE, de goules a un croyz d'argent fourme.--Le baucent[another MS. Le Auncient] del TEMPLE, dargent, al chef de sable a un croyz de goules passant--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
The Military Banners most frequently borne in the English army during the middle ages(besides those of Knights bannerets and other noblemen) were those embroidered with the arms of the sovereign, or with the legendary arms of SS.George, Edmund, and Edward the Confessor, patrons of England. The military banner might contain quarterings, but not impaled arms.
A red banner, charged with the symbol of the Holy Trinity, was borne at the battle of Agincourt, A.D. 1415.
The Oriflamme was the military banner of the French army, being derived from a banner anciently belonging to the Abbey of S.Denis, near Paris. It was charged with a saltire wavy, with rays issuing from the centre crossways, and from these rays the name auriflamme was no doubt derived.
The banner of S.John of Beverley was borne in the English army 24 Edw. I. (1295) by one of the vicars of Beverley college.
S.Cuthbert's banner was carried in the English army by a monk of Durham in the wars with Scotland, about 1300; and again in 1513.
The oriflamme borne at Agincourt was(according to Sir N. H. Nicolas) an oblong red flag, split into five points.
The banner was used also as a charge, occurring generally hung from the walls of a castle, and the Paschal Lamb is usually represented carrying a banner.
Gules, on a banner or, an imperial eagle charged with an escutcheon argent, the staff held by a griffin segreant of the last--GARBETT.
Banneroll(?). See Banner.
Quarterly, first and fourth gules, a banner displayed argent; thereon a canton azure charged with a S.Andrew's cross of the second; second and third or, a cross moline azure within a bordure engrailed argent--BANNERMANN, Elsick.
Azure, three banners bendwise in pale flowing to the sinister or--KINGDOM.
Argent, on a cross gules a Paschal Lamb or, carrying a banner argent charged with a cross of the second--Hon. Society of the MIDDLE TEMPLE.
Bar, (fr. fasce en divise; lat. fasciola): resembles the fess in form, but occupies about one-fifth of the field. Although practically a diminutive of the fess, it is not reckoned as such, but a distinct ordinary. It is seldom(and in such few cases there is a chief) borne singly, and consequently is not confined, like the fess, to the middle of the shield. It has two diminutives, the closet, which is half the bar, and the barrulet(fr. burèle), which is a quarter. As the bar occupies one-fifth of the field a greater number than four cannot be borne together. When three or four bars are borne in the same arms, they are, for the sake of proportion, drawn considerably narrower than one-fifth of the height of the field.
William MAUDYT,--d'argent a deus barres de goulz--Roll, temp. HENRY. III.
In bar, or barwise, signifies the horizontal arrangement of charges in two or more rows; the term in fesse being proper only when there is but one row, i.e. placed across the fess-point.
Richard de HARECOURT,--d'or a deux barres de goules--Ibid.
Sire Andreu le GRIMSTEDE, de goules a iij barres de veer--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Wary MARTIN, de argent a ij barres de goules besantes de or--Ibid.
Monsire Hugh SEINTTLE, port d'asur a deux barres d'argent; au cheif de gules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Bar-gemel, or gemelle; bars-gemels are bars voided, or closets placed in couples(they derive their name from the Latin gemellus, double, or fr. jumelles), and with the old writers the word gemelle was used for bar-gemel. But two bars-gemels are not always distinguishable from four bars, nor three bars-gemels from six barrulets, nor four bars-gemels from eight. For the odd number the term barrulet must be used. Palliot fancifully describes bars generally as immolés, and the expression 'bar and a-half' is found in one roll of arms.
Tremon de MENYLL,--d'azur a trois gemelles, et ung cheif d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
And sometimes it appears that each bar of a bar-gemel was counted as a gemelle.
Roand le Connestable de RICHEMUND, de goules a ung cheif d'or, a deus gemeus de l'un en l'autre d'or--Ibid.
Sire Wauter de HONTERCOMBE, de ermyne, a ij barres gymeles de goules--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Azure, a bar and a-half argent, in the sinister quarter a garb or--SCHEFFELD(Glovers ordinary).
Argent, three bars-gemels sable--ERCALL.
Bars like the fesse may be embattled, dancetty, nebuly, wavy, &c., and a shield may be divided per bar and per base bar, q.v.
Sr Thom's de RICHMOND port de gules le chef d'or ov quatre gemeus d'or--Harl. MS. 6589.
Argent, three bars-gemels gules--BARRY, Earl of Barrymore, Ireland.
Gules, three bars-gemels and a canton ermine--BARDWELL.
Ermine, three bars wavy gules--LACY.
N.B. In French heraldic works the word barre is used as equivalent to a bend sinister, and this is supposed in many cases to be a mark of bastardy, Hence the expression is often found of a bar sinister, meaning a bend sinister. The modern French equivalent for the bar, fasce en divise, means that it is a fesse of half its ordinary width. See also under Barbel.
[In Roll, temp. Edw. II. Sir Johan de LACY, oundee de gules et de ermine].
Argent, two bars embattled ermine--BURNBY, co. Devon.
Argent, two bars counter embattled gules--JAMES, co. Essex.
Gules, two bars dancetty or--SAMLER.
Argent, two bars nebuly sable, a bend or--POWER, co. Surrey, 1601.
Azure, two bars wavy or--Sir Walter de la POOLE.
Barbican. See Castle.
Barby, (fr. barbée). See Cross, §13.
Barded, (fr. bardé): of a horse caparisoned. The barde was originally the armour-plating covering the chest of a horse in battle, but came in time to signify ornamental covering of any kind.
Bark. See Boat.
Barley. See Wheat.
Baron and Femme are words employed in describing impalements of the arms of husband and wife; that on the dexter being the paternal achievement of the man, that on the sinister the family arms of the woman, See Marshalling.
Barre(fr.)=a bend sinister[not bar].
Barrel, (fr. Barillet). See Tun.
Barry, (in old fr. barré, sometimes burelé, in modern fr. fascé): denotes that the field is horizontally divided into a certain even number of equal parts. If the number of divisions were odd the same tincture would appear in chief and in base, and the pieces of the other tincture would be so many bars, or barrulets.
Richard de GREY, barry d'argent et d'azure--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
The division of the shield into party-coloured pieces by means of lines is not unfrequent, and the barry is combined for the sake of variety with other line-divisions. The following will give some idea of the varieties.
Alayn de Fitz Brian, barree d'or et de gules--Ibid.
Patrick de CHAURCY, burele d'argent et de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Barry of six, ermine and gules--HUSSEY, Wilts.
Barry of ten, argent and gules--BARRY, Lord Barry.
Barry of ten, argent and sable--BARRALL.
Barry of twelve, or and sable--BOTFIELD, Salop.
Barry of twenty, argent and azure--BRUN.
Per pale or and argent barruly wavy gules--Sire Richard de AUNTESHEYE.
Barry dancetty azure and argent--TURBERVILLE.
Barry bendy or Barry bendy lozengy may be employed when a field is divided bar-wise, each piece being subdivided bendwise also, the tinctures being counterchanged. Barry bendy sinister also occurs.
Barry bendy of six argent and gules--AMERY.
Barry indented and Barry dancetty have the lines drawn so that apex falls beneath apex.
Barry bendy lozengy argent and gules--QUARM, Devon.
Bendy sinister and barry, gules and argent--WYER.
Barry of four indented or sable or azure--Richard MITFORD, Bp. of Chichester, 1389, of Salisbury, 1396-1347.
Barry indented, the one in the other, may be blazoned Lozengy .... couped per fesse, or better still Lozengy .... parted barwise and counterchanged.
Barry indented, argent and gules--John BALUN.
Barry dancetty of six azure and argent--TODENHAM.
Barry of six argent and sable, indented, the one in the other--GUISE, or GYSE, Glouc.
Barry nebuly, when the lines instead of being drawn straight across the shield are drawn as in the margin; and barry wavy, with the bars as shewn in previous page.
Barry indented, the one in the other, or and azure, on a chief gules, three cross crosslets of the first--MOUNTAINE, Westminster, 1613.
Barry nebuly of six argent and azure, on a bend gules a lion passant gardant or--HABERDASHERS' Company. Arms granted in 1571.
Barry pily: divided into an even number of pieces by piles placed horizontally across the shield. If the number of pieces were uneven, it would rather be called so many piles barwise, proceeding from the dexter or sinister side. It is difficult to find examples, as the proper position of the ordinary is upright.
Barry nebuly of six, or and gules--DOLSEBY, London.
Barry nebuly of six, or and sable--BLOUNT, Bart. 1642.
Barry wavy of six, ermines and argent--MORRIS.
Barry pily of eight, or and gules--HOYLAND, Linc.
Barry per pale counterchanged is when the field is divided into several pieces barwise, and by a party-line palewise the tinctures on each side of that line are counterchanged. For barry paly see billetty.
Barry pily of eight, gules and or--VANCE, Ireland.
Barry of six, sable and or, per pale counterchanged--SCURFIELD.
N.B. In modern French heraldic works barré seems to be used generally as the equivalent of bendy sinister, just as the bar is used for the bend sinister, as has already been noted.
Barry of twelve, per pale azure and argent counterchanged--MOORE, Salop.
Barberry: one example only appears of this shrub(berberis), with its bright red berries, in allusion evidently to the name.
Argent, a barberry branch fructed proper--BERRY.
Barbed, (fr. barbé); bearded: an expression chiefly applied to the metal point of an arrow, sometimes also to the green leaves of a rose, when any of these are of a different tincture. By the French also to the gills of cocks, &c. A cross when 'barbed' is called a Cross barby.
Gules, three arrows argent, barbed or--Nicholas HALES.
Barbel, (fr. barbeau, lat. cyprinus); the fresh-water fish, so named from the barbs attached to the mouth; and with this may be classed the Tench(tinca vulgaris) as similar in character.
Argent, on two bars gules, three roses of the field, barbed vert, seeded or, two and one--ORLEBAR, Bedford.
De gueules, a trois coqs d'argent, becqués, crêtes, barbés, et membrés d'or--SANDELIN, Artois.
Sr John de BARE porte d'azure ov ij barbes d'or croisele d'or ov la bordure endente de gules--Falkirk, roll, Harl. MSS.
The bar in French heraldry sometimes means the barbel, but generally the sea-fish so named(lat. sciœna).
Azure, semé of cross crosslets fitchy at foot or, and two barbels embowed and endorsed of the same, eyes argent--Arms of the duchy of BARRE, which are quartered by QUEENS' COLLEGE, Cambridge.
Argent, two barbels haurient, respecting each other sable--COLSTON.
Borne also by families of BARWAIS, BARDIN, BARE, BERNARD, BURES, &c.
Azure, a fesse, or, between three tenches argent--WAYTE, Norfolk.
Borne by families of VON TANQUES and of Marshall TENCHE, Flanders.
Le Counte de Bar, d'azur, pudre a croisile dor a deux bars de mer--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Barnacle, or Barnacle goose, (old name Bernak); it is known now as the Cleg or Clark goose, perhaps the same as the Solan or Orkney goose; Anser bernicla is recognized by all naturalists.
Gueules, a un bar contourné d'argent, la tête surmountée d'une fleur-de-lis d'or--Ville dê BARFLEUR, Normandy.
Sire William BERNAK de argent a une fesse e iij bernaks de sable--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Barnacle or Horse-barnacle: generally spoken of as a Pair of barnacles, and in a roll of Henry III. called Breys, is supposed to represent at instrument used by farriers(fr. morailles) to curb unruly horses. It is occasionally borne extended, that is, horizontally.
Sable, a barnacle goose argent; Azure, three barnacles argent--BARNACLE.
Gules, a barnacle goose argent--BARNER.
Argent(?), a chevron ermines between three barnacle birds close proper--WYKE.
With the French heralds this charge has caused much discussion. There broyes are borne by the family of BROYES(as well as by that of JOINVILLE and GOY), and have been supposed to be respectively architectural festoons, instruments for torture of criminals, hemp crushers, as well as the meaning given above.
Gules, a barnacle argent--WYATT, Kent.
The most celebrated instance of the barnacle expanded is the coat of the illustrious French family of Joinville, or as the English called it, Geneville.
Argent, three pair of barnacles, expanded in pale sable--BRAY, Cornwall.
Argent, four bars wavy azure on a chief gules, three pair of barnacles or--SMITH, Suffolk.
Geoffrey de GENEVILE d'azure, a trois breys d'or au cheif d'ermyne ung demy lion de goules--Roll temp. HEN. III.
Baron: the fifth and lowest rank of the British peerage. The title, introduced into England immediately after the Norman conquest, was originally applied to all the Thanes(or feudal lords under the rank of earl) who held great fiefs of several Knights' fees, but was subsequently restricted to those summoned by writ to parliament, a practice which dates from the reign of John. The first baron by patent was John Beauchamp of Holt, who was raised to the peerage by K. Richard II. in the eleventh year of his reign(Oct. 10, 1387) by the title of baron of Kidderminster. No other instance occurs until 10 Hen. VI.
Simon de GENEVILL a trois breys d'or, au chief d'argent ung demi-lion de goules--Ibid.
Barons are not recognised as part of the English nobility quâ Baron, i.e. Lord of the manor, unless they are duly summoned to be a Peer of Parliament; and before the reign of Charles II. barons, even though peers of the realm, were not allowed to wear coronets q.v., but only the crimson cap, with a plain gold band.
Baronets may be distinguished as follows.
I. Baronets of Great Britain: An order founded by King James I., May 22, 1611, ranking below that of a peer and above that of a knight. The dignity is bestowed by patent and is hereditary, but generally limited to the heirs male of the grantee. It was in the first instance bestowed upon knights and esquire(being duly qualified), each of whom stipulated to maintain thirty foot soldiers in Ireland at 8d. per diem for the term of two years. Upon the establishment of the order it was arranged that the number of baronets should never exceed two hundred, and that upon the extinction of a baronetcy no other should be created to fill the vacancy; but these regulations were soon dispensed with, and the number became unlimited.
The qualifications required of those who were admitted into the number of baronets are thus described in the instructions of the royal founder to the commissioners, for the admission of proper persons into the order:--
"Provided always that you proceed with none, except it shall appear unto you upon good proof that they are men for quality, state of living, and good reputation, worthy of the same: and that they are at least descended of a grandfather by the father's side that bore arms: and have also a certain yearly revenue in lands of inheritance of possession, one thousand pounds per annum de claro, or lands of the old rent, as good(in account) as one thousand pounds per annum of improved rents, or at the least two parts in three to be divided of lands to the said values in possession, and the other third part in reversion, expectant upon one only life, holding by dower or in joynture."
The first baronet created was Sir Nicholas Bacon.
The precedence assigned to baronets is before all knights bannerets, except those made by the king himself, or the prince or Wales under the royal banner in actual war, and next after the younger sons of viscounts and barons.
The badge of baronetage, namely a sinister hand(q.v.) erect, open, and couped at the wrist gules(being the arms assigned to the ancient Kings of Ulster), was granted in 1612. It may be borne upon a canton, or upon an inescutcheon, which may be placed either upon the middle chief point or the fesse point, so as least to interfere with the charges composing the family arms. It should never be placed upon the intersection of two or more coats quartered, unless the baronet has two surnames, and bears the arms belonging to them quarterly.
It the same year in which this badge was granted, King James knighted the heirs of all existing baronets, and ordained that their eldest sons might for the future claim knighthood upon attaining their majority. This privilege was abolished by George IV., but has since been restored, though never claimed.
II. Baronets of Ireland: An order established by James I. in 1619. Their qualifications, privileges, and badge, are the same as those of the baronets of Great Britain. It is believed that this dignity has not been conferred since the union of 1801.
III. Baronets of Scotland and Nova Scotia. An order similar to those before mentioned, projected by the same monarch, but founded by Charles I. in 1625, immediately after his accession. The object of this order was to encourage the plantation of Nova Scotia, in which colony each baronet had granted to him by his patent eighteen square miles of land, having a seacoast, or at least the rank of some navigable river, three miles in length, and an extent of six miles island.
The arms of baronets of this order are not now distinguished by any badge, although one appears to have been in use until the year 1629, viz. a small shield argent charged with a saltire azure, in the centre of which upon an escutcheon or is the lion of Scotland within a tressure gules. No creations have taken place since 1707.
Barrow: borne on the seal of DROITWICH(see Sword): also,
Sable, a hand-barrow between nine roses or--BEARWELL.
Barrulet, Barrelet, or Bracelet, and Barruly. The Barrulet is a diminutive of the Bar, of which it is one-fourth, that is to say, a twentieth part of the field; the closet being one half of the bar. It is never borne singly.
Argent, four barrulets gules; on a canton of the second a mullet of six points of the first--WACE.
Beyond this the term barruly[or barruletty, fr. burellé, old fr. burlé] is used by some writers is describing a field horizontally divided into ten or any higher even number of equal parts; practically, however, the term barry might be used in most cases.
Azure, six barrulets gemel[=12 barrulets] and a chief or--MENELL, York.
Argent, seven barrulets gemel azure[=14 barrulets]--INGERSALEM.
Sable, eight barrulets gemel[=16 barrulets] and a canton or on two bars azure, as many barrulets dancetty argent. A chief indented of the second--SAWBRID, [Indented argent--BUCKTIN, York.]
Patrik de CHAURCY, burele d'argent et de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Barry. See under Bar.
Le Counte DE LA MARCHE, burule de une menue burlure dargent et de azur--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Robert de ESTOTEVILE, burlee de argent e de goules a un lion rampand de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Bartizan. See Castle.
Base: 1. (fr. bas de l'ecu) The lower part of the shield, hence in base means that the charge is so to be placed. 2. Base-bar, or Baste: a portion of the base of a shield, equal in width to a bar, parted off by a horizontal line. It is identical with the plain point, q.v. under Point. 3. For base in architecture see Pillar.
Argent, a lion rampant and a base indented purpure--John de SKIPTON, Harl. MSS. 1386.
Basilisk. See Cockatrice.
Basket, (fr. corbeille): there are several varieties of baskets found figured in coats of arms.
1. Ordinary or hand-baskets, sometimes termed wicker baskets.
Azure, three baskets or--GARDEN.
2. In one or two cases Religious houses seem to have borne a kind of bread basket filled with loaves or wastel cakes.
Sable, three baskets[like fig. 1] argent--LITTLEBURY.
Sable, three wicker baskets[otherwise dossers] with handles argent--Sir John LITTLEBORNE.
Sable, a bend or, between three hand baskets argent--WOOLSTON, co. Devon. 1716.
Gules, three covered baskets or--PENTNEY Priory, Norfolk.
Sable, three baskets full of bread argent--MIDDLETON Abbey, Dorset.
3. Winnowing-baskets. These have various names, that of Vane of Vannet being the commonest. But the same kind of basket, which has, when badly drawn, been mistaken for an escallop-shell, is also termed Fan, Fruttle, and Shruttle,
Azure, three baskets or--GARDEN.
Argent, two bars sable ..... a basket of bread(i.e. wastel-cakes) or on the sinister side--London, BETHLEHEM Hospital.
Azure, a basket of fruit proper between three mitres or--JANE, Bp. of Norwich, 1499-1501.
Sire Robert de SEVENS de azure, a iij vans de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
The four implements, viz. prime, iron, cutting-knife, and outsticker, used in basket-making are represented on the insignia of the Basket-makers' Company:--
[N.B. The brass of Sir H. de Septvans in Chartham Church, Kent(ob. A.D. 1306), has the three vanes only, and not seven, as might have been expected from the name.]
Azure, three cross-baskets in pale argent between a prime and an iron on the dexter, and a cutting knife and an outsticker on the sinister of the second--BASKET-MAKERS' Company.
4. Fish-baskets. See Weel.
Basnet, Bassinet. See Cap of Steel.
Bat: This mammal, not infrequent in English arms, is usually represented displayed; its proper tincture is sable. Blazoned sometimes by the older name of rere-mouse,
"Some war with rere-mice for their leathern wings"--SHAKESPERE, Mids. Night's Dream.
Bats' wings are also borne.
Argent, a bat displayed proper--STAININGS.
Bataillé, (fr.): of a bell when the clapper(batail, old fr. for battant) is of a different tincture.
Or, a bat volant gules; a rere-mouse vert--ATTON.
Or, a bat's wing gules, surmounted of another azure--ALDEN.
Bath, Order of the. See Knights.
Baton, (fr. bâton), (though the old fr. Baston, Battoon, or Batune, is used almost entirely for the bendlet). It resembles the diminutive of the Bend sinister(and hence often called a sinister baton) is general form, but usually couped at both extremities. The sinister baton was in later times made to be a mark of the illegitimacy of the first bearer, and to be of metal when assigned to the illegitimate descendants of royalty, but in every other case to be of colour, even though placed upon another colour. Accordingly, the following arms were assigned by modern heralds:--
Gules, two lions passant guardant[HENRY I.] with a batoon sinister azure--REGINALD, base son of Henry I., created Earl of Cornwall,
It was said that the baton should not be laid aside until three generations had borne it, and not then, unless succeeded by some other mark assigned by the king of arms, or unless the coat was changed. Dexter batons are but rarely met with. Sometimes a small baton appears in the mouths(fr. baillonné) or between the paws of animals, such as lions, dogs, bears, &c., but this almost entirely in crests.
Quarterly vert and or a couped baston of the second--DE HISPANIA.
In the sense of an ordinary bendlet, (q.v.)
Gules, on a bend engrailed or, a baston azure--ELLIOT(1666).
Gules, a chevron raguly of two bastons couped at the top argent--Christopher DRAIESFIELD, Harl. MS. 1386.
Argent, a lion rampant azure, a dexter baton compony or and gules--Sir Richard de DOCKESSEYE.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, over all a dexter baston compony or and azure--Piers LUCIEN.
Argent, a lion rampant sable holding a baton in pale azure--WILLISBY.
Monsire JEFFREY DE CORNEWALE, d'argent une lyon de gules couronne d'or: une baston de sable charge de trois mullets d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Baton-cross. See Cross, §8, 31.
Battelly, (fr. bastille) or battled. See embattled.
Battering-ram, (fr. bélier): this military charge seems to occur only in the arms of one single family, but occurs also as a crest.
Argent, three battering-rams barwise proper, headed azure, armed and garnished or--BERTIE.
Battle-axe. See Axe.
Battled. See Embattled.
Baudrick, (fr. Baudrier): a sword belt, possibly the prototype of the Bend.
Bay, At Bay. See Deer.
Bay. See Colour.
Bay leaf. See Laurel.
Beacon, (A.-Sax. becn, fr. phare): an iron cage or trived, containing blazing material, placed upon a lofty pole served to guide travellers; or to alarm the neighbourhood in case of an invasion or rebellion. The cressets, or lights anciently used in the streets of London were similar in form.
A beacon or, inflamed proper--Badge of Henry V.
Beads. See Rosary.
Sable, three beacons with ladders or, fired proper--DAUNT.
Azure, three beacons with ladders or, fired proper--GERVAYS.
Beaked, (fr. becqué): of an eagle, or other birds, griffins, and the like, when the beak is of a different tincture.
Beaker. See Ewer.
Beam. 1. See Attire; 2. See Anchor; 3. See Sun.
Beans, (bean-cods, bean-pods, and sheaves of beans), represent the common bean(faba vulgaris), and their exact position is usually given.
Azure, three beans or--MERTON.
Bear, (fr. ours): frequent in German arms, and in some instances in Scottish arms, but comparatively rare in English arms, though not unfrequent as a crest, and sometimes the head or jambs are chosen for the latter apart from the body. In one coat of arms Sea-bears are named: it is not clear what is meant, possibly Seals, but more probably Polar-bears. The Canton of Berne in Switzerland, as well as the Abbey of S.Gall, exhibit the bear in their insignia. Bears appear also as supporters.
Argent, three bean-cods transverse the escutcheon proper--HARDBEANE.
Gules, three bean-cods pendent or--BEANE.
Argent, a chevron gules, between three bean-pods vert--RISE, Cornwall.
Argent, a chevron between thee sheaves of beans sable--BLAKE, Northumberland.
Argent, a bear rampant sable, muzzled or--BERNARD.
Bearded, or aulned. See Wheat.
Sire Richard de BARLINGHAM de goules a iij ours de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Gules, on a bend or a bear passant sable--Canton of BERNE.
Argent, a bear erect sable--Abbey of ST.GALL.
Azure, a fesse or; in chief a bear's head proper muzzled and ringed of the second--BARING[Bp. of Gloucester and B., 1856; of Durham, 1861-79].
Per chevron sable and argent three sea-bears counterchanged--FLOWERDEW, Norfolk.
Bearing: an expression very frequently used to signify a charge, or anything included within the escutcheon. The old French formula of speaking of the charges upon arms was 'il porte.'
Beasts, (fr. animaux): the ordinary beasts of the field, with others included under Mammalia, add considerably to the charges of Coats of Arms, as will be seen by the printed Synopsis. A general classification is given there, as a minute and accurate classification would be out of place. It will be found that there are between eighty and ninety varieties to be more or less distinguished both in the drawing and in the blazoning amongst modern coats of arms, but in the earlier arms there were few varieties. If, for instance, we take the wellknown roll of arms, temp. Henry III., containing over 200 arms, we find forty instance of the lion(including the leopard), and some few lioncels(as the lions are termed when there are several, or when they have to be drawn on a small scale); but beyond this, if we except an instance of boars' heads(borne by Adam de SWYNEBOURNE), no other beast in represented. And when we take the roll of the siege of Carlaverock, temp. Edw. I., containing over 100 coats of arms, and a fine roll, temp. Edw. II., containing over 1,000 coats, and a third roll, temp. Edw. III., containing over 600, the sun total of the mammals to be added to the above list amounts only to six, namely, the bear, the greyhound, and the dolphin, and the heads of goats, stags, and wolves. In time, however, the tiger and the panther(with the lynx and ounce) were added to the lion tribe, as also the cat. Besides the greyhound, other dogs were chosen, viz. the bloodhound, mastiff, spaniel, and the 'alant' and 'talbot.' The stag, too, was no longer represented by only one variety, and only one name, for we find the buck, the doe, the roebuck, the hart, the hind, and the reindeer; while the boar is known as sanglier, grice, and marcassin. On account of the fur the weasel was prized, and this, with the ermine, the foine, and the marten, as well as the civet(or civet-cat), appear on the arms. For the skin, too, the otter and the beaver, and for its quills the porcupine, seem to have been sought after, and to have been selected for charges on arms. From the north, the polar bear and the seal, the whale and the dolphin; while from other parts, the elephant, the rhinoceros, the buffalo, the camel, the antelope, and the ibex, provided subjects for the arms. At home, the goat and the sheep(the latter with the varieties of the lamb, the ram, and the toison, or fleece), the bull(with the varieties of ox, cow, and calf), the horse, the badger, and the fox were also added to the list. Nor were lesser animals overlooked, e.g. the hare and the rabbit, the squirrel, the hedgehog, the mole, and the rat, and lastly, the reremouse, or bat.
Beauseant. See Banner.
Beaver, (fr. and lat. castor), occurs in the insignia of BEVERLEY, Yorkshire, and in other arms where the name suggests it; but it is used more frequently as a crest.
Vert, on a base barry of five argent and azure two beavers, rampant combatant or--Thomas BEVERIDG, co. Chester, 1595.
Beaver, or Beauvoir: the part of the Helmet which opens to shew the face.
Or, a fesse azure between lions rampant in chief gules, and a beaver passant in base proper--BEAVER.
Argent, three beaver's tails[erect] gules--BEAVER.
Argent, a cross gules between four beavers passant proper--HUDSON BAY Company[Inc. 1670].
Bebally: a sword, now disused, for party per pale.
Beckit: a bird resembling a Cornish chough, q.v.
Bee, (fr. abeille): is always represented flying, with wings extended, and generally upwards, and this is sometimes expressed by erect, but more correctly en arriere, i.e. flying away from the spectator. The Hornet also occurs on one coat.
Azure, three bees volant erect or--BYE.
Bee-hive, (fr. ruche): this device was granted to a Cheshire family named ROWE during the Commonwealth, but was afterwards also granted to several other families. Both the bee and the bee-hive appear as crests.
Azure, three bees volant en arriere argent--BYE.
Sable, a chevron between three bees volant erect argent--SEWELL.
Azure, on a fesse argent a bee volant arriere sable--DE VERTHON.
Or, on a bend azure, three bees volant argent--BUTTERFIELD.
Gironny of eight ermine and gules, on each of the last a bee volant argent--CAMPBELL, Gargamock.
Sable, a hornet argent--BOLLARD.
Argent, a bee-hive, beset with bees diversely volant sable--ROWE.
Beech. Only one reference to this tree has been noticed.
Argent, a bee-hive, beset with bees volant proper--TREWEEK, Cornwall.
Ermine, a fesse sable between three bee-hives or--FRAYE.
Argent, on a bee-hive sable a hart lodged argent, attired or--SANDELLAYER, Stafford.
Azure, an eagle displayed argent, in his beak a branch of beech or; on a chief of the last a rose between two crosses bottonny gules--BULLINGHAM, Bp. of Gloucester, 1581-89.
Beetle: possibly this is but an error of some writer, who has mistaken the flies for beetles(as the name of the bearer suggests); however, the stag beetles(lucanidœ of naturalists) occur.
Argent, a chevron vert between three beetles proper--MUSCHAMP.
Beffroy, or Beffroy de vair: an old French term for vair.
Per pale gules and azure, three stag beetle's wings extended or--DOORE, Cornwall.
Belfry. See Bell.
Belic: an old word, now disused, for gules.
Bell, (fr. cloche), or as it is sometimes called a Church bell, is a large bell of the usual form. Smaller bells of a different shape are attached to the legs of hawks and falcons, q.v., when they are said to be belled; also to necks of bulls, &c. (fr. clariné).
When the clapper is of a different tincture it is to be so described(fr. bataillé). The cannon or ear may be also of a different tincture from the body or barrel of the bell.
Sable, three church bells argent--PORTER,
A belfry occurs as a crest to the family of PORTER, and in this a bell argent is represented as supported between two pillars roofed and spired or, and on the spire a vane of the last.
Sable, a fesse ermine between three bells argent--BELL.
Argent, three war bells gules--KEDMARSTON, co. Suffolk.
Azure, a lion rampant guardant within an orle of bells argent, cannoned or--OSNEY, co. Lincoln.
Sable, a doe passant between three bells argent--DOOBEL, Sussex, 1695.
Argent, on a cross gules five bells of the first--SEDGEWICKE, Cambridge.
Or, four bars sable; on three escutcheons argent as many church bells of the second, clappers of the first--HALL, Essex.
Belled: is applied to a hawk, or falcon, having bells affixed to its legs(fr. grilletté); or to other animals, e.g. cows, sheep, &c. (fr. clariné).
Bellows: these are of the usual form, and are borne with the pipes downwards.
Argent, three pair of bellows sable--SCIPTON.
Beloochee soldier. See Man.
Belt: this charge is but rarely borne, and usually only a small portion of the leather is shewn(as in the margin); hence it is often blazoned half a belt, and the buckles(fr. boucle) should be named as to position, tincture, &c. The belt worn over the shoulder, and crossing the chest and back, was termed anciently a baldrich or baudrick, and to the lower part was attached the sword. It is not borne by this name, but has been said, amongst other suppositions, to have been the origin of the bend.
Argent, a demy-belt fixed in fesse azure buckled edged and garnished or--BELTMAINE.
Bend, (fr. bande): the bend dexter is perhaps one of the most frequently used of Ordinaries, q.v., being a straight piece extending from the dexter corner to the opposite edge of the shield. It is said to derive its origin from the belt, baudrick or baldrick(Baltheus, Cingulum militare), which was once a mark of knighthood; other heralds, however, have seen in it the idea of a scaling-ladder. According to Legh and other heraldic writers, the bend should occupy one-third of the field when charged, and one-fifth when plain. In English arms the bend is always placed straight athwart the shield, and never bowed as in foreign arms: at the same time, in some late MSS. it is fancifully drawn with a curve, in order to represent the convexity of the shield.
Argent, three belts, the under parts couped in fesse azure, buckled and garnished or--NARBON.
Gules, two pieces of belts[otherwise half-belts] palewise, in fesse, argent, the buckles erect in chief or--PELHAM.
Gules, a bend argent--FOLIOT[or as it is written in a Roll of arms, temp. Henry III. 'Richard FOLIOTT, de goulz ung bend d'argent'].
A bend is very frequently subjected to a modification of its margin, and is engrailed, invected, indented, embattled, counter-embattled, bretessed, raguly, champaine(or warriated), nebuly, wavy; also bevilled, cotticed and fimbriated, all of which terms will be found explained.
William de GAUNT, barreé d'argent et d'azure, ung bend de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
John de VAUX, ung bend escheque d'argent et de goules--Ibid.
Gules, a bend ermine between six bezants--[? Sir Armoyne COUGHTE, from arms in Dorchester Church, Oxon.]
Robert WALROND, d'argent ung bend engrele de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
A bend is also frequently charged with various devices, and when charged upon the upper part this should be noticed, because when a bend is simply described as charged, it signifies it is so on the centre or fesse-point. All charges placed upon a bend, in bend, or between cottices, must stand bendwise, not perpendicularly. Even the furs follow this rule, although generally upright on all other ordinaries. Illustrations of bends besides those given in the present article will be found under compony, cottised, embowed, engrailed, fleury, pierced, raguly, wavy, and also bearing such charges as magnet, mullet, spear, wyvern, &c.
Sire Aleyn PLOKENOT, de ermyn a une bende engrele de goules--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Sir Johan de PENZRET, de goulys, a une bende batille[embattled] de argent--Ibid.
Gules, on the upper part of a bend between six crosses crosslet fitchy argent, an escutcheon or charged with a demi lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a tressure flory counter flory gules--HOWARD, Baron Howard, Earl of Surrey.
Bend archy, or bowed or embowed(q.v.), not found in English arms, only in the Continent, and more frequently in German arms; an example may be seen in the Crown of Rue, q.v.
Gules, on a bend between crosses botonny argent, a mullet in the point of the bend sable--Monsire de ORMESBY, Harl. MS. 6589.
Bend debruised, or fracted, otherwise dauncet, or downset: various forms are inserted in English heraldic books, but it may be questioned whether the old 'dancetty' was not quite distinct from the idea of the barbarous term downset.
De argent a une bande daunce de vert a ij coties daunce de goules Sir Edmund de KENDALE--Roll, AD. 1308-14(Lansd. MS. 855).
A bend may be composed of charges placed bendwise, e.g.
Azure, a bend double dancetty argent--LORKS.
Per bend fracted[in another MS. double dancetty] or and gules, two birds in bend sinister counterchanged--RAUFF.
Per bend sinister fracted[in another MS. double dancetty, and a third MS. rompu] argent and sable six martlets counterchanged--John ALLEYNE, Suffolk.
A bend of five lozenges combined or--Jon le MARESCAL, Harl. MS. 6137.
In bend is a term used when bearings are placed bendwise.
Per bend: see Party.
The diminutives of the bend are the bendlet, garter, or gartier, which is half width, the coat or cottice which is one-fourth, and the riband which is one-eighth.
Bend per. See Party.
Bend sinister, (fr. barre): an ordinary resembling the Bend is form, but extending from the sinister chief to the dexter base. It is, however, borne in English arms but rarely. Its diminutives are the scarpe, which is half its width, and the baton(q.v.), which is half as wide as the scarpe and couped.
Argent, a bend sinister gules--BIZZET, Scotland.
According to Nisbet, bends sinister were formerly much borne in Scotland, but have generally been changed to dexter bends of late, from a mistaken notion that they always betokened illegitimacy. It is the sinister baton(or diminutive bend couped), which alone conveys this disgrace, In Germany the bend is borne almost as frequently sinister as dexter.
Or, a bend sinister azure--TRYE[originally from France].
Argent, three bendlets engrailed sable; over all a scarpe gules--BLAGE, Kent.
Bendlet: a diminutive of the bend, nominally half the width of that ordinary, though often much narrower. In old French rolls there does not seem to be any distinction, as frequently two and three 'bends' are blazoned as on the shield. According to Guillim, a single bendlet should be placed as in the sketch in the margin, which position, however, is not observed in practice. A bendlet azure over a coat was of old frequently used as a mark of cadency. It appears sometimes to be called a garter, and by Planché a 'cotice single,' (which cannot be).
Argent, a bendlet gules--BOTRINGHAM, Another branch bears three bendlets.
Bendlets are occasionally enhanced or placed in chief sinister. They are also subject to the same variations as the bend, both as to margin and as to charges.
Or, two bendlets azure--DOYLEY, Oxfordshire.
Argent, a bendlet gules; over all a cross or--GALLWAY, Ireland.
Argent, three bendlets enhanced gules--BYRON, co. York.
There are cases where the word 'baston' is used for 'bendlet,' e.g. in the arms of SEGRAVE. The glass existing in Dorchester Abbey Church, Oxon, exhibits the ancient drawing of the 'baston' of the roll, which may well be contemporary with the glass.
Argent, two bendlets, one enhanced, the other in base azure; over all a saltire gules--DORIEN.
Or, three bendlets enhanced gules--GRYLLS, Cornwall.
Gules, three bendlets enhanced or--GREILEY[or Gresley], Lord of Manchester. [Also City of MANCHESTER.]
Argent, three bendlets crenellé sable--H. DE COSTELLO, Bp. of Hereford, 1504.
Gules, on two bendlets or, six fleur-de-lis vert--DRAPER.
Sir Walter de FRENES, de goules a ij bendes endentes de or et de azure, le un en le autre--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Sire Henri de SEGRAVE, de sable, a un lion rampand de argent[corone de or] e un baston de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Bendwise, or bendways: when the charge is placed lengthways in the middle of the shield, like a bend. Cf. barwise.
Argent, Robert de WELLE, d'argent ov deux bastons(=bendlets) de goules besante d'or. Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Bendy, (fr. bandé): said of a field or charge divided bendwise into an even number of equal parts; or, as it may be otherwise described, as a field bearing a series of diagonal stripes of alternate tinctures(and liable to the same variations of the edges as the bend), but so that there is an equal number of each. It stands to reason that if the same tincture appears in chief as in base, the shield must be blazoned as a field bearing so many bendlets. As a rule, the first tincture is named; but in the case of a metal and colour, though the latter is first in order, the metal is to be first named.
Monsire de MONTFORT port bende de X. peces d'or et d'azure--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Bendy sinister(fr. barré), with the lines drawn from the left-hand upper or sinister corner of the shield, is rarely found.
Monsire de St.PHILIBERT port bende de VI. peces d'argent et d'asur--Roll, temp. EDW. III.
Bendy of six, champaine purple and argent--BOWBRIDGE.
Bendy wavy of six, argent and azure--PLATER, Suffolk.
Bendy sinister of eight, gules and argent--SCUBERSDORF, Bavaria.
Bendy barry: this practically amounts to Barry bendy, before described, and of which illustrations have been given.
Bendy sinister of ten, azure and or--Piers de MOUNTFORTH.
Bendy barry of eight, gules and or--HOLLAND.
Bendy paly, or Paly bendy. According to the late Mr.Wyatt Papworth(from whose MS. note-book these illustrations are taken) Paly bendy is the better term, since, although it is not known to occur, the same might have to be drawn Paly bendy sinister.
Bendy barry argent and gules--CRISPIN, co. Lincoln.
As will be seen, it is a combination of bendy and paly, less accurately called sometimes Lozengy bendy.
Bendy paly of eight? or and azure, a canton ermine--BUCK(Bart.), Linc.
Bendy lozengy, and Bendy lozengy sinister: lozengy, each lozenge being placed in bend, or in bend sinister.
Bendy paly or and azure--BUCK, Agecroft Hall, Manchester.
Bendy paly argent and gules--SYDENHAM.
Paly bendy gules and azure, martlets in orle or--HENDLEY.
Bendy lozengy or and gules--Isabel, daughter of Aylmer, Earl of ANGOULEME, and wife of King John.
Bendy dexter and sinister would appear as in the margin, that is, the lines would produce squares, which would be similar to those of a field chequy, only placed diamond wise. They would differ from lozengy, q.v., which is more of a diamond shape, and fusilly, which is still narrower. An illustration is here given, but it is, we believe, a theoretical coat, and not one actually borne.
Bendy lozengy, argent and sable--CROFTS, co. Lancaster.
Bendy lozengy(? paly) of eight, or and azure--BUCK, co. Lincoln.
Bendy lozengy barry, sable and or--IPRE.
Bendy lozengy barry or and sable--CANCELLOR.
Bendy lozengy(? paly), argent and azure--BAVARIA[Sandford's Genealogical History].
Bendy pily or pily bendy: divided into an even number of pieces by piles placed bendwise across the escutcheon. Although this seems to be referred to in several books on heraldry, no example has been found by way of illustration. The engravings here given, like the others illustrating the varieties of the fesse and bend in conjunction with other lines of partition, are from sketches by the late Mr.Wyatt Papworth.
Béqué. or becqué(fr.): beaked.
Berly: disused term for Barruly.
Bernak: old name for Barnacle.
Besom. See Brush.
Betony leaf, (Betonica officinalis of Linnæus): a common wood-plant of the nettle tribe, appears in a solitary instance, unless the bethune leaf is the same.
Or, a betony proper--BETTY.
Bevilly(fr. bevillé), or bevilled: a term of doubtful origin, and omitted by most writers on heraldry. It signifies a kind of break forming a bevel, or acute angle. It is applied to the chief, bend, &c.
Azure, on a fesse between three lozenges or, a bethune leaf slipped vert--BETHUNE, Nethertarvit.
Or, a chief bevily vert--BEVERLY.
Bezant, Besant(fr.), or besaunte=a Roundlet or. It represents the gold coin of Byzantium(Constantinople), and should therefore be drawn flat. It is said that this money, once current, had no device whatever stamped on it. This and the other roundles were no doubt introduced into English heraldry by the crusaders. The French term it Besant d'or, while they call the plate, Besant d'argent; they also write Besant de gueules when the Roundle(q.v.) is red.
Gules, a bend bevilled or--BOVILE.
Per pale beviled azure and or--ALTHAM.
Gules, three bezants--DYNGHAM.
Bezanty, (fr. besanté): signifies semé of bezants, and is usually applied to bordures, but is may be applied to other ordinaries, as well as to the field itself.
Monsire de WORSELEY port[d'argent, une bend entre vi merletts gules] a trois besands en la bend--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Le Conte de CORNEWAIL argent, ung Lion de goulz coronne or, ung borde de sable besante d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III. [i.e. Richard PLANTAGENET, king of the Romans, and earl of CORNWALL, son of King John].
Bible. See Book.
Monsire Alen de ZOUCH port gules besante--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Argent, a fret of six pieces bezanty--WYKE.
Azure, bezanty--BESLET, BYSSETT, BYSET, &c.
Bicapitated: having two heads.
Bicorporated: having two bodies, e.g. of a lion.
Bigarré, (fr.): of variegated colours, e.g. of a butterfly.
Bill, or Wood-bill, (A.-Saxon Bil): an instrument used by woodmen for the purpose of lopping trees. The head alone is more frequent as a charge than the entire instrument. The wood-bill, as represented in fig. 2, occurs in the arms of FUST, and is more probably intended for an impalement of war. For Stone-bill, see Wedge.
Ermine, two wood-bills sable with long handles proper in saltire a chief azure ...... &c.--William BILL, D. D. ob. 1561.
Billet, (fr. billette): a small oblong figure. In architecture blocks of a similar shape bear this name, and are frequent in Ionic and Corinthian, and are continued Norman, mouldings; but while they are in architecture either exact square or else cylindrical, in heraldry they are brick-shaped, and should be drawn twice as long as wide. The theory that it was meant to represent a written letter(i.e. modern French 'billet') will scarcely bear examination. The term rarely appears in ancient rolls as a separate charge, but often under the term billette.
Ermine, three bills sable--DENNYS, Devon.
Argent, three wood-bills in sable--GIBBES.
Sable, three bill-heads(like fig. 1) argent--LEVERSEGE.
Or, three billets gules--MERLING.
They are not always straight-sided, being sometimes raguled, and this possibly illustrates the original meaning, namely, that they were blocks of wood cut with the bill, or woodman's axe. An example of a carved stone billet also occurs.
Gules, ten billets, 4, 3, 2, and 1 or, within a bordure engrailed argent, charged with ten torteaux--SALTER.
Monsire Bartholomew GABRIEL, or, a vi billetts sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Argent, a billet, raguled and trunked sable, inflamed in three places proper--BILLETTES.
Billetty, (fr. Billetté), i.e. semé of billets: this occurs frequently in ancient rolls of arms. It is agreed that the term 'billetty' involves that there should be at least ten in the field, and they should be placed in rows barwise, not one beneath the other, but alternately, and leaving the corners sufficiently distant so as not to be mistaken for chequy.
Argent, three stone billets carved gules--BILLERBERG.
Azure, semé of billets, and a lion rampant or--Earl of ROCHFORD. [These are the NASSAU arms.]
Billetty counter billetty is a mode of blazoning barry and paly, when the divisions of the former are as wide again as those of the latter, so as to be distinguished from chequy.
Mahewe de LOVAYNE, goules billete d'or, une fece d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Geffrey GACELYN, d'or billety de sable, ung label de goules--Ibid.
William de ST.OMER D'azure, billety d'or a ung face d'or--Ibid.
Billetty counter billetty gules and argent--BILLINGER.
Biparted. See Cross, §8.
Birch, (lat. betula): Birch branches and leaves occur in one or two canting arms.
Gules .... &c., a chief embattled argent, with three nine-leaved birch branches vert--BYRCH, Essex.
Birdbolt. See Arrow.
Sable, a fesse between three birch-leaves argent--BURCHE, Devon.
Or, three birch-twigs sable--BIRCHES.
Birds. The birds, as will be seen by the Table in the Appendix, are as varied in their names as the Beasts, though it is doubtful if the same variety could be detected in the actual emblazonment of the arms. As in the case of the beasts, in the ancient rolls of arms comparatively few varieties of Birds occur, and further the arms in which birds appear are not to be compared in number with those in which the beasts occur, amongst which the lion and leopard are so general. The little martlet is the most frequent, which is the Roll of Henry III., referred to under Beasts, occurs in eight coats of arms, the eagle in two, the popinjay in two, the raven, heron, and cock respectively in one coat. And if we go further through the same rolls before referred to, viz. Edw. I., II., and III., though the number of arms bearing the above is considerably increased, we add only two additional names to the list, the falcon, and pinzon.
But in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and more especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the list becomes swollen to over one hundred varieties at least in name. For it will be observed that in very many cases the name is adopted for the sake of the pun, and often a mere local name is given, such as the beckit for A'BECKET, and the like. All will be found mentioned under the forty articles or so represented by the names printed in the Synopsis in the italic type.
There are some few cases in which a bird is named, but no designation of what the bird is, and when so referred to it should be drawn in the form of the blackbird. Thus:--
Gules, a bird standing upon an apple or--CONHAM, Wilts.
According to heralds, birds, unless the contrary is specified, are to be emblazoned with their wings close, as it is termed, except in the case of the eagle, when it would be drawn with wings displayed. But there is much variety of terminology applied to the mode of representing birds, and, according to theoretical heraldry, by a combination of the following terms the variety may be increased almost ad infinitum. For instance, a bird might be represented as: 1. Close; and beneath this the following varieties,--cl. embowed, cl. preying, cl. in full aspect, cl. aspectant, or at gaze, cl. in trian aspect, and cl. in trian aspect at gaze, 2. Displayed; under this, displ. erect, displ. inverted, displ. with double head, displ. without wings, displ. in majesty, displ. surgeant. 3. Expansed; and under this exp. elevated, exp. sepurture, exp. disclosed. Examples of one or two of the above will be found under Eagle, Falcon, &c., but practically the terms more frequently met with are less technical; e.g. a bird is regardant, or recursant, perched, standing, sitting, feeding, pecking, preying or trussing, pruning its wings, rising, volant, singing, croaking(of ravens), and pendent when dead and hanging. Again, a bird may be membered, collared, armed, crested, beaked, legged, jelloped, and combed(of cocks) of a different tincture; birds may also be jessed, hooded, and belled(of falcons), and vulned, or in piety(of pelicans). References are also frequently made to the wings, head, &c., which still further add to the variety of description.
Gules, a bird on a rock proper--ROCK.
Birt-fish. See Turbot.
Bishop: In ancient times the bishops and other ecclesiastics frequently took a vigorous part in military affairs, and hence in the insignia borne by sees and by religious houses the ordinary military charges appear. In modern times the Mitre(q.v.) has taken the place of the helmet and crest upon all episcopal arms. The bishop impales the arms of the see with his paternal coat, the former on the dexter, the latter on the sinister side. (See Achievements and Marshalling.)
A figure of a bishop, also in his pontifical vestments, occurs in the arms of the see of CLOGHER, as well as in those of some of the Scotch sees.
Azure, a bishop[some say S.Michael] mitred and vested standing in the porch of a church, the dexter hand elevated praying over a cauldron on a fire, and containing three children all proper; in his sinister hand a crozier or--See of ABERDEEN.
Bisse, (fr., Ital., biscia): a kind of snake. See Serpent.
Bit, Manage: a charge in the armorial ensigns of the LORINERS or bit-makers.
Azure, on a chevron argent, between three manage-bits or, as many bosses sable--Company of LORINERS. [Founded temp. HEN. VII., but incorporated 1712.]
Snaffle-bit. This appears to be distinguished from the manage-bit, and is thus represented.
Sable, three snaffle-bits or--MILNER, Pudsey, Yorksh., [also of London, 1633-4].
Boss of a bit: this is another charge in the same arms of the Company of BIT-MAKERS, as will be seen above, and it is represented as shewn in the margin.
Bittern. See Heron.
Bl. An abbreviation of the word blue, often found in sketches or tricking of arms of for azure. B. alone is preferable.
Black: always blazoned sable.
Black-cock. See Heath-cock.
Blackamoor's head. See Head.
Blackbird, (fr. merle): this is the merula vulgaris of naturalists. It is borne by several families. By the first named below it was probably chosen from the sound of the Latin name.
Azure, three blackbirds proper[and in other arms of same family with a chief dancetty sable]--MELLOR, co. Derby.
Bladed, (fr. tigé): an expression used when the blade or sprout of any grain is of a different tincture.
Argent, a blackbird singing perched upon a vine vert, thereon a bat or--RONAYNE, co. Waterford.
Vert, a cross raguly humetty or, on a chief of the last three blackbirds proper--BECK, Surrey: granted 1864.
Argent, on a chevron azure between three blackbirds proper, a crescent enclosed by two cinquefoils or--SLEIGH, Scotland.
Blanc, white: see argent, but used sometimes perhaps for ermine.
Blasted: leafless, applies to trees.
Blazon, (fr. Blason): a word which, whatever may be the derivation and original meaning, now signifies to describe a coat of arms in such a manner that an accurate drawing may be made from the description. In order to do so, a knowledge of the tinctures, ordinaries, charges, and points of the shield is particularly necessary.
1. In blazoning a coat of arms the first thing to be mentioned is the FIELD, whether it be of one tincture, as Gules; or parted, as Per fesse; Per pale; or Quarterly(and then add 'first,' or 'first and fourth'), &c.; or if it be of any of the patterns frequently used, as Checquy, Bendy, Fretty, &c.; or if the field be semé, or strewed with any small charges without regard to number(and they are to be named next after the field itself), always naming the tincture or tinctures.
Azure, semé of trefoils argent, a lion rampant of the last--HOLLAND.
2. The principal ORDINARY is next to be mentioned, with its peculiarities of form(if any) and tincture, as.
Gules, a saltire argent--NEVILL, Earl of Warwick.
3. The CHARGES, if any there be, between which the ordinary is placed, are next to be mentioned, as,
Azure, a chevron or--D'AUBERNOUN, Surrey.
Argent, a bend engrailed sable--RADCLIFFE, Sussex.
Per saltire argent and azure, a saltire gules--GAGE, Hengrave, Suffolk.
Gules, a chevron between three mullets of six points, pierced, or--DANVERS, Northamp.
Of the charges placed above, below, or beside the principal bearing, whether on sinister or dexter side; those in chief are named before those in base, and those on the dexter take precedence of those on the sinister.
Or, a fesse between three lions rampant gules--BANNERTON, Salop.
Argent, two bars gules, in chief three torteaux--WAKE, Linc.
If there be no ordinary, the principal charge, or the charge or charges which cover the fesse-point, or are in the midst of the field, should first be named, and any charge whose position is not specially mentioned, or at least implied to be otherwise, is understood to be in the middle of the shield.
Gules, three hands holding respectively a crown a key and a purse or--Arms ascribed to NIGELLUS, Bp. of Ely, 1133-69.
Azure, two organ-pipes between four crosses patée or--Lord WILLIAMS of Thame.
If there be no charges of the kinds already mentioned, whatever charges there may be must be named after the field, notice being taken of their position with regard to one another, as.
Sable, a lion passant guardant or, between three esquire's helmets argent--COMPTON, Northamp.
Azure, two trumpets pileways between eight crossed crosslets 3, 3, 2, or--TRUMPINGTON.
Sable, three ducal coronets in pale or--The see of BRISTOL.
When three charges are borne two and one it is superfluous to say so, as they are always to be drawn in that position if no other be mentioned. Example:--
Azure, ten estoils, four three, two, one, or--ALSTON, Beds.
Sable, fifteen bezants, five, four, three, two, and one--County of CORNWALL.
Or, three torteaux--COURTENAY.
Consequently the arms of England, when the three lions are one beneath the other, are not rightly blazoned, unless they are said to be in pale.
It is also highly necessary to describe the position of each charge individually, whenever there is the possibility of a mistake. It would of course be quite superfluous to describe a crescent or a billet as erect, because that is their natural position, but there are many charges which may be placed several ways with equal propriety: keys, for instance, may be in pale, (palewise in pale is implied), barwise in pale, bendwise in pale, palewise in fesse, and in many other positions which it would be useless to enumerate here. The wards need not be described as turned to the dexter, because that is their ordinary position, though they are often endorsed.
4. Next come charges upon the ordinary or central charge, as.
Argent, on a fesse sable, between three hawks rising proper, a leopard's face between two mullets or--STONEHOUSE, Radley, Berks.
5. The BORDURE and the charges thereon are next to be mentioned.
6. The CANTON or CHIEF with all charges upon them are to be emblazoned next.
Sable, on a cross engrailed argent, a lion passant gules, between four leopard's faces azure; on a chief or, a rose of the third, seeded of the fifth, barbed vert, between two Cornish choughs proper--The arms of Cardinal WOLSEY, now borne by CHRIST CHURCH, Oxford.
It often happens that one ordinary or charge is superimposed over some other or others, and this, if so, should be named last, and expressed by the term over all.
7. Lastly come the DIFFERENCES or marks of cadency, and the baronet's badge.
In blazon repetition should be avoided: the name of a tincture should never be used twice in describing the same coat. To avoid this it is customary to say of the third, of the field, &c., as in the arms of WOLSEY above. If the field be all of one tincture, a charge of the same may be said to be of the field, but otherwise of the first or second. Some heralds of the seventeenth century used the word gold to avoid the repetition of or. The word silver was, though less frequently, used for argent.
If two charges consecutively named are of the same tincture, the tincture mentioned after the latter serves for both, as in the arms of DANVERS and STONEHOUSE given above; but except in very simple cases it is better to name the tincture after the former, describing the latter as of the last.
The way to avoid the repetition of numbers may be shewn by the following example--
Sable, on a chevron or, between three estoiles of the second(or last), as many crosses pattée fitchée gules--Archbishop LAUD.
While conciseness in blazoning is sought after, it should never be forgotten that the best blazon is that which is the most perspicuous. Tautology and diffuseness in describing a coat of arms are undoubtedly faults, but ambiguity is a much greater one. In the choice of technical terms, English ones are in general to be preferred to French, and those whose signification is undisputed to those which have different meanings.
It may perhaps, be mentioned with greater propriety here than elsewhere, that every charge in which there is the distinction of front and back is ordinarily to be turned towards the dexter side of the escutcheon, unless directed to be placed otherwise(see Counter-couchant, &c.); but in banners the charges should be turned towards the staff, and upon the caparison of a horse towards his head. In the oldest plates remaining in the stalls of the knights of the garter, at S.George's Chapel, Windsor, all the shields and charges are inclined towards the alter, so that those on the north side are turned contrary to the usual practice.
Blemished: having an abatement. A sword having the point broken off may be said to be blemished or rebated.
Blind: without an eye; applied to the quatrefoil and cinquefoil, when not pierced.
Block. See Metal, Cube, and Delf.
Block-brush. See Brush.
Blood-colour: the term Bloody, which occurs at times in the works of some old heraldic writers(as a bloody hand, heart, &c.) does not seem to signify sanguine but gules. The Latin blodius also is probably to be interpreted the same, though there are instances in which blodius is presumed to be used for 'blue,' i.e. azure.
Bloodhound. See Dog.
Blue: always blazoned Azure, though in tricking the b is used.
Blue-bottle: the flower of the cyanus, and the bright blue occupant of the corn-field has been chosen in one or two instances for armorial bearings.
Argent, a chevron gules, between three blue-bottles slipped and leaved proper--BOTHELL.
In one coat of arms(Harl. MS. 2151, fol. 110) heydoddes are named. As they appear to be a kind of flower, and are blazoned azure, possibly blue-bottles are meant.
Argent, a chevron between three blue-bottles azure couped vert--CHORLEY.
Argent, a chevron gules between three heydoddes azure slipped vert--DODD.
Boar: this word implies the wild-boar, and occurs perhaps more frequently in Scottish than in English coats of arms. It was called with the old heralds sanglier. A young wild-boar is termed a Grice, and is borne by families of that name. The term Marcassin is also used for a young wild-boar, and this should be represented with tail hanging down, instead of twisted. The term Hog and Porc are also employed.
The boar, besides being represented in the various ways common to other animals, e.g. passant, rampant, statant, &c., may be represented enraged. It may also be represented crined, tusked, cleyed, membered, unguled, armed, bristled, &c.
More frequently the heads(fr. hure) were borne than the whole animal, and are represented as lying lengthways, unless expressed otherwise. The snout(fr. boutoi) is in some French arms of a different tincture. It should be stated whether the heads are couped or erased.
Argent, a boar passant gules armed or--TREWARTHEN.
Boars are sometimes found as supporters, e.g. as dexter supporter in the arms of Garden CAMPBELL, Perth, and in one MS. they are seen as supporters to the royal arms of Richard III. This same king had, when Duke of Gloucester, adopted the boar as his badge, and it is supposed from this that he called one of his heralds Blanch Senglier. The wild-boar is also occasionally used as a crest, as well as the Boar's head.
Vert, a boar or--BOAR.
Argent, on a bend sable three grices passant of the first--GRICE.
Argent, on a mount vert a boar passant sable crined or--KELLET, co. Cork.
Argent, a fesse between two boars passant sable tusked, cleyed, and membered or; on the fesse a rose between two eagles displayed of the fourth--BUSHE, Bp. of Bristol, 1542-54.
Argent, a boar passant sable enraged and unguled gules--PERROT.
Or, a hog lying fesswise, a raven feeding on his back sable--DANSKINE, Scotland.
Argent, a chevron between three porcs sable--SWYNETHWAYTE.
Argent, three boar's heads couped sable armed or--CRADOCK.
Argent, a chevron between three boar's heads erased azure--COCHRANE.
Argent, a chevron between three boars sable--BERHAM, also SWYNEY.
Adam de SWYNEBOURNE, de goules a trois testes de senglier argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de SWYNEFORD d'argent a iij testes de cenglers de goulys--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Johan de WYNSINGTONE, de sable iij testes de senglier de argent--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
Boat: besides the larger ships q.v., which are somewhat frequent, there are smaller vessels of various kinds used as charges, which may better be classed with the boat. Lighter-boat, open boat, bark, skiff, and raft. Boat-hooks, also the boat-oars are borne separately. A common boat is the crest of the family of AMES.
Sable, in base on open boat with oars in a sea proper, on a chief argent three crescents vert--MACNAB.
Bodkin, See Needle.
Barry, wavy of six argent and azure, on the middle bar a boat or; on a chief of the second two oars in saltire of the third between two cushions of the first tasselled or--Company of WATERMEN[Inc. 1556].
Or, a lighter-boat in fesse gules, [in one blazoning, a lighter vessel without masts]--DE WOLFO, Swevland. Azure, three barks or--AYER.
Argent, a boar .... a skiff with oars sable between the two in base--O'MALLEY, co. Mayo.
Gules, a raft or float removed or--BRETVILL.
Per pale gules and or, two boar-oars in saltire azure--TORRANCE.
Bolt. See Arrow and Fetterlock.
Boltant, or Bolting: said of a hare or rabbit springing forward.
Bomb-shell. See Fire-ball.
Bones: it is singular that human bones should be so frequently chosen as devices for coats of arms, and it will be found that they are separated into varieties in the blazoning, though probably the shank bone, thigh bone, and leg bone are generally intended for the same, viz. the femur. By the shin bone is probably meant the tibia.
Sable, two shin-bones in saltire, proper, the sinister surmounted by the dexter--NEWTON.
So far as has been observed in all cases the bones are intended for human bones.
[Another branch of the family appears to bear the sinister uppermost.]
Sable, a shin-bone in pale, proper, surmounted of another in fesse--BAYNES, Cumb. [The family seem to have borne originally a saltire.]
Sable, two shank-bones in cross, that in pale surmounting the one in fesse argent--BAINES, York.
Or three broken shank-bones fesswise in pale gules--DE COSTA.
The human skull, or death's head, also is borne, but not frequently. The jaw-bone also occurs occasionally.
Argent, on a chevron gules, three human skulls of the first--BOLTER.
In Achievements a skull is sometimes placed over the shield instead of the crest, to signify that the deceased is the last of his line.
Sable, a chevron between three human skulls argent--BOULTER.
Paly of six, or and gules, a jaw-bone in pale azure--DAMBOYS.
Bonnet: the ordinary bonnet appears to be borne only in the insignia of a Company.
Argent, a fesse between three bonnets azure, impaled with or a chevron gules between three woolpacks proper--Company of BONNETMAKERS, Edinburgh.
The velvet cap of crimson, within a coronet, q.v., is also called a bonnet.
Bonnet, Electoral: a cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, This was borne over the arms of Hanover until some time after the erection of that state into a kingdom in 1814, when a crown was substituted in its stead.
Bonnet, Albanian. See Cap.
Book: books are borne in arms, either open, as in those of the University of Oxford, or closed, as in those of the University of CAMBRIDGE and the Company of STATIONERS. Their position, and clasps or seals, if they have any, should be mentioned.
Azure, on an open book proper, having on the dexter side seven seals or[Rev. V. 1], between three ducal coronets of the last the words DOMINVS ILLVMINATIO MEA. (PS. xxvii. 1.)--UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
Amongst Books the Bible is the one most frequently mentioned by name.
[Previous to King James' reign SAPIENTIA ET FELICITATE occur(e.g. in glass in Bodleian Library, and in a typographical device, 1585). Still earlier, in a typographical device, the motto on the books runs VERITAS LIBERABIT BONITAS REGNABIT.]
Argent, three books closed gules, leaved, clasped, and garnished or--PAYNTER, Norfolk.
Gules, a clasped book upon between three buck's heads erased or--Seal of John BUCKNER[Bp. of Chichester, 1798-1824].
Vert, in chief, the holy Bible expanded proper, in base a sand-glass running argent--JOASS, Scotland.
The Music, or Song-book, borne by the parish clerks of London, is of oblong form, and similar to that in the margin. Musical lines also occur, consisting of five parallel lines of music extending across the shield horizontally.
Argent, on a fesse gules, three Bibles of the second garnished or, a falcon volant between two suns of the last--SLAMBERG.
Argent, an eagle displayed double-headed sable, armed gules, on a chief azure a book of the Holy Scriptures, open proper, stringed or--W. MORGAN, Bp. of Llandaff, 1549.
Azure, on a chevron or between three Bibles fessewise, clasp downwards gules, garnished and leaved of the second, an eagle rising proper enclosed by two red roses seeded or barbed vert; from the chief a demi-circle of glory edged with clouds proper, therein a dove displayed and nimbed argent--Company of STATIONERS, London[Incorporated 1556].
Argent, a chevron azure between three pheons gules; on a chief of the second an open Holy Bible proper edged and sealed or, inscribed, Proverbs, cap. xxii. ver. 6, enclosed by two crosses flory of the last--JOHNSON.
Azure, a fleur-de-lis or; on a chief gules a leopard's head between two song-books(shut) of the second, stringed vert--Company of PARISH CLERKS, [Inc. 1233, arms granted 1582.]
Boot: the boot is referred to under different designations, e.g. the Irish brogue, the Dutch boot, Antique boot, &c.: with these should be named the shoe.
Azure, on a fesse argent 5 musical lines sable charged with a rose gules, and two escallops of the third in chief .... &c.--TETLOW, Lancaster. [Arms granted, 1760.]
Argent, two bars wavy azure, on a chief of the second an open music-book or between two swords in saltire of the first hilted and pommelled of the third--THE ACADEMY OF THE MUSES, London.
Books also occur in the arms of Dean and Chapter of RAPHOE.--College of S.Mary at Manchester in LANCASTER.--Company of SCRIVENERS, London; and in those of the families of CONROY, co. Montgomery.--JOASS, Scotland.--GRANT.--SMITH, Edinburgh.--EVANTS, Norwich.--B. PORTEOUS, Bp. of Chester, 1777.--FARDELL, co. Lincoln, and many others.
Argent, a boot sable, top turned down or, soled gules--BOOT.
Bordure, (fr.) or Border: this bearing, which is reckoned among the sub-ordinaries, occupies one-fifth of the field. It is generally used as the mark of a younger branch of a family. Charged bordures in ancient armoury are supposed to allude to maternal descent. In some cases they are possibly augmentations. It is, however, evident from the bordure being sometimes the only charge in a coat, that it is a distinct and original bearing.
Or, three boots sable--HUSSEY.
Argent, three antique boots sable, spurs or--MANN.
Argent, two Dutch boots, the soles erect, embowed at the knee and endorsed sable, issuant out of a pile in base vert, spurred or--BOOTE.
Argent, a shoe proper, on a canton per chevron gules and ermine, three covered cups or, two and one--O'HAGAN.
Argent, three men's boots sable--COKER, co. Dorset.
Gules, a chevron between three brogues or--ARTHURE, Ireland.
Ermine, a bordure gules--HUNDESCOTE.
The bordure is placed over all ordinaries, except the chief, the quarter, and the canton, which invariably surmount it, with perhaps some few exceptions, which are in such cases to be specially described.
Or, a bordure vair--GWINE, or GYNES.
Ermine, a bordure compony or and sable--RENDELL, Harl. MS., 1441.
Azure, a chief paly of six gules and or within a bordure engrailed sable--KEITH, Scotland.
When a coat having a bordure is impaled with another coat the bordure may be omitted where they join. [See Impaling.] If it charged with eight bezants(for example) only three whole ones will be seen, and two halves. Quartered coats, on the other hand, should retain their bordures entire.
Quarterly gules and or a bordure counterchanged; over all a chevron vair--FENWYKE.
Quarterly, first and fourth France and England quartered within a bordure argent; second and third or, a chevron gules--STAFFORD, Duke of Buckingham.
When a bordure is bezanté, billetté, or the like, the number of bezants or billets is generally eight, unless some other number is particularized. The arms of Richard, King of the Romans, are represented sometimes with eight, sometimes with more, bezants, q.v.
Bordure charged with bends(blazoned bendy), bars chevrons, or other ordinaries, shew only those portions of the charges which would have fallen upon the bordure if it had composed a part of a field so charged.
The line of the bordure may be indented(e.g. DE VERE), wavy, embattled, engrailed, recerselé, &c.
It may also be chequy lozengy, vair, and the like.
Sire Hue de VEER quartile de or e de goules a un molet de argent od la bordure endente de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
A bordure compony should consist of sixteen pieces. It was supposed to have been a mark of illegitimacy, in cases where a natural son has succeeded by bequest to the estates of his father.
John le FITZ GEFFREY, esquartele d'or et de goules, a la bordur de verree[i.e. vair]--Roll, HEN. III.
William de SAY, autiel[i.e. the same] sans le bordure--Ibid.
Bordure enaluron: a name given to one charged with eight birds of any kind, and it may be blazoned an enaluron of(say) eagles, which would imply that it was a border, and that it was charged with eight eagles. The word is probably only a corruption of the French en orle.
Analogous to the above is the Bordure entoyer or entier: charged with eight figures of any kind, except animals or plants, and Bordure verdoy, charged with eight leaves of flowers.
Gules, three garbs, within a bordure engrailed or, entoyré or pomeis--KEMP.
Bordure enurney, charged with eight beasts, and so bordure of England is a gules, enurney of lions, i.e. charged with eight lions of England.
Or, a lion rampant azure armed and langued argent, within a bordure of the second entowry of mitres-gold--William of S.Mary-Church, Bp. of LONDON, 1199-1221.
Le Comte de RUGEMOND les armes de GARENE a un quarter de ermine, od la bordure de Engleterre--Roll, temp. ED. II.
The Bordure of France is azure, charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or: and the Bordure of Scotland is the double tressure flory counter flory gules, or more probably, a bordure or, charged with such a tressure.
The bordure has no diminutive, but it is said that one may be surmounted by another of half its width. It is not the same as the Orle, though so used by some writers.
Boson. See Arrow.
Boss. See Bit.
Boteroll, (fr. bouterolle). See Scabbard, under Sword.
Botonné, See cross, §14.
Bottle, Leather: borne only by the Company.
Argent, on a chevron between three leather-bottles sable, as many bugle-horns stringed of the first--Company of BOTTLE-MAKERS and HORNERS[Incorporated 1638].
Bouclé, (fr.): buckled, i.e. having a buckle; e.g. of a collar.
Bourchier's-knot. See Cords.
Bourdon. See Pilgrim's Staff.
Bourdonné: terminating in a round knob, or pomel. See Cross pomellée, §29.
Bout, or Bouse, and bouz: contracted forms of water-bouget.
Boutonné, (fr.): of flowers, having the centre, or bouton, of a different tincture.
Bow, (fr. Arc): the long-bow, hand-bow, or string-bow, and the cross-bow(fr. arbalette), as well as arrows, are of frequent occurrence in coat-armour. In one case the term stone-bow occurs, in allusion to the name; in another, an antique-bow. Their position should be mentioned, and also whether they are strung of a different tincture. The bowstring also occurs alone.
Ermine three long bows, in fesse gules--BOWES.
Bowed. See Embowed.
Argent, a chevron between three stone-bows sable--HURLESTONE.
Azure, an antique bow in fesse and arrow in pale argent--MULLER.
Azure, a bowstring in fesse fretted with eight arrows interlaced in bend dexter and sinister, argent and feathered or--Town of SHEFFIELD.
Gules, two long bows bent and interlaced in saltire or stringed argent, between four bezants each charged with a fleur-de-lis azure--REBOW, Essex, 1685.
Sable, a hand-bow in bend between two pheons argent--CARWARDING, Hertford.
Sable, two string-bows endorsed in pale or, garnished gules, between two bundles of arrows in fesse, three in each, gold, barbed and headed argent, tied as the third--BENBOW, Scotland.
Argent, two bows one within the other in saltire gules, strung or--BOWMAN.
Ermine, a cross-bow bent in pale gules--ALBASTER, Stafford.
Ermine, a cross-bow bent point downwards, between three moorcocks sable--HIGHMORE, Cumberland, temp. HEN. IV.
Bowens-knot. See Cords.
Bower. See Wood.
Bowl: called open or standing-bowls, and in one case wassail-bowls. They are represented as ordinary bowls.
Or, two bars gules, on a chief argent three open bowls of the second, the insides of the third--HALGHTON.
Boy. See Child.
Azure, three standing-bowls argent, out of each a boar's head or--BOWLES, co. Lincoln.
Gules, on a bend sable, three wassail bowls or--CHRISTMAS, Kent.
Braced, written brased, embraced, brazed: i.e. interlaced, as the chevronels in the arms here figured, or as the annulets, q.v.
Azure, three chevronels braced(or interlaced) in the base of the escutcheon or, a chief of the last--Robert FITZ-HUGH, Bp. of London, 1431-36.
Sable, six annulets braced palewise in pairs argent two and one--ANDERTON, Lancaster.
Bracket: one instance occurs of this device only.
Argent, three double brackets sable--BIDDLE.
Bramble-wreath. See beneath Chaplet.
Brambling. See Finch.
Branch. See Tree.
Brand: 1. An old name for sword; 2. See Firebrand.
Brassarts. See Arm.
Bream, and sea-bream: these appear to be two different kinds of fish; the former, or carp-bream, as it is called(cyprinus of Linnæus, and abramis of later naturalists), is a fish which inhabits rivers and lakes, and in some districts is plentiful. The latter is the marine fish of that name(sparus of Linnæus, pagrus vulgaris of later writers), and is said to be taken frequently in the Mediterranean by anglers. The arms of Doxey are often, however, blazoned as "three hakes."
Azure, three breams bendwise, 2 and 1, or--DE LA MARE, Abbot of Peterborough.
Breast-plate. See Cuirass.
Gules, three breams haurient argent--DE LA MARE, Fisherton, Wilts.
Vert, three sea-breams haurient or--DOXEY.
Azure, three breams or--BREAME, Essex.
Breathing: applied to the stag, has the same meaning as at gaze.
Bretesse. See Embattled.
Breys, brize, or broyes: old fr. word for the horse barnacle.
Brick: a charge resembling a billet, but shewing its thickness in perspective. Only one instance occurs.
Argent, a rose between three bricks sable--BRICKS.
Brick-kiln: this occurs but in one coat of arms.
Argent, on a mount in base vert, a brick-kiln of four stories gules flamant and fumant on the second and top stories--BRICKILL.
Bridle: this occurs but seldom by itself, though a horse with bridle, or bridled, is not unfrequent.
Argent, a bridle or--BRIDLED, Devon.
Bridge, (fr. pont): when this charge occurs, the number of its arches, and all its other peculiarities, should be carefully noticed in the blazon. The charge occurs in the insignia of several towns, e.g. BIDEFORD, BRIDGWATER, GRAMPOUND, &c.
Argent, a horse's head gules bridled of the first--GRONO GOCH.
Argent, a horse's head erased sable bridled or--FLINN.
Gules, a bridge of one arch argent, masoned sable, with a stream transfluent proper--BRIDGE, Scotland.
Brilliants. See Diamond.
Gules, three bridges of as many arches .. CRAIG, Ireland.
Azure, a bridge of two arches argent--POUNT.
Or, on a bridge of three arches gules, masoned sable, the streams transfluent proper, a fane argent--TROWBRIDGE, Wilts. [Another, the field argent, the flag or. Another, as above, a tower gules, thereon a fane argent.]
Brimsey. See Gad-fly.
Brisé, (fr.): 1. broken, as of chevrons, &c.; 2 debruised.
Brisures, (fr.). See Cadency; also Augmentation; also note 'debruised.'
Britannia: this figure occurs on the seal of the BANK OF ENGLAND, and of the Commissioners of "TRADE AND PLANTATIONS."
The figure is represented on an island, seated and holding in the right hand an olive-branch, in the left a spear erect, surmounted with the cap of liberty, her arm resting on a shield charged with the union cross, and near it several bales of goods lying on the ground; over all is the legend, 'TRADE AND PLANTATIONS.'
Broaches. See 1. Embroiderers; 2. Winepress.
Brochant, or Bronchant: an old French term signifying placed over a field semé of any small charges, but used by modern French writers for overlying generally.
Brock. See Badger.
Brocket: a young stag. See Deer.
Brogue, Irish. See Boot.
Broom: common wild shrub of this name is the Cytisus scoparius of botanists, the Planta-genista(fr. genêt) of old writers. A sprig of this shrub was chosen as the badge of the royal house of Plantagenet, who are said to have derived their surname from the circumstance of one of their ancestors having worn a branch of broom is his helmet, either by way of penance, or in token of humility, of which the broom is a symbol. It appears on the Great Seals of Ric. I.
Louis IX., of France, also instituted an order of knighthood under the name of this flower, with the motto EXALTAT HUMILES.
Azure, a hand erect between three broomslips proper--BROOME, Salop.
Brown. See Colour.
Vert, semy of broomslips, and over all a lion rampant or--Sandde HARDE, Denbigh.
Argent, three broom-branches vert--BROME, Somerset.
Browsing. See Deer.
Brush, (fr. brosse): the block-brush is perhaps the most important; it represents a bunch of the herb called knee-holm, or sometimes knee-holly(the knee-holy of monastic, and ruscus of modern botanists), used by butchers to clean their blocks, hence called butcher's broom. It is borne in the insignia of BUTCHERS' Company, q.v. under Slaughter-axe, but has often been drawn as a garbe or wheatsheaf.
The Besom is also found mentioned, and a flat-brush(such as is used by whitewashers) is borne in the arms of the PLASTERERS' Company. See Hammer.
Argent, on a chevron azure three brushes of the first--PENWALLIS.
Brusk. See Tenné.
Azure, two besoms in saltire or--BORSTON.
Argent, a chevron between three besoms gules--BROME.
Bubble. See Water.
Buck. See Deer.
Bucket: of buckets there are several varieties. The most usually borne in arms in the common well-bucket, but they are sometimes hooped and have feet; they are sometimes blazoned dossers. See under Water-bouget.
Argent, three well-buckets with feet sable, hoops and handles or--PEMBERTON, Yorkshire.
Buckle(fr. boucle), or fermail(old fr. fermaille): from an early period buckles were used as charges.
Argent, an annulet suspending two buckets saltire-wise sable between three fleurs-de-lys gules--BANNISTER.
Argent, a fess between three pails sable hooped and handled or--FITZ HOW.
Sire William ROSSELYN de azure iij fermaus de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
As buckles of various forms occurred in heraldry it became necessary to mention the shape. An arming-buckle is in the form of a lozenge.
Sire Peres ROSSELYN de goules a iij fermauls de argent--Ibid.
Sire Robert MALET de sable a un cheveron e iij fermals de argent--Ibid.
Azure, an arming-buckle argent, between three boar's heads or--FERGUSON, Kilkerran.
We find besides, square buckles, circular buckles, and even oval buckles figured. In some examples the tongues are turned to the dexter, in others to the sinister; and to the variety of buckles may be added the gar buckle(possibly contraction for garter buckles), and the belt-buckle.
Argent, three lozenge-(or mascle-, or arming-)buckles gules--JERNINGHAM or JERNEGAN, Suff.
Argent, a fesse sable in the dexter chief a square buckle gules--GILBY.
Sable, three round buckles argent, tongues pendent--JODDREL, Cheshire.
A strap or garter with a buckle may be termed buckled, and generally the buckle is of another tincture.
Azure, three gar-buckles argent(possibly garter-buckles)--STUKELEY.
Argent, a chevron between three circular buckles sable--TRECOTHIK.
Or, a lion rampant gules; over all on a bend wavy sable an oval buckle tongue upwards, between two mascles argent--SPENCE, Edinburgh.
Argent, three belt-buckles sable--SAPCOTT.
Argent, a fesse azure between three belt-buckles gules--BRADLEY.
Gules, three men's garters nowed and buckled argent--SYDEMERS.
Buckler. See Shield.
Buffalo. See Bull.
Bugle-horn, or hanchet(fr. huchet): this may be garnished with encircling rings or virols, and with French heralds the end opening may be enguiché of another tincture. It is usually stringed, i.e. suspended by strings.
Argent, a torteau between three bugle-horns gules stringed or--VERNECK, Baron Huntingfield.
The Hunting-horn(fr. cor de chasse) is often represented as the bugle-horn; another form is shewn in the margin; there is also the trumpet, q.v.
Argent, a bugle-horn sable, stringed gules--DOWNES.
Argent, a bugle-horn sable garnished gules, within the baldrick a mullet, in chief three holly-leaves proper--BURNET, Bp. of Salisbury, 1689.
Argent, an arrow or, feathered gules, between three bugle-horns stringed sable, and interlacing the flower one--HAULE, Devon.
Vert, three greyhounds courant argent, on a chief of the last as many bugle-horns sable, stringed gules--HUNTER.
Azure, a hare salient argent, round the neck a hunting-horn sable, stringed gules--KINEILAND, Scotland.
The Cornet is named some works(but probably erroneously) as borne by HULME Abbey. See under crosier.
Gules, two huntsman's horns in saltire between four crosses crosslet or--NEVILL.
Sable, a crozier in pale or with two ribbons(or tassels) entwined about it argent, between four golden cornets(should be coronets)--Benedictine Abbey of HULME.
Bulfinch. See Finch.
Bull, (fr. taureau): is rare in ancient rolls of arms, but in later times tolerably frequent; and we find also the ox(fr. bœuf), the cow(fr. vache), and the calf(fr. veau), all duly blazoned; the latter is distinguished in heraldry by the absence of the horns: the term buffalo(fr. buffle) is rarely used in English blazon for bull. The charge is often used associated with the name, as in the case of OXFORD, OXENDON, &c. A bull may be horned, hoofed, unguled, and armed of a different tincture; and it may be collared, and even belled(fr. clariné). Moile(drawn erroneously as mule) is really an ox without horns.
Bendy wavy argent and azure, an ox gules passing over a ford proper--City of OXFORD[according to some; according to others, Argent, an ox gules, armed and unguled or, passing a ford of water in base proper].
Bulls' heads are perhaps more commonly found than the animal itself, generally erased, sometimes couped, rarely caboshed. Generally the horns are blazoned of a different tincture. It is not certain what is meant by the sea-bull's head blazoned below.
Ermine, a bull passant gules armed and unguled or--BEVILLE.
Argent, a chevron between three bulls passant sable--OXENDON.
Or, a bull passant sable collared and belled gold--HULL, Dorset(? temp. Hen. III.).
Argent, an ox passant gules, through reeds proper--RIDLEY.
Argent, a fess gules between three oxen sable--OXLEY, Yorkshire.
Ermine, a cow statant gules within a bordure sable, bezanty, a crescent for difference--CORVELL.
Argent, three cows passant sable, eyes gules, collared or--Benedictine Alien Priory at COWICK Devon.
Ermine, a calf passant gules--CAVELL, Cornwall.
Argent, a fess gules between three calves passant sable--CALVERLEY.
Argent, on a bend sable three calves passant or--VEAL.
Gules, a moile passant argent--MOILE, Cornwall.
Argent, a bull's head erased sable--TURNBULL, Scotland.
Bullet: the ogress or pellet.
Argent, a chevron gules between three bull's heads couped sable--BULLEINE[the same family as Anne BOLEYN, one of Henry the Eighth's Queens].
Argent, three bull's heads caboshed sable, armed or--WALROND.
Argent, three bull's heads erased sable, breathing fire proper--TRUMBULL, Berks.
Argent, three cow's heads erased sable--VACH or VEITCH.
A bull armed or is one of the supporters to the arms of DARCY, Westmeath.
Argent, a sea-bull's head couped sable--BULLOCK.
Bulrushes. See Reeds.
Bundle. See Arrow, laths, cotton, reeds, silk, wire, wheat, &c.
Bunting, or bunten: this refers to the English species of the Emberiza(called sometimes the Corn-bunting). It has only been adopted for the sake of the name, as will be seen.
Argent, a bend gules between three bunten-birds proper--BUNTEN, Ardoch, Scotland.
Bur leaf. See Dock.
Argent, three bunten birds azure; on a chief of the last of a sword fesswise as the first, hilt and pomel or--BUNTEN, Kilbride, Scotland.
Argent, a bend engrailed gules between three bunting-birds proper--BONTEINE, Mildovan.
Argent, a chevron sable between three bunten-birds proper--BUNTEN, Buntenhall, Scotland.
Quarterly or and gules three birds(probably buntings) counterchanged--BUNTING.
Burdock. See Dock.
Burèles, and burèlé, (fr.)=barrulets and barruly: vide sub-Bar.
Burgonette. See Cap of Steel.
Burling-iron: an instrument used by WEAVERS. It is a sort of large pointed tweezers, held in the right hand to pick out knots and other defects left in the weaving. It occurs in the arms of their company at Exeter.
Sable, a chevron between three burling-irons argent--BURLAND.
Burre, (old fr.): cronel of a lance.
Gules, three burling-irons argent--BURLINGER.
Bush: the simple term 'bushes' occurs, but the flaming or burning bush is the most striking form. The latter is borne differently, as will be seen, by different branches of the BRANDER family.
Gules, from behind bushes vert, a stag courant argent, on a chief azure three castles of the field one and two--JAMES, Brecknock.
Bust, (fr. buste). See Heads.
Gules, a flaming bush on the top of a mount proper, between three lions rampant argent, in the flanks two roses of the last--BRANDER, Elgin.
Gules, a burning bush proper between two roses argent in fesse, in chief two lions rampant, and a third in base of the last--BRANDER, Surrey.
Bustard: this bird, belonging to the genus Otis, is almost quite extinct in England, but is found generally distributed in Europe. One or two instances of its use occur.
Argent, a fesse between three bustards, gules--BUSTARD.
Butt-fish. See Turbot.
Azure, three bustards, rising argent--NEVILL.
Or, a chevron sable between three bustards vert--LANDON.
Argent, a chevron between three bustards gules--KITCHING, Hereford.
Argent, a cross engrailed azure, between four bustards respecting each other sable--SMALRIDGE, Bp. of Bristol, 1714-19.
Butterfly, (fr. papillon): this insects is generally borne volant en arriere, its four wings being expanded. When borne so, it is not necessary to add any intimation of its position.
The harvest-fly is nearly similar, but shews two wings only, and the legs prominently shewn. What it is intended to represented it is impossible to say.
Argent, two bars between three butterflies volant sable--FLEMINGS.
Buttrices: an old name for the knives used for paring horses' hoofs. They seem to be used solely for the punning on the name, but sometimes blazoned as Farriers' Implements.
Gules, a griffin passant, wings elevated argent; on a canton indented or, a butterfly volant azure--BUTTERFIELD, Surrey.
Argent, on a bend azure, three butterflies or--BUTTERWIKE.
Argent, on a bend sable, three butterflies of the first--BOTERFORD, Devon.
Azure, a harvest-fly volant argent--BUTTERFLY.
Sable, a harvest-fly, volant en arriere--BOLOUR or BOLOWRE.
Argent, three buttrices in fesse sable--BUTTRISS.
Azure, three buttrices, handles erect in fesse argent--BUTTRISCH.