Rabbit. See Hare.
Raccourcie, (fr.): Recoursy.
Rack: it is not clear what kind of rack is here intended to be represented couped. It appears to be a solitary instance, but perhaps some device badly drawn, e.g. a gridiron.
    Argent, in base a rack couped sable; in chief two crosses crosslet fitchy gules--HOLDSWORTH.
Radiant. See Ray.
Raft. See Boat.
Ragged. See Raguly.
Ragged Staff. See Staff.
Raguly, (fr. noueux): is a term properly applied to trunks of trees and the like, but occasionally to an ordinary, e.g. to a Cross(see §2), having pieces like couped boughs projecting at the sides in a slanting direction, ragguled being an old word signifying chopped off.
    Argent, a cross raguly gules--LAWRANCE, Gloucester.
    Argent, on the trunk of a tree raguly vert an eagle with wings expanded gules--PORTER.
    Argent, three trunks of trees raguled or, erect and inflamed proper--SUBSTON.
    Argent, two billets raguled and trunked placed saltirewise, the sinister surmounted of the dexter azure, their tops flaming proper--SHURSTABB.
    Gules, a chevron raguly of two bastons couped at the top or--Christofer DROUNSFELD[Ibid, argent Christopher DRAIESFIELD, Harl. MS. 1386].
    Argent, two bends raguly sable, the lower one couped at the top--WAGSTAFF, Derbyshire.
    Argent, a fesse raguly and trunked between eight pellets--VYELL.
    Gules, a bar or surmounted by a staff raguly argent--DRUITT.
    Azure, three bars raguly humetty argent between as many estoiles or--TESHMAKER.
Rainbow, (fr. arc en ciel): is represented usually in fesse, but example are very rare. The proper tinctures are gold, red, vert, and silver.
    Argent, a rainbow, in fesse throughout proper--PONT, Scotland.
    Azure, a rainbow in fesse proper, between two estoiles in chief, and the sun in base or--CLARET.
    D'azur, à l'arc-en-ciel en bande; au soleil couchant d'or--DEYMÉ DE MURVIEL, Languedoc.
Raisin. See Vine.
Rake, (fr. rateau): is drawn in the usual form of that used by haymakers.
    Sable, two rakes(?) in pale argent--BROMLE.
    Argent, on a bend sable three rakes of the first--BRAMBERT.
Thatcher's Rake.
Thatcher's Rake.
    The thatch-rake or thatcher's rake is drawn as in the margin; but it is liable to be confused with the wool-comb and thatch-hook.
    Argent, three thatcher's rakes barwise sable--ZAKESLEY.
Ram, (fr. belier): this is found frequently in both English and French arms, while no example of the sheep has been observed in the former. The Ram's head is also a favourite device.
    Argent, three rams passant sable--SYDENHAM, Brimpton, co. Somerset; Baronetcy, 28 July, 1641.
    Azure, a chevron between six rams accosted countertrippant two, and two argent attired or--HARMAN, Rendlesham.
    Per fesse wavy azure and argent, in base on a mount vert a ram couchant sable armed and unguled or, in chief three doves proper--PUJOLAS, Middlesex; granted 1762.
    On a woolpack a ram couchant argent--Crest of the town of BOSTON, Lincolnshire.
    Per fesse sable and argent, a pale counterchanged, three rams salient of the second two and one, armed and unguled or--GLOVERS' Company[Arms granted 1464].
    Argent, on a bend engrailed sable, three ram's heads cabossed of the field attired or--LAMPEN, Cornwall.
    Argent, on a chevron gules three ram's heads affronty of the field, attire or--CIRENCESTER Abbey.
    Or, on a bend azure, three ram's heads couped argent, attired of the first--RAMSEY Monastery, co. Huntingdon.
Ramé(or chevillé, fr.): of the horns of a stag when of a different tincture; also ramure, i.e. Attire.
Rampant, (old fr. rampand, &c), of an animal, and especially of a lion=rearing. See examples under Lion; also Bear, Tiger, &c.
Random, at: used of dogs in a chase. See example under Deer.
Rangé, (fr.): arranged in a line.
Rangier, (fr.): the blade of a scythe.
Raphael. See under Ararat.
Rapier. See Dagger.
Rapin: said to mean devouring, or feeding upon.
Rased, (old fr. rasé). See Erased.
Rat, (fr. rat): This rodent occurs only in one or two coats of arms.
    Paly of six or and gules, on a canton argent a rat salient sable--TRAT, Cornwall.
    Argent, a fesse gules in chief a rat of the last--BELLET.
    Ermine, a fesse engrailed between three rats(? weasels) passant gules--John ISLIP, Abbot of Westminster.
Ratch-hound. See Dog.
Rateau, (fr.): Rake.
Raven, (fr. corbeau): probably in heraldic drawing no difference would be detected in the drawing of the raven, the rook, or the crow; and perhaps even the old names Corbie, corby-crow, corbyn, corf, and the other variations of the Latin corvus were not marked by any nice distinction. As will be seen, the bearing occurs on several ancient arms for the sake of the play upon the name. It may be blazoned as croaking. It will be seen the daw also as well as the rook is adopted for the same reason.
    Thomas CORBET, d'or deux corbeaux noir--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Johan de CORMAYLES de argent a iij corfs de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Peres CORBEHT, de or a ij corbils de sable--Ibid.
    Sire Peres CORBET, de or a un corbyn de sable--Ibid.
    Sire Thomas CORBET, de or a iij corbyns de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Per fesse or and argent, three ravens in chief proper--CORBYN.
    Monsire Thomas de ROKEBY, port d'argent a une cheveron de sable entre trois corbins sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Or, a raven proper--CORBET, of Morton Corbet, Salop, and Richard CORBET, Bp. of Oxford, 1628; of Norwich, 1632-35.
    Or, on a torteau a raven sable--RAVEN.
    Argent, on a chief or, a raven proper--HURD, Bp. of Lichfield, 1774; of Worcester, 1781-1808.
    Argent, a raven croaking proper--The ancient arms of HAMPDEN, Great Hampden, co. Buckingham.
    Or, three ravens volant proper--WORCELEY, co. Hants.
    Argent, in chief a lion passant azure, in base two ravens pendent from an arrow fesswise sable--MACKIE, Bargally, Scotland.
    Or, a hog lying fesswise, a raven feeding on his back sable--DANSKINE, Scotland.
    Argent, a fesse counterflory gules between three rooks sable--ROKES, co. Bedford.
    Argent, a chevron between three rooks volant sable--CROWMER.
    Argent, on a fesse gules between three cows proper as many crosses patty or--DEANE, Essex.
    Argent, a crow sable between three fountains--CRAIGDAILLIE, Aberdeen.
    Quarterly, first and fourth, argent, a saltier and chief, both engrailed gules; second and third, argent, two crows paleways, both transfixed through the neck by an arrow in fesse proper--Archibald Campbell TAIT, Bp. of London, 1856; Abp. of Canterbury, 1868-82.
    Azure, a bend between three crow's heads erased argent--CASSIE.
    Azure, on a bend engrailed argent three daws proper--DAWSON, Newcastle.
    Argent, a chevron between three daw's heads erased sable beaked or--DALSTON, Westminster.
Ravissant, (fr.): of a wolf with his prey.
Badge of RICHARD II.
Badge of RICHARD II.
Ray: a ray of the sun is found in one or two cases in early rolls, and in each case is blazoned gules, but in later coats of arms rays are found only issuing from the clouds or round a sun, q.v. In the case of the Badge of RICHARD II. "The Sun behind a Cloud" is represented only the rays being visible. When the rays issue from a charge they are generally described by the term radiated being applied to the charge.
    Rauf de la HAY, blank ung rey de soleil de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Fraunceys de ALDAM, d'aszure a un ray de soleil d'or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Azure, one ray of the sun issuing bendways from the dexter chief, proper[i.e. blazoned otherwise a pile waved]--ALDAM.
    Radiant, or rayonnant, (fr. rayonné): is applied to ordinaries, as well as to charges such as the Sun and Clouds. The terms radiated, irradiated, rayony, or 'with rays,' are also used, but all meaning the same thing.
    Gules on a bend rayonated between two eagles displayed or three roses of the first--BODEN, Middlesex.
    Azure, on a pale radiant or, a lion rampant gules--COLMAN, co. Suffolk.
    [The same, but the field vert, and the lion sable--O'HARA, Ireland.]
    Azure, a pale rayony or--LIGHTFORD.
    Argent, two chevrons sable, in chief a file of eight points of the last enclosed by a garter irradiated by sixteen rays of a star or; the garter azure bearing these words in gold letters, "Viditque Deus hanc lucem esse bonam"--[A quartering in the arms of] RUNDLE.
    Gules, a chief argent, on the lower part thereof a cloud[otherwise a chief nebuly] with rays proceeding therefrom proper--LEESON, Earl of Miltown.
Rayonnant: used of the sun, stars, &c., with Rays, q.v.
Razorbill. See Auk.
Reaping-hook. See Sickle.
Rearing, (fr. acculé): said of a horse or stag standing upon his hind legs.
Rebated: having the points cut off, as a mullet, or a sword rebated. See under Cross, §24, and Fylfot.
Rebatements: Abatements, i.q.
Rebent: bowed embowed, or flexed reflexed, like the letter S.
Reboundy: used only in heraldic treatises; same as re-bent.
Rebus: defined by Dr.Johnson as "a word represented by a picture." It is not a true heraldic term, and ought not to be applied to canting arms, but rather to those devices which are frequently found carved on buildings or painted in glass in reference to the name of the founders or benefactors. Such, for instance, are the following. Upon the Rector's lodgings at Lincoln College, Oxford, as well as on buildings at Wells, the rebus of a beacon and a tun is found in allusion to Thomas BECKYNTON, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443-65: and on a gateway at Canterbury, erected in 1517, a flint stone(supposed to be or) ensigned with a mitre is carved in allusion to Thomas GOLDSTONE, the second Prior Christ Church: while on a boss in the north transept of the Cathedral an eagle(for John) an ox and 'ne' stand for John OXNEY.
    In a window in the lady-chapel in Gloucester Cathedral a comb and a tun appear in allusion to Thomas COMPTON, Abbot of Cirencester, 1480; and in one of the windows in the chapel at Lullingston, Kent, the arms of Sir John PEECHE are encircled by the branches of a peach-tree bearing peaches, each one of which has the letter e on it.
    Again in books, Richard GRAFTON, the printer, in 1547, puts as his rebus on the last page, a tree or graft rising from a tun; and a copy of the "De Antiquitate Britannicæ Ecclesiæ," presented to Queen Elizabeth by the author, Matthew PARKER, Archbishop of Canterbury, has on the outside a park encloseed with pales embroidered on the green velvet binding.
    Lastly, on seals a rebus very often appears, e.g. on that of Thomas WOODSTOCK, sixth son of Edward III., whose arms are engraved suspended from the stock of a tree.
Recercelé: a term which seems to have been inconsistently used by later writers from not understanding its original meaning. It occurs in ancient blazon, as will be seen, applied only to the cross and the bordure. In its application to the cross the early instances have already been given under Cross, §32, and it will be found also referred to under §6 and §24.
    In the Roll of Henry III.'s reign, in College of Arms(from which most of the examples with that date quoted in the present work have been taken) the word does not occur at all. In a somewhat later roll, but still ascribed to Henry III.'s reign(viz. that of which a transcript is preserved in Harl. MS. 6589 and by Leland) two examples of the term occur, and both applied to the cross(see §32). In the roll ascribed to Edward II.'s reign three examples occur of the term applied to the cross; two with the word voided added, and one without(see also §32). When we come to the roll, temp. Edward III. there are some four or five examples of a cross recercelée(see §32), and we find recercelé also for the first time applied to the bordure, and as will be seen, in the same arms in which the bordure in the previous reign had been blazoned as indented: possibly recercilé was used in these later instances to signify engrailed, with reference to the half circles which form that line of partition. In the following examples the varieties of the spelling in the roll have been adopted.
    Monsire de ECHINGHAM, port d'asur, fret d'argent, a une border recersele d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III. [od la bordure endente de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.]
    Monsire TALBOT, de gules, une lyon rampant d'or, une border recercele d'or--Ibid. [od la bordure endente de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.]
    Monsire de GLOUCESTRE, argent, a trois lyonceux rampant gules, a une border cersele d'asure--Ibid. [od la bordure endente de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II.]
    Monsire William RIDELL, port de gules, a une lyon rampant d'argent a une border cersele d'argent--Ibid. [od la bordure endente de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.]
    Monsire de TETFORD, quarterly, d'argent et gules, a une border sercele sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire Thomas WAKE de Blisworth, d'argent, a deux barres, et trois roundels de gules, a une border recersele de sable--Ibid.
    Monsire Bartholomew de FANACOURT, port sable, a une crois patey d'argent, une border d'or recercele--Ibid.
    Monsire Thomas de GREY, port de gules a une lyon rampant d'argent, a une border cersele d'or--Ibid.
    [In the same roll also bordures are borne "recersele" by Walter de PERCENAY, William de PERCY, Rafe de LASCELES, Monsire de TETFORD, John de BAVENT, Monsire de ECHINGHAM, and Monsire BILKEMORE.]
    With respect to its application to the Cross, perhaps enough has been said to shew that the probabilities are it was a figure similar to, if not identical with, the cross moline, or the fer-de-moulin, but with the extremities perhaps more bent round, as shew in the illustration of the banner of Bishop BECK of Durham, from the Carlaverock roll under Cross, §24, and again from the brass where a dimidiated coat of the BEKE family is impaled with the arms of HARCOURT, q.v., under Marshalling. It may, however, be further added to this evidence that in Nicolas Charles' transcript of the Roll, from which the above are taken, (the original of which must be attributed to Edward III.'s reign,) one of the headings is "Les Croisées Sercelées et Fer-de-mollyns." One figure at the side serves for both the terms thus employed, and it is drawn similarly to the Cross anchory given ante, under Cross moline, §24.
    English heraldic writers seem, however, to have mode two words, recercele and sarcelly, and have implied that they are of different origin and meaning; but there is no agreement as to what those meanings were. The French heralds seem equally at fault. M.Bachelin-Deflorenne, in his "Science des Armoiries" (1880), gives under his list of terms as applied to the cross both recerselé and resarcelée, as two different words; in his glossary he gives only one, spelt resercelé, which he defines thus:--
    Terme de blason. Se dit des croix, bandes, fasces, etc., chargées d'un filet qui forme également fasce, bende, ou croix et dont l'émail est particulier.
    In M. de Grandmaison's "Dictionaire Héraldique, 1861," the two terms are defined this:--
    Recercelée. De la croix ancrée tournée en cerceaux, et de la queue des cochons et liévres.
    Resercelée. Des croix qui en ont une autre conduite en filet d'autre email.
    What is meant by these descriptions seems to be that while a cross with its ends turned over, or a tail of an animal twisted, might be blazoned recercelée, a cross charged with a filet of the same form being of another tincture would be blazoned resercelée.
    As has been pointed out, the probabilities are that the term was derived from the metal-work on the shield added partly for strength and partly for ornament(in the same way as the escarboucle). Applied to a bordure this would, if voided is understood, mean thin bars of iron strengthening the shield, and if not so one thick bar, with the edges engrailed or possibly invected. But the word at this time had not become technical, or received any definite signification. It has been pointed out that is some of the examples given from the roll of Edward III.'s reign, in which a border recersele is used, the bearer's ancestor bore the same indented, but in the earlier blazon probably little distinction would be made between indented, engrailed, or invected. It will be noted also from the same series that the terms recercele, cersele, and sercele seem to be used indiscriminately.
    The term is also found applied to the saltire in later times.
    Argent, a saltire gules recerselly engrailed azure; a canton chequy erminois and of the last--GREGSON, co. Durham.
Recouped, (fr. recoupé, also recourci) used by earlier heralds, appears to be the same as couped.
Recoursy, (fr. raccourci): same as alaisé applied to a cross. See under Cross crosslet, §33.
Recrossed, (fr. recroisetté): a cross recrossed is properly called a cross crosslet.
Recursant: said of an eagle, close, in trian aspect, the back to the spectator.
Recurvant: bowed embowed, that is, bent in the form of an S.
Red. See Gules.
Redorte, (fr.): a branch of a tree twisted into circles, either with or without leaves. Used only in foreign arms.
Reed. See Weaver's Slea.
Reeds, (fr. roseaux): reeds are represented in bundles, sheaves or tufts, and with them may be grouped rushes and bulrushes.
    Argent, two bundles of reeds in fesse vert--JANSSEN, Wimbledon, Surrey; Baronetcy 1714; quartering second and third, per fesse or and azure a swan naiant proper, and fourth argent, one bundle of reeds vert.
    Gules, a chevron engrailed between three reed shaves argent--REDHAM.
    Gules, three tufts of reeds vert--SYKES, late of Basildon, co. Berks.
    Argent, on a chevron gules between three bundles of rushes vert, banded or a mullet of the last--SHAKERLEY, co. Derby(Temp HEN. VI.).
    Argent, on a mount of bulrushes in base proper a bull passant sable, a chief pean billety or, with a canton of the last--SCOFF, co. Worcester.
    Argent, on a mount with bulrushes proper stalked and leaved vert a bull passant gules--RIDLEY.
Reel, Carpenter's. See under Carpenter's Square. See also Turnstile.
Reflected or reflexed: bent back, e.g. of a chain to a collar; a lion's tail is reflected over the back, but the term is seldom, if ever, needed.
Regalia: a name given to the crown, orb, sceptre, &c. The blazon of Earl MANDEVILLE'S arms, however, is perhaps erroneous.
    Per pale or and gules; the regalia sable--MANDEVILLE, Earl of Essex, [according to Burke].
Regardant or reguardant: looking back, e.g. of a lion(q.v.), or of any other animal; often combined with passant.
Reindeer. See Deer.
Remora: said by one writer(Henry Peacham, 1630) to be borne, but no example found.
Removed out of the usual place i.e. a fesse removed might be a fesse enhanced: in one case it appears as if it was used to signify the fesse was broken.
Rempli, (fr.): filled in with e.g. of ordinaries, &c., which have been voided and filled with another tincture.
Rencontre, (fr.). See Caboshed.
Renne, (fr.): reindeer.
Renoué, (old fr.): of a tail nowed.
Repassant. See Passant.
Replenished with: an odd expression=Semé.
Reptiles: the reptiles are scarcely represented at all in ancient rolls of arms. Even the serpents are only referred to under the Bisse's head(see under Serpent). But in later times it will be found that serpents and snakes are not uncommon, as well as adders, asps, and vipers. As will be seen by the Synoptical Table, frogs and toads, effets and newts, and lizards, and the cameleon are found, but they are rare. While of the tortoise, alligator, and crocodile only solitary instances have been observed.
Reremouse. See Bat.
Reseau, (fr.): appears to be a net for ladies' hair, and appears on one or two coats of arms.
Resignant: concealed; applied to a lion's tail.
Respectant, or Respecting each other: used in describing two animals, or even birds and fishes(see Dolphins), borne face to face. Rampant beasts of prey so borne are more usually said to be combatant.
Rest: this is puzzling device, but the more probable interpretation is that it represents a spear rest, though possibly in one or two cases a horn from had drawing, has been mistaken for it. The device is called by Leigh and others Sufflue, and by Guillim Clarion, though he hints that it may be a rudder. Gibbon proposes the term Organ-rest, but mentions a MS. wherein it is called Claricimbal, or Clavecimbal. Morgan terms it a Clarendon, obviously a mistake for Clarion. It is otherwise called a Clavicord. Rest, however, is the term generally used for the device.
    Azure, three rest or--BESSYNG, Staffordshire.
    Gules, a chevron ermine between three clarions or--HICKES.
    Gules, three clarions[or rests] or--CARTERET, GRANVILLE.
    Per saltire gules and vert, three clarions or--GREENFIELD.
    Gules, a chevron argent between three organ-rests proper--MYLES, Dartford, Kent.
    Or, a fesse bendy of eight, sable and argent between three rests gules--LINGARD.
    Gules, a chevron argent between three rests or--Sir Thomas ARTHUR.
Retrait, (fr.): couped at one end only.
Revers, le: the expression Porte le revers is often found in the ancient rolls of arms, when similar descriptions follow one another as to bearing but with reversed tinctures.
Reversed, (fr. renversé): i.q. inverted, q.v. as of a chevron, q.v. See also arms of CANTILUPE under Jessant, &c. The coat of arms reversed=an abatement, q.v.
Revertant: bent and rebent.
Reynard, (fr. renard): used sometimes for fox.
Rhinoceros: this animal has only been observed on one coat of arms.
    Azure, on a fesse or between three rhinoceroses argent as many escallops gules--TAPPS-GERVIS, co. Hants, 1791.
    [On a wreath a Rhinoceros statant in the Crest of APOTHECARIES' COMPANY, London.]
Riband or Ribbon. (1.) The term Ribbon is used by one or two heraldic writers for a diminutive of the bend, of which it is one-eighth in width; if couped at each end it would represent a baton dexter, but his does not occur.
    Argent, a ribbon traverse sable--TRAVERS.
    Or, a lion rampant gules surmounted by a ribbon[or bendlet] sable--ABERNETHY of that Ilk, co. Fife.
    Azure, an eagle displayed or, a ribbon gules--GUERIET.
    Argent, on a fesse humetty gules, three leopard's faces or, over all a ribbon sable--BRABANT.
    (2.) The Riband in its usual sense is sometimes found mentioned in blazon, where a medal or the like is suspended by, or arrows and the like tied with, one.
    Argent, three bars gules on a chief embattled of the last the representation of a castle with broken walls of the field; on a canton of the last a medal of Talavera or, suspended from a red ribbon with blue edges--FULLER.
    Per fesse embattled azure and gules, in chief a lion passant argent, in base two faulchions in saltire blades of the third, hilts and pomels or, on a canton ermine a mural crown or, and suspended therefrom by a ribbon gules edged azure, the Corunna medal gold--DARLING.
    Azure, a fesse dancetty in chief a bow bent in fesse and three arrows, two in saltire and one in pale, tied with a ribbon in base all or--BUDD, Willesley, co. Devon.
Rigging. See Ship.
Rimmed: a collar may be thus blazoned, having an edging of another tincture.
Ring: the most important bearing of this name is the Gem-ring, that is a finger-ring(fr. bague) set with a jewel, and this is sometimes described as stoned, gemmed, or jewelled of another tincture: sometimes the name of the gem is mentioned.
    Gules, three rings(or annulets) or, gemmed azure(or encircled with sapphires proper)--EGLINGTOUN, Scotland.
    Argent, in chief a gem-ring gules; out of a mount in base three trefoils vert--DORRIEN, co. Herts.
    Per fesse gules and or, pale counterchanged, three gem-rings of the second stoned azure--LAWDER.
    Gules, three gem-rings argent stoned azure--MYCHILSTAN.
    Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, quarterly with gules three rings gold gemmed azure; over all a cross wavy or charged with a mullet between four crescents likewise azure--MONTGOMERY, co. Peebles, 1801.
    Azure, a dove proper on a chief ermine three annulets or, each enriched with a ruby--BEVAN, Carmarthen.
    Rings of other kinds are incidentally mentioned, but they are more properly termed Annulets, q.v. An anchor also should be represented with its ring and grappling-irons, q.v.; and the rings of keys are also sometimes named, but usually termed bows. See also ring of Mars under Letters.
    Barry of six argent and azure, over all an anchor with two cables fixed to the ring noded and pendent or--ALLEN, London.
Ring-dove. See Dove.
Ringed. See Annuletty.
Rising; of a bird. See under Wings.
River. See Water.
Rizom. See Wheat.
Roach. See Chubb.
Parliament Robe.
Parliament Robe.
Robe: this is seldom borne singly. A king is found in his robes; the Merchant Taylors bear two Parliament Robes, which are faced with ermine. This is sometimes blazoned as a mantle.
    Or, on a fesse between three doves azure, a robe between two garbs of the first--FULMERSTON, Norfolk.
    Argent, a royal tent between two parliament robes gules lined ermine, the tent garnished or, tent staff and pennon of the last, on a chief azure a lion passant gardant or--Company of MERCHANT TAYLORS[Inc. 1466].
    A mantle or parliament robe of estate azure lined ermine, the collar tied with a string and tassel attached or--Town of BRECKNOCK.
    Argent, on a cross gules a bezant; thereon a demi-king in his robes all proper; in the dexter quarter a key in pale of the second--Priory of S.Mary de MENDHAM, Yorkshire.
Robin Redbreast. See Wren.
Roc or Rok. See Chess Rook.
Rock, (fr. rocher): us generally borne proper, and issuing from the base of the shield: it only occurs in comparatively late coats of arms, and is chiefly found in Scotch examples. It must not be confused with the roc or chess rook which occurs in the older arms.
    Argent, a castle triple towered and embattled sable, masoned of the first and topped with three fanes gules, windows and portcullis shut of the last situated on a rock proper--Burgh of EDINBURGH.
    Argent, a fesse gules between three rocks sable--SWANTON.
    Argent, on a bend sable three rocks of the field--BONERY.
    Azure, a sea in base, in it a rock proper, on which stands a lion rampant argent gorged with an open crown or--M'DOWALL, Scotland, 1604.
    Per fesse wavy argent and sable; in base three fleurs-de-lis argent; in chief the Rock of Gibraltar surrounded by fortifications and the sea proper; on a canton gules a sword erect proper, hilt and pomel or, entwined with a palm branch--CURTIS, co. Hants. [Baronetcy 1784.]
Roe-buck. See Deer.
Roel, i.q. rowell, q.v.
Roll. See Wreath, also of Matches.
Rolls of parchment occur in one coat of arms.
    Gules, three rolls of parchment proper--CAVEL or LOCAVEL.
Rompu: broken. Said of a Chevron, q.v.
Ronant, (fr.): of a peacock with its tail spreading.
Rondel, i.q. roundle.
Rondeus. See Roundles.
Rook. See Raven, also Chess-rook.
Rope-hook. See Hook.
Rosary: the chain of beads so called seems to occur but in two coats of arms. See BEADNELL under Garter.
    Vert, eleven round beads in chevron, surmounted in the centre by a cross; pendent to the two end beads a tassel, all or, between three cinquefoils argent--WIMBUSH.
Rose, (fr. rose): this flower is very frequently employed in coats of arms, and more frequently still in badges. In the very ancient rolls, however, it is chiefly borne by branches of the one family of the D'ARCYS. The flower is not to be drawn with a stalk unless blazoned stalked, or slipped. The heraldic rose should consist of five foils as drawn in the example; though examples are to be found with six foils, and perhaps with four. The word proper applied to the barbs(of five leaves of the calyx) and central seeds, implies that the former are green, and the latter gold or yellow. A rose is the difference of the seventh house. Sometimes roses are arranged in a chaplet, q.v. and they are sometimes crowned.
    Ermine, a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper--BEVERLEY, Yorkshire.
    Philip DARCY, d'argent a trois roses de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Robert DARCY, de argent a iij roses de goules od la bordure endente de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Johan DARCY, de argent a un escuchon de sable od les rosettes de goules assis en la manere de bordure--Ibid.
    Sire Felyp DARCI, de argent a iij roses de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire William de CONSINGTONE, de azure a iij roses de or--Ibid.
    Monsire de ROSTLES, gules vi roses argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, on a bend azure three roses of the first--CAREY, co. Oxford.
    Or, a stag trippant azure on a chief of the last three roses argent--FRUID, Scotland.
    Argent, a cross engrailed gules between four mullets azure, on a chief or three damask roses of the second seeded gold barbed vert--ALLGOOD, Nunwick, Northumberland.
    Argent, a chevron sable between three roses gules slipped vert--Nicholas WEST, Bp of Ely, 1515-33.
    Argent, on a fesse vert between three damask roses barbed and seeded proper four ermine spots of the field--WILLAUME, Tingrave, co. Bedford; granted 1767.
    Argent, on a mount vert three heraldic roses gules stalked and leaved proper--Dr.PEARCE, Dean of ELy.
    A double rose also occurs, that is one within another, and they are thus conjoined, either by placing a white rose upon a red one, or a red one upon a white. The term rosette is employed in one case where there are several.
    Azure, a saltire argent charged in the centre with a double rose gules--OPPIN, Saxony.
    Argent, a cross gules; in the dexter canton a dagger[probably meant for the sword of S.Paul] of the second; on a chief azure a double rose red and white barbed vert between two fleurs-de-lis or--CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, London.
    Symon FRESEL, de cele gent              Le ot noire à rosettes de argent   
                                              Roll of Carlaverock.              
    It will be seen also that rose branches, slips, and leaves are occasionally borne separately; and one early instance has been bserved in which the phrase '3 rosers' occurs.
    Argent, two bars azure, over all a lion rampant or, holding in the dexter paw a rose branch gules--TUDMAN.
    Argent, on a mount vert three rose sprigs, the roses gules, the leaves and stalks proper--ROSECREEG, Cornwall.
    Argent, a rose and thistle conjoined paleways proper--ASHTON.
    Or, a rose leaf in bend sinister vert--BENDLISE.
    Gules, a chevron argent between three rose leaves of the second(another, or)--Sir John ROSE.
    Le Counte de RAMPSUILE dor a treis rosers; sur chekune roser une rose; chekune roser verte--Roll, temp. HEN. III. (In another copy, possibly of the same original Roll, "Le Countee de RUMMESVILLE, dor trois roses [c]harges ove 3 roses vert.")
    The use of the Rose as a political emblem may be traced to the wars between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster, the former of which used the device of a white rose, while a red one was the badge of the other, and these came to be blazoned occasionally as the Rose of York and Lancaster respectively. They are said to have been first assumed by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his brother Edmund, Duke of York. Both these roses were sometimes surrounded with rays, and termed en soleil, and later on they were frequently conjoined.
The Rose of Lancaster. The Rose of York. The Tudor Rose.
The Rose of Lancaster. The Rose of York. The Tudor Rose.
    A red rose en soleil--Badge of Lancaster.
    A white rose en soleil--Ditto of York.
    Red and white rose quarterly--Ditto of House of TUDOR.
    One of the badges of Katherine of ARRAGON(see also under Pomegranate) contains the Rose, and one of Katherine PARR, also, but in both cases treated singularly, as shewn in the margin.
Badge of Katherine of ARRAGON. Badge of Katherine PARR.
Badge of Katherine of ARRAGON. Badge of Katherine PARR.
    A pomegranate burst open conjoined with a red and white rose one within the other--Badge of Katherine of ARRAGON.
    A maiden royally crowned proper, crined and vested or, conjoined to a part of a triple rose red, white, and red--Badge of Katherine PARR.
    Again later on, Queen MARY adopted a badge in which the Rose figure, but later still the Rose appears amongst the badges of the Stuarts, and then it is crowned.
Badge of QUEEN MARY. Badge of CHARLES I.
Badge of QUEEN MARY. Badge of CHARLES I.
    A dexter half of a double rose, gules and argent, barbed and seeded proper, impaled with a semicircle per pale vert and azure, therein a sheaf of arrows or, armed and feathered of the second, and tied together with a tasselled cord, forming a knot of the first; the whole rayonnant, and ensigned with a royal crown without arches proper--Badge of Queen MARY.
    The two roses united one within the other royally crowned--Badge of the House of STUART.
Roue, (fr.): Wheel.
Rouge. See Gules.
Rouge Croix and Rouge Dragon, Pursuivants. See Heralds.
Rouke: old fr. for Chess-rook.
Rounded, (fr. arrondie), e.g. of a Mirror.
Roundles, (old fr. rondels, rondeus, &c.): this is a general name given to the circles borne on shields, and to which specific names are given according to their tinctures. There seems to have been, however, in the earlier times an indifference to employing the same term to the same tinctures, as will be seen by the examples given:--
    The roundel or. In the rolls of Henry III.'s reign, though bezanté occurs three or four times, no case is observed of the "bezant." In Edward II. we have bezans d'or, in the poem of the Siege of Carlaverok, and in Edward III.'s reign, besant(the d'or being understood). In Edward II. and III. rondels d'or, in "Carlaverok" gasteaus d'or, and in Edward III. pelots d'or.
    The roundle argent. In Henry III.'s reign torteux d'argent and gastelles d'argent; Edward II. and Edward III.'s reigns pelotes d'argent; and in Edward II.'s reign rondels d'argent.
    The roundle gules. In Henry III.'s reign we have torteux de gules, and throughout Edward II. and Edward III. rondels de gules. In one case we meet with pelletts de gules, and in Carlaverock "rouges rondeaux."
    The roundles of sable or azure are rare, we find rondels d'azure and pellets d'azure, and also peletts de sable. No other roundles appear named in the early rolls. Several examples of the device will be found given under hurts, pellets, plates, and torteaux, and a few others are here added to illustrate the variety.
    Sire Amori de SEINT AMAUNT, de or frette de sable; od le chef de sable a iij rondeus de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Ele Amauri de SAINT AMANT               O trois gasteaus de or derechief    
    ... De or e de noir fretté; au chief      Roll of Carlaverok, c. 1300.      
    Monsire de ST.AMOND, port d'or frette de sable; une chief de sable, trois rondeus d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Sire Robert de ESTAFFORD, de or a un cheveron de goules e iij besanz de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire LA ZOUCH, gules une bend d'argent entre vj besants--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Roger de HUNTINGFEILD, d'or a la fesse de goules et trois torteux d'argent e la fesse--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire William de HONTYNGFELD, de or e une fesse de goules a iij rondels e argent--Roll, temp. ED. II. [See Ibid. ED. III. under pellets.]
    Hugh WAKE, d'or a deulx barres de goules ove trois torteux de goules en le cheif--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Del bon Hue de Courtenay                De or fin o trois rouges rondeaus   
    La baniere oubliée ne ay                E azurins fu li labeaus.            
                                              Roll of Carlaverok, c. 1300.      
    Sire Hue de COURTENAY, de or a iij rondeux de goules e un label de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Felip FITZ ERNYS, de argent a iij rondes de goules.
    Sire Richard de BASCREVILE, de argent a un Cheveron de goules e iij rondels de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    The modern English rules, however, limit the several names to the several tinctures,--
  Or, called always Bezants.              Vert called always Pomeis.            
  Argent  ,,    ,,   Plates.              Purpure ,,    ,,   Golpes.            
  Gules   ,,    ,, Torteaux.              Sable   ,, either Pellets,            
  Azure   ,,    ,,    Hurts.                  Ogresses or Gunstones.            
    Under most of these terms many examples will be found. There are also roundles of the rarer tinctures, viz. sanguine and tenné, which have been named by later heralds respectively guzes and oranges.
    The French use as a rule only the term besants for the two metals, and tourteaux for all else, but the latter is applied sometimes to metals also. The terms heurtes, gulpes, volets(for pomeis), ogresses, and guzes seem also to be used.
    D'azur a trois tourteaux d'argent au chef de gueules--CARBONEL, Normandie.
    D'or a trois chevrons de sable accompagnés de trois tourteaux de sinople--DESCHAMPS.
    De gueules, coupé d'azur a trois tourteaux a hermine--CANISY.
    The result is that the term roundle(written sometimes rundle and ronde) is retained only for cases where the circle is partycoloured, or charged with an ordinary or other charge. It may be ermine, or vair, or it may be barry-wavy(and if argent and azure it is then termed a fountain, q.v.). A case may occur also where the field being of more than one tincture and the roundles counterchanged, that term is used for convenience to cover the whole series, though one might be a bezant and another a torteau. The old rondel or rondelet voided is a term found applied to a figure like an annulet, and perhaps its equivalent.
    Sable, three roundles quarterly argent and gules[otherwise gyronny of eight argent and gules, otherwise gyronny argent and azure]--DERWARD.
    Argent, three pellets, on each a bend of the field--BENEVILLE, Devon.
    Argent, three pomeis, on each two bendlets wavy of the field--MILTON.
    Argent, three roundles cheveronny of six gules and azure--CARRANT[Sheriff of Dorset. sub Hen. VI.]
    Argent, three ogresses, on the first a cross flory of the field--HEATHE.
    Per pale gules and azure, three plates, each charged with a cross engrailed vert between four ermine spots sable--HEATHCOTE.
    Azure, three plates, each chargeed with a squirrel gules, cracking a nut or--CRESWELL, co. Northampton. [Confirmed to Robert Cresswell 31 Elizabeth.]
    Azure, a roundle chequy or and azure between three boar's heads couped of the second--GORDON, Scotland.
    Gules, three roundles vair, on a chief or a lion passant sable--PARTRICK.
    Three roundles barry wavy of six argent and vert--THEMILTON.
    Per bend or and azure, three roundles in pale counterchanged--BAYNES, London.
    Per fesse argent and gules three roundles counterchanged--BEAUFORD.
    Sire John de PLESSIS d'argent ove six faux rondeletts de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Robert BORGYLOUN, quartele de or e de goules, a une bende de sable; en les quarters de goules rondels perces de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    The French besant-tourteau(or tourteau-besant) is used when the roundle is partly metal and partly colour.
    D'azur, à l'étoile à huit rais d'or chargée d'un besant-tourteau, écartelé en sautoir d'argent et de gueules--BONVISY.
    There is no limit to the number of roundles in a shield; a single one is frequently found, and every number up to 13. Also 15 and 18 are found.
    Barry of six, or and gules, thirteen roundles counterchanged, three, two, three, two and three--CAUNTER.
    Argent, eighteen hurts, nine, four, three, and two--HUNTING.
Rousant. See rising under Wings.
Rouvre, (fr.): a knotted oak.
Rowan tree. See Ash.
Rowel of a spur(fr. molette). As already pointed out under Mullet, in the ancient rolls the word rowel seems to be identical with it, and that again to be interchangeable with estoile. In taking the five rolls of arms which have been chiefly made use of in exhibiting the ancient examples, namely, (a) the Roll of Henry III. in the Royal College of Arms, (b) that preserved in a copy by Leland and similar to that in the Harleian Collection, (c) the Roll of the siege of Carlaverock, and(d) the Rolls of Edw. II., and (e) of Edw. III., the number of instances of the use of the three terms are as follows:--
                                               | Rowel. |Estoile.| Mullet.      
  Henry III. (R. C. A.)     ..      ..      .. |   --   |    1   |    4         
  Henry III. (Harl. or Leland)      ..      .. |    5   |   --   |    2         
  Carlaverock               ..      ..      .. |   --   |    2   |    5         
  Edw. II.  ..      ..      ..      ..      .. |    9   |   --   |   51         
  Edw. III. ..      ..      ..      ..      .. |   --   |    1   |   32         
                                               |    14  |     4  |    94        
    As the rolls represent the chief families, many names being repeated in two or three of the rolls, the unequal distribution points to the somewhat arbitrary use of the three terms, though, as will be observed, the term mullet is not only the most frequently used, but is the only term common to all five rolls. The examples also shew that the terms mullet and rowel seem to be used indiscriminately in respect of the same families. There does not seem to be sufficient evidence that the difference in the terms used is at all due to the fact of the charge being pierced or not(see under Mullet pierced), though the ancient rowel probably was always so represented. See Spur-rowel.
    Gauter BERTANT, pale dor et de goules a une cauntel dazur a une rouel dargent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Johan de ASCHEBORNHAM, de goules, a une fesse e 6 rouwels de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    John de SEIN JOHN, dargent a chef de goules a deux roueles dor un vers chef--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Johan de SEIN JOHAN, de argent od le chef de goules a ij moles de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Li preus Johans de SAINT JOHAN ..                                           
    Ki sur touz ses guarnemens blancs                                           
    Et chief rouge ot de or deus molectes.                                      
      Roll of Carlaverock.                                                      
    Argent, on a chief gules, two mullets of eleven points or, pierced vert--John de SAINT JOHN[glass at Dorchester, Oxfordshire].
    John de PLESCY, dargent a treis molettes de goules perces--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Hue de PLECY, de argent a vj rouwels de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Hugh de CULY, de argent a un cheveron e iij rouwels de goules--Ibid.
    Monsire Hugh de CUILLY, port dargent, a une cheveron de sable entre trois mullets de sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Sire Johan de CRETINGE, de argent, a un cheveron e iij rouwels de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire de CRETINGE[port d'argent a une cheveron de gules] a trois mullets gules percées--Roll, temp. ED. III. [Ibid. in the Roll of Carlaverock].
    The modern term 'spur-rowel' is occasionally employed.
    Argent, two spur-rowels in chief pierced of the field, and a spear's head in base azure--AUCHMUTY.
    The term roelé in the arms of Rauf de GORGES has been thought to mean a whirlpool(see Gurges), but by a roll temp. ED. II. it would appear the family bore mascles.
Royal Exchange: this is given as an example of the extent to which a departure from the simplicity of ancient heraldry has been carried.
    Azure, on a mount vert the Royal Exchange proper adorned and embellished or, in chief two ships, the dexter under sail, hulk of the last, mast, sail and rigging as the third, the sinister slip riding at anchor sails furled blazoned like the dexter all proper--ROYAL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE COMPANY.
Ruby. See Gules.
Ruche, (fr.); Beehive.
Rudder: this device occurs but in few arms. The usual position seems to be with the hooks to the dexter, but they are sometimes drawn turned the other way, and should be so noticed in the blazon. Guillim suggests that the crest(q.v.) was intended for a rudder.
    Vert, the rudder of a ship argent on a chief of the last three buckles azure--SCOLLAY, Scotland.
    Azure, on a bend argent between two estoiles of six points or three rudders sable--PUTLAND, Ireland.
    Azure, three dolphins naiant embowed argent, on a chief or, three rudders sable--BURRIDGE, co. Devon.
    Azure, a lion rampant argent supporting a rudder or, on a chief of the second an anchor sable between two 3-foils proper--HENLEY, Waterperry, co. Oxford.
Ruffled: said of hands having ruffs, or ruffled on the wrists.
Ruins: this singular device is rare in English arms. In French heraldry the word "masure" is used to signify in ruins, and the device is more frequent. Decouverte also is used of a building with its roof destroyed.
    Or, a lion rampant couped in all the joints of the first within a bordure embattled gules--MAITLAND, Dundrennan, co. Kircudbright, quartering argent the ruins of an old abbey on a piece of ground proper.
Rundles. See Roundles.
Rushes. See Reeds.
Russet, a colour used of a Parrot.
Rustre, or Mascle round-pierced: a lozenge with a circular perforation. Certain ancient armour composed of links of this shape sewed upon cloth is thought to have supplied the origin of the charge. It is, however, very rarely found.
    Or, a rustre sable--CUSTANCE.
    Or, three rustres sable--PERY, Ireland.
    Argent, a fesse between three rustres sable--PARRY, Ireland.
Rye. See Wheat.