A or a in heraldic memoranda and sketches of arms in trick, is employed to signify Argent[and is better than ar., which might be mistaken for az, or for or].
Abacot. See Cap.
Abased, (fr. abaissé): this term is used when a chevron, fesse, or other ordinary, is borne lower than its usual situation. Charges, however, when placed low down in the shield are said to be in base.
Abatements, sometimes called Rebatements, are marks of disgrace attached to arms on account of some dishonourable act of the bearer. They are shewn by pieces of different shapes being to all appearance cut out of, or off from, the shield; their shapes and positions are represented by the following varieties, which are nine in number, and must be either sanguine or tenné, which the old writers call "staynande colours," otherwise they are no abatements but honourable charges, viz.--
  1. Delf.                 4. Point dexter.         7. Gore sinister.           
  2. Inescutcheonreversed. 5. Point pointed.        8. Gusset dexter.           
  3. Plain Point.          6. Point champaine.      9. Gusset sinister.         
    As the use of arms in not compulsory, a bearer would of course rather relinquish them than publish his own disgrace by bearing them abated. Abatements such as the above exist only in systems of heraldry, and no instance of their actual use is on record: but under the several headings diagrams will be found explaining the meaning of the terms which are used by heraldic writers.
    Broken chevrons, and beasts turned towards the sinister, are supposed by some heraldic writers to have been given as abatements.
    "And Edward the Third of England ordained two of six stars which a gentleman had in his arms to be effaced, because he had sold a seaport of which he was made governor." [According to Sir George Mackenzie, in allusion to AYMERY OF PAVIA, a Lombard, governor of Calais in 1349, who bore azure, four mullets or.]
    There is another mark of disgrace which is due only to the traitor: is consists in debasing or reversing the entire coat.
Abbey. See Monastery, also Ruins.
Abisme en, (fr.); in the middle fesse point.
Abouttés, (fr.): with the ends united in the centre, e.g. of four ermines. See Cross of four ermines, §8.
Absconded: entirely hidden by a superimposed ordinary, or charge.
Accidents, (fr. accidents): a comprehensive term applying to marks of difference and the like.
Accolé: 1. (from fr. col, the neck,) having a collar is synonymous with gorged(and occasionally with wreathed or entwined). 2. Is used still with French heralds when two shields are joined side by side; a practice sometimes adopted in England previously to the introduction impaling.
Accompanied, (fr. accompagné), used only by old heralds, is practically the same as 'between;' e.g., a cross accompanied by four crescents, or a chevron accompanied by three roses.
Accorné, (fr.): horned, but used only when the horns are of a different tincture.
Accosted, (fr. accosté): 1. a term used when charges are placed on each side of another charge, as, a pale accosted by six mullets; though English heralds would generally say, between six mullets pallet-wise. 2. Applied to two beasts walking or running side by side. Unless they are accosted passant counter-passant the more distant should be a little in advance of the other.
    Azure, a chevron between six rams accosted, counter trippant, 2, 2, and 2 argent, attired or--HARMAN, Suffolk.
Accroupi, (fr.): said of a lion or wild beast in a resting posture.
Accrued: full-grown; applied to trees.
Ace: See Cards.
Achievements, spelt sometimes atchievements, and more frequently hatchments: coats of arms in general, and particularly those funeral escutcheons, which being placed upon the fronts of houses or in churches, or elsewhere, set forth the rank and circumstances of the deceased. The arms upon the latter may in all cases be either single or quartered.
    When the deceased is the last of his line a death's head may be placed over his arms instead of, or besides, the crest.
    A. OFFICIAL PERSONAGES. 1, 2. A king or reigning queen, whether married or not.--The royal arms complete, upon a ground entirely black.
    3. A queen consort.--The achievements of a queen consort should be arranged in a manner similar to that of the lady of a peer.
    4. Archbishops and bishops.--An archbishop or bishop has his paternal arms impaled after the insignia of his see, both being surmounted by a mitre. The ground must be per pale, white on the dexter side, signifying that the see never dies, and black on the sinister, denoting the decease of the bishop. Whether the bishop be married or unmarried will make no difference in the arrangement of his achievement.
    The arms of the bishops of Winchester and Oxford(the one, prelate, and the other, chancellor of the order of the garter) should be encircled by the garter, and have their badges pendent. The archbishops of Armagh and Dublin bear the badge of the order of S.Patrick in the same manner. Prelates having temporal jurisdiction, (as the bishops of Durham had,) may bear a crosier and sword saltirewise behind their arms; the hilt of the sword should be uppermost.
    5, 6. The dean of a cathedral or collegiate church, or the head of a college, whether married or not.--The insignia of the deanery or college impaled with the paternal coat must be placed upon a ground parted per pale white and black, as in No. 4. A dean or other clerk should by no means bear a helmet, mantle, or crest.
    The deans of Windsor, Westminster, and S.Patrick's, Dublin, should bear the badges of their respective orders.
    7. Kings of Arms.--The achievement of a king of arms should contain the insignia of his office and his paternal coat impaled together, and surmounted by his helmet, crest, mantling, and crown. Some kings of arms have encircled their shields with the collar of SS belonging to their office. The ground of this achievement must be, like the above, per pale white and black.
Achievement in case of a Bachelor.
Achievement in case of a Bachelor.
    B. BACHELORS. All bachelors(official personages already mentioned being excepted), must have their arms complete, that is to say, with all the external ornaments belonging to their condition, upon a black ground, namely, if an esquire, with his wreath, helmet, and crest, and perhaps it may be with a mark of cadency on the arms. The arms being without any impalement, or any escutcheon of pretence, shews that the bearer was an unmarried man.
Achievement in case of a Husband.
Achievement in case of a Husband.
Achievement in case of a Knight.
Achievement in case of a Knight.
    C. HUSBANDS. 1. In general.--All husbands(except those whose wives are peeresses in their own right) should have a shield with the external ornaments proper to their rank, containing their own arms on the dexter side, impaled with their wives' on the sinister side, or if the latter be heiresses theirs must be upon an escutcheon of pretence. In all cases the ground will be per pale black and white, the dexter being black to denote the husband's decease.
    According to some modern heralds it is not proper for a knight to include the arms of his wife within the collar, ribbon, or other insignia of his order. In compliance with this opinion it is customary for the achievement of a knight(whether a peer or not) to be arranged thus:--Two shields are placed side by side, the first, which is encircled by the garter or other distinction of the order, contains the husband's arms alone, and the second those of the husband and wife. Both these shields are included within the external ornaments pertaining to the husband's rank. The ground is perpendicularly divided at the middle of the second shield, the dexter side black, the sinister white.
    Marriages previous to the last one should not be noticed upon achievements.
    2. A husband of any rank, whose lady is a peeress in her own right.--Two escutcheons; the dexter containing the arms of the husband with the lady's upon an escutcheon of pretence ensigned with her coronet: the sinister lozenge-shaped, with the lady's alone. Each must be accompanied by all its proper external ornaments. The ground should be perpendicularly divided at the middle of the dexter escutcheon, and painted black and white.
    D. WIDOWERS. Their funeral achievements only differ from those of husbands, under similar circumstances, in the ground being totally black.
    Woman(sovereign princesses excepted) may not bear helmets, crests, or mantlings, but a peeress is entitled to her robe of estate.
    E. UNMARRIED LADIES OF ANY RANK. The arms of an unmarried lady must be placed in a lozenge, but no external ornaments of an heraldic nature should be used, unless she were a peeress. In that case her supporters, robe of estate and coronet, should be added: the ground entirely black. Shells, cherubims' heads, and knots or bows of ribbon, are often placed above the arms of women, whether spinsters, wives, or widows.
    F. WIVES. 1. In general.--Their achievements are arranged precisely as their husbands' would be, except that the helmet, crest, mantle, and motto, are omitted, and the ground painted per pale, white and black, or, to speak more accurately, black under the arms of the wife, and white under those of the husband.
    2. The wife of an archbishop or bishop.--It is customary to arrange the achievement of the wife of a prelate thus:--Two shields, the first containing the impaled arms of the see and the bishop, surmounted by a mitre, and the second, the family arms of the bishop with those of his wife, and over them a knot of ribbons or a cherub's head: the ground all white except that part under the arms of the wife(i.e. about one third per pale on the sinister side), which must be black.
Achievement in case of a Widow.
Achievement in case of a Widow.
    G. WIDOWS. The achievements of widows differ from those of wives in two respects; the escutcheon or escutcheons are lozenge-shaped(escutcheons of pretence excepted), and the ground is entirely black. The arms should be encircled by a silver Cordon, which is the special symbol of widowhood.
    As the episcopal dignity in one in which a wife cannot participate, the achievement of a prelate's widow should not differ from that of the widow of a private gentleman. The same may be said of the widow of a knight.
    The place for affixing the arms above described is against the residence of the deceased; but some years ago in many churches, but now in very few, helmets and banners of some deceased knight were frequently found remaining hung up in some aisle or chapel, and these also went by the name of hatchments. The banners in St.George's, Windsor, afford the most complete example of the survival of an old custom, and here also the achievement is engraved on a plate in the stall held by each successive knight of the Order of the Garter.
    In France the litre, or lisiere, hung around the churches, answers, perhaps, to the hatchment.
Acorn, (fr. gland, old fr. cheyne): this is usually represented vert, but they may be of other colours. They may also be slipped or leaved. An acorn-sprig is not unfrequently used in the arms, and is often used also as a crest. Sometimes, too, the acorn-cups are represented alone.
    Sire Rauf de Cheyndut, de azure, a un cheyne de or, e un label de goules--Roll of Arms, temp. EDW. II.
    Argent, three martlets azure, on a chief gules an acorn between two mullets or--CAIRNS.
    An acorn slipped and leaved--Seal of town of WOKINGHAM.
    Argent, three acorns slipped vert--AIKENHEAD and TATTON.
    Vert, three acorns or--HARDING and SMITH, Middlesex.
    Quarterly, per fess indented first and fourth gules in chief a maunch argent, in base an acorn sprig--AKERMAN, Surrey.
    Argent, three cups of acorns, azure--ATHUL.
    Acorns are also borne by the families of ASHTON, Marketfield; ATASTER(or AKASTER); BRETTELL, Worcester; BOYS; CROMIE, Kildare; CUDDERLEY, Derby; DALLING; DUNCAN, Essex; FYFIELD; IFIELD; JOHNSON, Warrington; PALMER, Middlesex; SEVENOKE, and others.
Acorned, (of an oak)=fructed with acorns(fr. englanté).
Adam and Eve. See Paradise.
Adder's tongue. See Fern.
Adders, (old fr. givre or vivre, from lat. vipera) or asps: appear not to be distinguishable from serpents and snakes, except as regards size. They are represented as nowed, embowed, or erect. When not otherwise described they would be represented fesswise, but curling. Vipers' heads also occur.
    Gules, an adder nowed or--NATHERLY.
    Sable, three chevrons ermine between as many adders argent--WISE, Warwick. The same between three adders erect or--WISE, Brompton. Also embowed vert--WISE.
    Vert, three adders erect argent--HASSELL, Wraysbury.
    Azure, on a bend argent, three adders embowed of the first--CASTLETON, Surrey.
    Argent, three viper's heads erased proper--HATSELL, 1708.
    Vert, three asps in pale or--ASPENDALL.
Addorsed, or endorsed(fr. adossé): said of two animals turned back to back. These terms(generally the latter) are also used with reference to axes(bills), to keys, when the keybits or wards are turned outwards, and to other similar objects, and more especially to wings and heads of birds, &c.
    Argent, two lions rampant addorsed, the 1st azure, 2nd gules--LUCAS.
    Sable, two greyhounds endorsed argent--BARNARD, Hants.
    Sable, two bills addorsed in saltire argent--BILLINGFORD, Norfolk.
    Azure, an eagle's wings endorsed or--EDMUNDS, Lyndhurst.
    Gules, two keys addorsed in bend or, interlaced with a sword in bend sinister argent, hilt and pomel of the second--PLIMPTON Monastery.
Adextre par, (fr.): having a charge on the right or dexter side.
Adorned, (fr. adorné): a chapeau or other article of dress, charged, is sometimes said to be adorned with such a charge.
Adumbration, or Transparency: the shadow of a charge, apart from the charge itself, painted the same colour as the field upon which it is placed, but of a darker tint, or perhaps, in outline only. The term belongs rather to the romance of heraldry than to its practice, and is imagined by the writers to have been adopted by families who, having lost their possessions, and consequently being unable to maintain their dignity, chose rather to bear their hereditary arms adumbrated than to relinquish them altogether. When figured by a black line the bearing is said to be entrailed.
Adz, or Addice. See Axe.
Affrontant, (fr. affronté): used when two animals face each other, e.g. of goats, stags, greyhounds; but the terms Confronting and Respecting each other, are more properly employed.
    Sable, on a mount vert, two stags salient affrontant argent, attired or--JOHN FISHER, Bp. of Exeter, 1803; Bp. of Salisbury, 1807-25.
    Gules, two greyhounds salient affrontant or--DOGGETS, Norfolk.
Affronty, (fr. de front): facing the spectator(as the lion in the crest of Scotland), or in full aspect, which is the more correct term when applied to a bird. It is applied to a helmet, savage's head, &c. [See a remarkable example given under Monastery.]
    Per saltire, or and argent ... in the chief centre section an open helmet affronty unbarred proper ... --POWER.
    Gules, three savage's heads affronty erased argent--VIGNE.
    Azure, a bull's head affronty couped at the neck argent, between two wings or .... HOSTE.
African. See Man.
Agnus Dei. See Lamb(Holy).
Aigrette, (old fr.): an Egret or tufted heron.
Aiguiere, (fr.) See Ewer.
Aiguise, (fr.) or Equisé: sharply pointed, e.g. of a cross pointed.
Aislé, (fr.): winged; but used only in respect of animals naturally without wings.
Ajouré, (fr.): 1. of a chief when the upper part is crenellé, and the field shewn through; 2. of a building with the openings shewing the field at the back.
A la quise. See erased.
Alant. See Dog.
Albanian Bonnet. See Cap.
Alberia: a shield without ornament or armorial bearings, so called from being white.
Alce. See Griffin.
Alcyon, (fr.): an aquatic bird represented in its nest amidst the waves of the sea--MASSILLON, Ile de France.
Alder: there is one species of alder bearing berries, and to this probably the arms following refer.
    Argent, three bunches of alderberries proper--ALDERBERRY.
Alembick. See Limbeck.
Alerons, Ailettes or Alettes. See Emerasses.
Allerions, (fr. alérions): resembling eaglets displayed, but without beak or feet, and the points of the wings downward.
    Gules, three allerions displayed or--LIMESEY.
    Or, on a bend gules, three allerions argent--Duchy of LORRAINE.
    [These arms are supposed to have originated from the circumstance of Godfrey of Boulogne, duke of Lorraine, shooting three allerions with an arrow from a tower of Jerusalem "upon the direction of a prophetick person." A far more probable supposition is, that the arms were intended as a play upon the name of the duchy.]
Alesé, or Alaisé(fr.), when an ordinary does not extend to the edge of the shield: but the English term couped is more usual, and of a cross humetty, §7.
Alligator, and Crocodile. The only case of either of these borne in English arms is,
    Gules, a chevron argent between three alligators .... --HITCHCOCK.
    Per chief gules and or, in base an olive-tree eradicated and fructed proper, in chief the head and fore-legs of a crocodile issuant proper--DALBIAC, Bedford.
Allocamelus, called by Holmes am Ass-camel, is a fictitious beast borne as a crest by the EAST LAND COMPANY, and so far as has been observed by this Company alone.
    [The Company was incorporated 1579, and Charter confirmed by Charles II.]
Allumé: applied by French heralds to the eye of a beast or bird when touched with red.
Almond: parts of the Almond-tree are sometimes found, e.g.
    Argent, an almond slip fructed proper--ALMOND.
    Sable, an eagle displayed between two bendlets argent; on a chief or three almond leaves vert--JORDAN, Surrey.
Altar: a tall circular pedestal, generally borne inflamed.
    Sable, on a fesse dancetty of four, between three lions rampant gardant argent, each supporting an altar or, flaming proper, nine billets of the field.--SMIJTH, of Hill Hall, Essex.
Altar tomb. See Church.
Alternate, or alternated, is sometimes applied to the tinctures; e.g. of a plume of feathers, where every other one is of a different tincture. In the use of the terms barry, chequy, and the like, 'alternately' is understood.
Ambulant: walking; passant generally used.
Amethyst. See Purpure.
Amphistere. See Cockatrice.
Ampty, or Anty. See Enty.
Ananas, See Pine-apple.
Ancettée. See Cross humetty, §7.
Anché, (fr.): curved; used of a scimetar, &c.
Anchor, (fr. ancre): this is frequently used as a charge, or crest, emblematical of hope, or of naval service. In old examples it is not unfrequently ringed at the point as well as at the head The parts are thus named: the shank or beam(fr. stangue): the stock, timber, or cross-piece(fr. trabe): the cable(fr. gumène): and the fluke(fr. patte). In some coats the anchor has a chain attached instead of a cable.
    Argent, an anchor sable--SKIPTON.
    Gules, an anchor argent, the ring or--ZACHERT.
    Gules, an anchor argent, the stock or--GOADEFROY.
    Azure, a lion rampant supporting a cabled anchor or; on a chief wavy .... --RICHARDSON.
    Argent, an anchor erect(without a stock) proper, environed on the centre with the letter C or--CLEMENTS INN.
    An anchor between two smaller ones, within the beam and fluke--Seal of NAVY OFFICE. [See also MARINERS' Company, Newcastle-on-Tyne, under Whistle.]
Anchored(fr. ancré), or ancred. See under Cross moline, §24.
Ancient, or anshent: 1. a kind of flag; 2. used in the sense of Antique.
Andrew, S., Cross of, and Banner of. See Saltire.
Andrew, S., Order of, See Knighthood.
Angel, (fr. Ange): The figure is always represented in full aspect, the wings extended with points upwards. Angels' wings also occur; and in the singular arms of the family of RAPHAEL, Surrey, the angel Raphael is named in connection with Ararat, q.v. Angels are found as supporters, and a single angel frequently as a crest.
    Argent, on a chevron sable three angels kneeling, habited in long robes close girt, their hands conjoined elevated upon their breasts, wings displayed or--MAELOR CRWM, Caernarvon.
    Azure, a pillar erect between two angel's wings, elevated or--AWBORN.
    Gules, an Angel standing erect with hands conjoined and elevated on the breast, habited in a long robe, girt argent, wings displayed or--BRANGOR(or Berenger) of Cervisia, 1413.
Angemnes, (lat. ingemmœ): a series of round ornaments. See Sexfoils.
Angles: this bearing seems intended to represent the hook or fastening of a waistband(the arms of Wastley being allusive), and for this purpose the rings are attached; possibly for the same purpose, namely, that it might serve as a dress fastening, rings were attached to the Cross annuletty. This charge might be described also as two chevrons interlaced and couped.
    Azure, three pairs of Angles interlaced fesswise; at each end an annulet azure--WASTLEY.
Anille. See Fer de Moline.
Animé, (fr.). See Incensed.
Annodated: bowed embowed, or bent in the form of the letter S.
Annulet, (fr. Anneau and Anelet, written sometimes in plural Anelettz or Anels:) a small ring, possibly derived from the links composing chain armour. It is of frequent occurrence as a charge, and generally more than one appear: the two annulets are often linked in fess, or embraced; or they may be conjunct. Three may in like manner be interlaced in triangle. When three rings are interlaced the expression gimbal rings is sometimes used, and when more, they form a chain, q.v.
    The single annulet is likewise the difference, or mark of cadency, assigned to the fifth son.
    Azure, three annulets argent, (of another branch or)--ANLETT.
    Sir Nicholas de VEPOUND de or a vj aneus de gules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Johan de CROMWELLE de goules a vj aneus de or--Ibid.
    Monsire de BARTON de Fryton port d'ermin, sur fes gules trois anneletts d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, two annulets linked together gules, between three crosses formy sable--THORNHAGH, Nottingham.
    Argent, two annulets conjunct sable, within an orle of trefoils slipped vert--John ETON.
    Ermine, three annulets interlaced in triangle gules--MANDERE.
    Gules, six annulets embraced or, two, two and two--BRACER.
    Gules, six annulets interlaced palewise in pairs, and a chief or--CLENCH.
    Argent, nine annulets in saltire interlaced[chain], five gules and four azure--HATCHET.
    Ermine, three annulets, one within another, gules--FYTTON.
    (See also under roundles 'faux rondelets'.)
Annuletty, Annulated, or Ringed: crosses and saltires are occasionally couped and ringed at the ends. See angles and Cross annuletty, the couping being implied.
Ant, (fr. fourmi). Of the insecta of the animal kingdom there are but few representatives. The ants, and with them the emmets, may be mentioned: the former are generally represented on their ant-hill(fr. fourmiliêre).
    Vert, an ant argent--KENDIFFE.
    Sable, on a chevron between three ant-hills or, each charged with four ants proper, as many holly leaves azure--Benedictine Abbey of PERSHORE.
    Argent, a bend azure between three emmets sable--MASSY.
Antelope: it is now customary with herald-painters to draw animals as they appear naturally, which is, generally speaking, directly contrary to the practice of ancient artists, who drew them conventionally. Hence arises the distinction between the heraldic antelope and the natural. The form of the antelope, as drawn by the old heralds, has a mane and long tail, and differs considerably from the fawn-like appearance of the animal in nature. Antelopes' heads are also frequently named, and both the animal and the head appear among the crests. The antelope gorged with a crown occurs amongst the badges of Henry V., and with an ordinary collar with chain attached amongst those of Henry VI.
    Argent, an heraldic antelope gules, tusked, horned, maned and hoofed or--ANTILUPE.
    Sable, an antelope salient argent, attired, unguled, tufted, and maned or--HARRIS, Monm. and Devon.
    Argent, on a bend gules, three antelopes passant of the first, attired or--HALLIWELL, Lancaster.
    Azure, a fess nebuly ermine between three antelope's heads erased argent--SNOW, London.
    Sable, three antelope's heads couped argent armed or--BRUSARD.
    With the heraldic Antelope must be grouped the Ibex, which resembles it, although belonging to the goat-tribe.
    Argent, a fess engrailed between three ibexes passant sable--SEDBOROUGH, York.
    Lozengy argent and vert, on a bend azure an annulet in chief of two heraldic ibex's heads or--Sir John YOUNG, Lord Mayor of London, 1466.
Antique, (fr.): a word not infrequent in the blazoning of coats of arms, signifying that the charge, &c., is to be drawn after the antique or ancient manner; e.g. an antique crown, boot, bow, escutcheon, ship, temple, plough, hulk, &c. The antique crown, for instance, is encircled by a series of plain triangular rays.
    Argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned with an antique crown or--ROCHE, Ireland.
    Azure, an antique bow in fess, and arrow in pale argent.--MULLER.
    Or, on a lion rampant sable, an antique escutcheon or, charged with a cross patty gules--POWNALL.
Anvil: this charge appears to be borne but rarely, and annexed is the form it takes.
    Per chevron argent and sable, three anvils counterchanged--SMITH of Abingdon, Berks.
    Azure, an anvil or--ARNULF.
    Gules, a smith's anvil argent--ANVAILE or ANVIL.
Apaumy, or Appalmed, (fr. appaumé): said of a hand open, shewing the palm. The term is, however, scarcely necessary, as every hand not blazoned as aversant, or dorsed, is supposed to be appalmed.
    Vert, an arrow fesswise in chief and a dexter hand apaumy couped in base argent--LOUGHMAN, Ireland.
Ape: this is the only representative of the Quadrumana used as a charge; a monkey occurs sometimes as a crest.
    Sable, a chevron or between three apes argent, chained of the second--LOBLEY.
    Vert, an ape sejant holding up the paw braced round the middle, and chained to the sinister side of the escutcheon argent--APPLEGH.
Apollo: a figure of Apollo, as the inventor of Physic, occurs in the insignia of one Company.
    Azure, Apollo proper with the head radiant, holding in the left hand a bow, and in the right hand an arrow or, supplanting[or bestriding] a serpent argent--APOTHECARIES' Company[inc. 1617].
Apple, (fr. pomme): the apple-tree is rarely borne; the fruit is more frequently so.
    Argent, an apple tree vert fructed proper--ESTWIRE.
    Gules, a bird argent standing upon an apple or--CONHAM, Wilts.
    Argent, a fesse sable, between three apples gules stalked vert--APPELTON.
    Argent, on a bend sable, three apples slipped or--APULBY.
    Azure, a bar argent; in base three apples erect proper--HARLETON.
    Azure, a bar argent; in base three apples transposed or--HARLEWYN.
Apple of Granada. See Pomegranate.
Appointé, (fr.): of two charges whose points meet, e.g. cf. chevrons, swords, arrows, &c.
Apre, a fictitious animal, resembling a bull with the tail of a bear.
    The sinister supporter of the arms of the Company of MUSCOVY Merchants.
Aquilon, (fr.): the north wind is represented by an infant's features with the cheeks puffed out(perhaps used only in French coats of arms).
Ararat: this mount is mentioned in a very curious manner, namely, in the arms of the family of RAPHAEL.
    Quarterly azure and argent a cross moline or, in the first quarter the sun in splendour; in the second the ark on the summit of Mount Ararat, and a city at the base, with this inscription in the Armenian language, NAKSIVAN; in the third quarter the angel Raphael and Tobias standing on a mount, thereon a fish proper; in the fourth an anchor with the cable entwined in band or--RAPHAEL, Ditton Lodge, Surrey.
Arbalette, (fr.): a steel cross-bow.
Arch: this may be single or double, i.e. springing from two of three pillars, which may be of a different tincture from the rest, as also may the imposts, or caps, and bases. See also Bridge.
    Gules, three arches, two single in chief, and one double in base argent, the imposts or--ARCHES.
    Gules, three arches conjoined in fess argent; caps and bases or--ARCHES[Harl. MS. 613].
Arched, or Archy: said of an ordinary which is embowed.
Archer: this figure is used as a charge only on one coat of arms, but it occurs at times as a supporter.
    Gules, three arches azure--ABRENCIS or AVERING, Kent.
Ardent, (fr.): inflamed and burning.
Argent, (fr.): the tincture Silver. By those who emblazon according to the Planetary system it is represented by the Moon, just as the tincture of gold is represented by the Sun. Hence it is sometimes fancifully called Luna in the arms of princes, as also Pearl in those of peers. As silver soon becomes tarnished, it is generally represented in painting by white. In engraving it is known by the natural colour of the paper; and in tricking by the letter a. In the doubling of mantles it may be called white, because(as the old heralds say) it is not in that case to be taken for a metal, but the skin of a little beast called a Litvite. Sometimes, too, in old rolls of arms the term blanc is used.
    Argent, simple--BOGUET, Normandy.
    Blank ung rey de soleil de goules--RAUF DE LA HAY, Roll, temp. 1240.
Ark: See Noah's Ark.
Arm, (fr. bras, but usually dextrochere or senestrochere, q.v.): the human arm is often found as part of a crest, although it is not very frequent as a charge. It should be carefully described as being dexter or sinister; erect, embowed, or counter-embowed; vested, vambraced, armed, or naked, as the case may be: sometimes it is cuffed. If couped, care should be taken to describe where. When couped at the elbow, it is called a cubit-arm. When armed the metal-plates for the elbow are termed brassarts.
    Gules, three dexter arms conjoined at the shoulders, and fixed in triangle[like the legs in the ensign of the Isle of Man], vested or, with fists clenched, proper--TREMAYNE, Cornwall.
    Sable, three dexter arms conjoined at the shoulder, and fixed in triangle, vested or, cuffed argent, the fists clenched, proper--ARMSTRONG.
    Gules, three dexter arms braced[i.e. vambraced] argent, hands proper--ARMSTRONG, Ballycumber.
    Gules, a naked arm embowed, issuing from the sinister holding a battle-axe erect proper--HINGENSON, Bucks.
    Gules, an arm in armour proper, holding a Danish battle-axe argent--HINGSTON, Holbeton, Devon.
    Gules, issuing from the sinister side a cubit dexter arm unvested, fesswise grasping a sword proper--CORNOCK, co. Wexford.
    The arm is also borne by the families of ARMORBERY--DE LA FAY--PUREFOY--BORLASE--ARMORER--RENNCEVALE--HANCOCK--CHAMBERLAYNE, and many others.
    An Arm, when used as a Crest, more frequently holds a dagger, arrow, &c.; also two arms sometimes occur.
Armed, (fr. armé): when any beast of prey has teeth and claws, or any beast of chase(except stags, &c.) horns and hoofs, or any bird of prey beak and talons, of a tincture different from its body, it is said to be armed of such a tincture, though, as regards hoofs, hoofed, or unguled(fr. onglé), is the more accurate term. The lion is usually langued of the same tincture. The application to beasts and birds of prey is because their talons are to them weapons of defence.
    Argent, three bars azure, over all an eagle with two heads gules, armed or--SPEKE, Cornwall.
    When the term is applied to arrows it refers to their iron points: and when a Man is said to be armed at all points it signifies that he is entirely covered with armour except his face.
Armes parlantes: canting-arms.
Armes pour enquerir, (fr.): Applied to Arms where there is irregularity, e.g. metal on metal, as in the Arms of Jerusalem, or colour on colour. See Cross Potent, §31.
Armined, i.q. Ermined.
Armoiries, (fr.): Coats of Arms; Achievements.
Armour: the grants of coats of arms having been of old frequently for services rendered in the battle-field it is but natural that portions of the armour should at times form devices emblazoned on the shields, and be used for Crests. The Helmet, for instance, besides being an appendage to the shield, became a charge, and was represented differently, besides which there were several varieties of metal head-coverings, such as the Cap of Steel, the Bassinet, the Burgonet, and the Morion, all different from the esquire's helmet, which was that usually represented. The hauberk and the habergeon, as well as the cuirass, or breastplate, are found as bearings. So also armour and brassarts for the arm, gauntlets for the hand, and greaves for the leg occur. We find a "Man in Armour," or, as he may be termed, a Chevalier, and this last is often employed as a 'supporter.' To describe all the various portions of armour, and their several names at different periods, would be beyond the limits of this work, though in its origin Heraldry, as the "Science of Armoury," is intimately associated with the subject.
    Vert, a horse thereon a man in complete armour, in the dexter hand a sword proper--MAGUIRE.
    Sable, a chevalier in full armour with halbert proper--ARGANOR.
    Sable, a demi-chevalier in plate armour, couped at the thighs proper, holding in his dexter hand a battle-axe--HALFHEAD.
    A man on horseback in full speed, armed cap-a-pie, and bearing on his left arm his shield charged with the arms of France and England quarterly; on his helmet a cap of maintenance; thereon a lion statant guardant ducally crowned; his dexter arm extended and holding a sword erect, the pomel whereof is fastened to a chain which passes from the gorget; the horse fully caparisoned--Seal of the Town of WALLINGFORD.
    A man in armour also borne by families of MONCURRE, ANSTROTHER, ARMSDRESSER, O'LOGHLEN, GRIMSDITCH, NEVOY, &c.
Armoyé, (fr.): charged with a shield of arms.
Arms in heraldry signify the Armorial bearings(fr. Armoiries), and strictly speaking the term is applied only to those borne upon the shield. Crests, badges, and the like are not properly so described. The origin, or even date, of the earliest examples of armorial bearings has occasioned much dispute, so that the subject requires a treatise to itself.
    The various modes of acquiring, and reasons for bearing arms are differently described by different writers, but the following varieties will be found to represent the more usual classification.
    Arms of Dominion are those borne by sovereign princes; being those of the states over which they reign: while Arms of Pretension are those borne by sovereigns who have no actual authority over the states to which such arms belong, but who quarter them to express their prescriptive right thereunto.
    Arms of Succession, otherwise called feudal arms, are those borne by the possessors of certain lordship or estates: while Arms of Family are hereditary, being borne(with proper differences) by all the descendants of the first bearer.
    Arms of Assumption are such as might rightfully be taken, according to certain laws, from the original bearer otherwise than by grant or descent: and Arms of Alliance are those of a wife, which a man impales with his own, or those which he quarters, being the arms of heiresses who have married into his family. Arms of Adoption are those borne by a stranger, when the last of a family grants him the right to bear his name and arms, as well as to possess his estates: and Arms of Concession are granted when an important service has been rendered to the Sovereign. The grant almost always consists of an Augmentation, q.v. Arms of Patronage: those of the lesser nobility or gentry derived from the arms of the greater.
    Arms of Office, such as those borne by Bishop, Deans, Kings of Arms, &c.; and lastly,
    Arms of Community, those borne by cities, towns, abbeys, universities, colleges, guilds, mercantile companies, &c. The arms of abbeys and colleges are generally those of their founders, to which the abbeys usually added some charge of an ecclesiastical character, as a crosier, mitre, or key. Such arms, as well as those borne by Sovereigns, are more properly termed Insignia.
    The Royal Arms. Arms have been assigned in subsequent times to all the early kings of England from Alfred the Great onwards, but the earliest English sovereign for whose insignia we have any contemporary authority is Richard Cœur-de-Lion. From that time onwards the series is complete; and in most cases the great seal of each successive reign affords a good illustration. The following notes will be found to represent a brief summary of the more important changes.
    Though we have no authority for the arms of WILLIAM I., WILLIAM RUFUS, or HENRY I., writers agree in ascribing to them the following.
    Gules, two lions[or leopards] passant gardant in pale or.
    Some ingenious writer, knowing that the Sagittarius was ascribed as the badge of KING STEPHEN, substituted it for the lions in the Royal arms, but following late examples, placed three instead of two upon the shield.
    According to a theory of comparatively late date, HENRY II., upon his marriage with Eleanor, daughter and heiress of the Duke of Aquitaine and Guyenne, added another lion, and hence the Insignia of England(q.v.)
    Gules, three lions passant gardant in pale[called the lions of England] or.
    These arms appear very distinctly upon the great seal of his successor, RICHARD I., but there is a second great seal of this king(perhaps even earlier), in which a portion of the shield is shewn, and(possibly by carelessness of the die-cutter) this contains a lion counter-rampant.
    The great seals of JOHN, HENRY III., and EDWARD I. exhibit the arms of England very clearly. The seal of EDWARD II. is without a coat of arms, but there is abundance of other evidence for ascribing the same to him.
    Le Roy de ENGLETERRE, porte de goules a iij lupars passauns de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    EDWARD III., for some years after his accession, bore the same arms, but after 1340 he bore--
    Quarterly 1 and 4; azure semy of fleur-de-lis or[for France] 2 and 3, arms of ENGLAND.
    On the seal is represented, for the first time, a distinct crest(a lion passant on a chapeau).
    There are several authorities for the same arms being borne by RICHARD II.; but towards the end of his reign he impaled the imaginary arms of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, his patron Saint.
    Azure, a cross patonce between five martlets or.
    HENRY IV. bears on his great seal the same arms, and apparently a similar crest. The badges of HENRY V. are sometimes given as the supporters of the arms of HENRY IV., but on no good authority.
    HENRY V. bears the same arms, but CHARLES VI. of France having reduced the number of fleur-de-lys in the arms of that kingdom to three, the arms of HENRY V. were then altered, and appear so in the great seal.
    HENRY VI. the same; and the arms appear with two antelopes argent, attired, unguled, and spotted or, gorged with crowns as supporters, and the motto, Dieu et mon droit.
    EDWARD IV., EDWARD V., and RICHARD III., the same arms, with supporters 'a lion rampant argent, and a bull sable armed and unguled or;' and in one case 'two white boars armed, unguled, and bristled or.'
    HENRY VII. and HENRY VIII., EDWARD VI., MARY and ELIZABETH the same arms, excepting that after Mary's marriage with king Philip, she bore the arms of the two sovereigns impaled, viz. with that of PHILIP on the dexter.
    Throughout the supporters appear varied. A dragon gules and a greyhound argent appear with the arms of HENRY VII. A dragon and greyhound, also a lion and greyhound, with those of HENRY VIII. A lion and dragon with those of EDWARD VI. A lion and greyhound with those of MARY, and a lion and dragon with those of ELIZABETH. But the authorities, chiefly in sculpture and painting, are not much to be depended on.
    JAMES I. On his great seal we find the following:--
    Quarterly, I. and IV. counter quartered: 1 and 4 FRANCE; 2 and 3 ENGLAND. II. Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counter flory gules--SCOTLAND. III. Azure, a harp or stringed argent--IRELAND.
    These arms were continued to be used by CHARLES I., CHARLES II., and JAMES II., and are usually represented in carving, painting, &c., with the same supporters, namely, the lion and the unicorn. It may be noted, however, that CROMWELL, as Protector, bore:--
    Quarterly 1 and 4; argent a cross gules[i.e. of St.George, for ENGLAND]. 2, Azure, a saltire argent[i.e. of St.Andrew, for SCOTLAND]. 3, Azure, a harp or, stringed argent[for IRELAND], and on an escutcheon surtout sable a lion rampant gardant argent[for CROMWELL].
    WILLIAM and MARY bore the same arms, but the former with an escutcheon surtout bearing the arms of NASSAU(Azure, semé of billets and a lion rampant or).
    Queen ANNE bore the arms of JAMES II., but on the union with Scotland in 1707 the Royal Arms were marshalled:--
    Quarterly 1 and 4, ENGLAND impaled with SCOTLAND; 2 FRANCE; 3 IRELAND;
    GEORGE I. and GEORGE II. the same, except that in the fourth quartering the arms of HANOVER were substituted for ENGLAND.
    GEORGE III. After the Treaty of Amiens in 1801 the Arms of France were abandoned and the Royal Arms were:--
    Quarterly 1 and 4 ENGLAND; 2 SCOTLAND; 3 IRELAND; an escutcheon with the arms of HANOVER surtout ensigned with the electoral bonnet[afterwards with a crown].
    GEORGE IV. and WILLIAM IV. the same. VICTORIA as follows:--
    Quarterly 1 and 4 ENGLAND; 2 SCOTLAND; 3 IRELAND.
    From JAMES I. onwards the Lion and Unicorn remained the supporters, generally with the same motto, Dieu et mon droit.
Arms accollés. See Marshalling.
Arms composed. See Marshalling.
Arraché, (fr.), or arrasht: (1) of trees, pulled up by the roots=eradicated; (2) of heads of animals, &c., torn off=erased.
Arrière, (fr.): Volant en arrière of a bird or insect flying with the back to the spectator.
Arrondi, (fr.): rounded off.
Arrow, (fr. flêche): the ordinary position of an arrow is in pale, with the point downward, that is, falling(fr. tombante), but to prevent the possibility of a mistake, it would be better always to mention it, because in French coats they are more frequently the other way. When represented as rising, it should be stated "with point upwards," &c. Arrows appear blazoned as barbed(fr. ferré) or armed(fr. armé) of the tincture of their points, and flighted or feathered(fr. empenné) of that of their feathers; also notched(or nooked) (fr. encoché) of the tincture of the end which rests on the bowstring. The tincture given is that of the shaft, but with French heralds it is sometimes named as shafted(fr. futé) of such a tincture.
    Vert, an arrow in pale, point downwards, or, barbed and feathered argent--STANDARD, Oxfordsh. [A particular arrow was called a standard, and hence this is a canting coat.]
    Gules, two arrows in saltire argent, over all a fess chequy of the second and first--MACAULAY.
    Argent, two arrows in saltire, points upward azure between four 5-foils of the last--JAMESON.
    Per pale embattled gules and azure an arrow in bend or, barbed and feathered argent, point upward--CUGLER, Hertfordshire.
    Gules, three arrows double pointed or--HALES.
    When arrows are in bundles such bundles are called sheaves of arrows(the number and position being in some cases mentioned).
    Gules, three bundles of as many arrows argent--BYEST, Salop.
    Gules, three sheaves of arrows points upwards argent--JOSKYN.
    Gules, three bundles of as many arrows, two in saltire and one in pale or, feathered headed, and tied in the middle with a string argent--BESTE.
    A bird-bolt again differs, not being barbed as an ordinary arrow: it may be described as a blunt-headed arrow used to shoot birds, and shot from a cross-bow. An old French word, 'boson,' also occurs, which appears to mean the same.
Broad arrow.
Broad arrow.
    Argent, three cross-bows bent, each loaded with a three-headed bird-bolt sable; a chief vert--SEARCHFIELD, Bp. of Bristol, 1619.
    Argent, three bird-bolts gules, headed and feathered or--BUSSHAM, Lincolnshire.
    Argent, three bird-bolts in fess gules--BOLTON.
    Argent, three bird-bolts in pile gules--BOUZUN.
    Argent, three bird-bolts gules, headed or, and feathered of the first--BOWMAN, Norfolk.
    Or, three bird-bolts gules, nooked and pointed of the first; a label gules--BEARUM.
    Sire Peres BOSOUN de argent a iij bosons de gules--Roll, temp. Hen. III.
    A broad arrow differs somewhat, perhaps, from the above in the head, and resembles a pheon(q.v.), except in the omission of the jagged edge on the inside of the barbs. By the term broad arrow, the head alone is meant. The bolt and the quarrel were shorter arrows, used with the cross-bow.
    Argent, three broad arrows azure--HALES, Stafford.
    Gules, a broad arrow between two wings argent--ZINGELL.
    Argent, three bolts in pale gules--BOLTSHAM, Devon.
    Gules, three quarrels argent--BAGGSHAM.
    Arrows are also borne by the families of ARCHARD, HYAM, ZINGEL, TINGEWICK, FLOYER, FORSTER, and many others.
Arrow-head. See also Pheon.
Ascendant: said of rays, flames, or smoke issuing upwards.
Ascents, or Degrees: steps.
Ash: this tree occurs in more than one coat, rather, perhaps, in consequence of the frequency of the syllable ash in proper names. It probably refers to the common ash(i.e. fraxinus), unless otherwise expressed. But examples occur of mountain ash, properly called the rowan-tree(and in one case rodey).
    Argent, an ash-tree proper issuing from the bung of a tun--ASHTON, Cornwall.
    Argent, an ash-tree vert--ESTWREY. [By one branch of the family a chevron vert between three bunches of ashen keys proper.]
    Argent, on a chevron gules between three branches of rowan[or rodey] tree proper, as many crescents or. [Also by another blazoning between three trees proper, fructed of the second]--RODEY, Liverpool.
    Argent, on a chevron azure, between three branches of mountain-ash vert, as many crescents of the first--ROWNTREE.
Ashen keys.
Ashen keys.
    The seed-vessels of the common ash-tree are called Ashen keys.
    Argent, three ashen keys vert between two couple-closes sable--ASHFORD, Devon.
    Argent, a chevron between three branches of ashen keys vert--ASHFORD, Cornwall.
Ash. See Colour.
Asker. See Effet.
Asp. See Adder.
Aspect: a term expressive of the position of an animal, as in full aspect means full-faced, or affronty(fr. de front). In trian aspect means between passant and affronty.
    Or, an eagle in full aspect gules, standing on a perch issuing out of the sinister side argent--BODY.
    Gules, on a mount vert a stork in train aspect to the sinister argent--ARNALT.
Aspectant: used improperly for respectant.
Aspen leaf. See Poplar.
Aspersed: the same as(fr.) semé, strewed, or powdered.
Ass, (fr. âne): this animal in theoretical heraldry is emblematical of patience, but appears mainly to be used in arms as punning upon the name. The Mule is sometimes named, (but erroneously in arms of MOYLE. See under Bull).
    Sable, an ass argent--ASSIL.
    Argent, a fesse between three asses passant sable--ASKEWE.
    Sable, a fesse between three asses passant argent--AYSCOUGH, Bp. of Salisbury, 1438-50.
    Argent, an ass's head erased sable--HOLKNELL.
    Gules, an ass(or mule) passant within a border argent--MOYLE, Kent.
    Sable, a fesse ermine between three mules passant argent--STOMPE, Berks.
Assaultant, or Assailant: i.q. Salient.
Assis, (fr.) sitting; of domestic animals: of wild animals sejant.
Assumption. See Arms of.
Assurgent: rising out of.
Astroid: another name for an ordinary mullet.
Astrolabe: the old astronomical instrument described by Ptolemy, used for taking altitudes.
    Az, an astrolabe or--ASTROLL.
    Per fess or and gules, an astrolabe proper held in the dexter paw of a lion rampant counterchanged armed and langued az.--MIDDLETON, Frazerburgh.
Astronomical signs. See Letters.
Asure, and Assure: written sometimes for Azure.
At bay. See Deer.
At gaze: a term applicable to beasts of the stag kind, as statant gardant is to beasts of prey.
Attire, (fr. ramure): may be used for a single horn of a stag. Both the horns are commonly called a stag's attires(sometimes written tires), and are generally borne affixed to the scalp(fr. massacré). The word attired(fr. chevillé and ramé) is used when stags and some other beasts, e.g. goats, are spoken of, because it is supposed that their horns are given them as ornaments, and not as weapons. The main stem of the antler is termed the beam.
    Sable, a chevron or, between three stag's attires fixed to the scalps argent--COCKS(Viscount Eastnor and Earl Somers).
    Sable, a stag lodged regardant, and between the attires a bird or--NORTOST, Norfolk.
    Argent, a chevron between three stag's attires fixed to the scalps azure--COCKS.
    Argent, a hart statant azure, attired or--HARTINGTON.
Auger, or wimble: a tool for boring.
    Gules, three augers argent, handles or--BUNGALL.
    Ermine, a pile gules, charged with a lion passant gardant in chief or, and a wimble in base proper; a fesse chequy azure and of the third; thereon two escalops sable--WIMBLE, Lewes.
Augmentations: additional charges to the family arms granted to persons by their sovereign as a special mark of honour. Such marks frequently consist of portions of the royal arms, as lions, or roses, that flower being one of the royal badges.
    Richard II. is the first English sovereign who is recorded to have granted augmentations of arms to his subjects. Having added the legendary arms of S.Edward the Confessor(i.e. azure, a cross patonce between five martlets or) to his own, he granted the same in 1394 to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, to be impaled by him in the same manner. One of the charges brought against this nobleman's descendant, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, in the reign of Henry VIII., was the bearing of this augmentation, which, it was alleged, implied a claim to the crown. King Richard also gave the same arms, with a bordure ermine, to Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey, and Earl of Kent.
    The augmentation of arms granted by K. Henry VIII. to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, for this victory over the Scots at Bramston, or Flodden-Field, where James IV., king of Scotland, fell(Sep. 9, 1513), is an escutcheon or, charged with a demi lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure flory counter-flory gules. It will be observed that this augmentation bears a considerable resemblance to the arms of the vanquished king.
    K. Henry granted an augmentation to the family of SEYMOUR, upon his marriage with his third queen, Jane, in 1536. It is 'or, upon a pile gules, between six fleur-de-lis azure, three lions passant gardant in pale or,' and is generally borne quarterly with their paternal coat, in the first and fourth quarters.
    Another of Henry's grants was to Richard Gresham, mayor and alderman of London, whose arms were argent, a chevron ermine between three mullets sable pierced of the first. To these were added, on a chief gules a pelican close between two lion's gambs, erased or, armed argent.
    Sir Stephen Fox, who faithfully served K. Charles II. during his exile in France, was very appropriately rewarded with a canton azure, charged with a fleur-de-lis or, being a portion of the insignia of that kingdom.
    Anciently the chief, the quarter, the canton, the gyron, the pile, flasques, and the inescutcheon, were chosen to receive the augmentations of honour. In modern times the chief and canton have been generally used.
    Many of the augmentations granted for naval and military services about the commencement of the present century are so absurdly confused, that all the terms of heraldry cannot intelligibly describe them. Indeed they sometimes rather resemble sea views and landscapes than armorial bearings.
    Foreign sovereigns have occasionally granted augmentations to British subjects.
    In 1627 Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, knighted Sir Henry Saint George(who was sent to him with the Garter), and gave him the arms of SWEDEN(azure, three crowns or) to be borne in an inescutcheon; and the king of Prussia, and the Prince of Orange, conferred certain augmentations of arms upon the Earl of Malmesbury, which K. George III. gave him permission to assume in 1789.
    From the nature of the usual method of exhibiting the augmentation on the coat of arms, the original charge is frequently debruised(as it is also by the marks of cadency); hence with the French heralds both are included under the term brisures. The example of the arms of the family of PAYLER, possibly arising from an augmentation, exhibits this in a remarkable manner, as the central lion is nearly absconded. But the debruising must not be supposed in any way to be a mark of abatement, as it is quite the reverse.
    Gules, three lions passant gardant in pale argent, over all a bend or charged with three mullets--PAYLER.
Auk, (lat. alca): this bird occurs in the following arms, and as in another blazoning of the same arms the term murr occurs instead of auk, we may presume that it is synonymous. The name Razor-bill(alca torda) also occurs on one coats of arms.
    Or, a chevron sable between three auks(or murrs) proper--CARTHEU, Cornwall.
    Or, the head of an auk proper--AUKES.
    Argent, three razor-bill's heads, couped sable--BRUNSTAUGH.
Aulned, Awned, or Bearded: words used when ears of corn are spoken of. See Wheat.
Auré, (fr.). See Gutté d'or.
Auriflamme. See Banner.
Avellane. See Cross, §12.
Averdant: covered with green herbage: applied chiefly to a mount.
Averlye, (old fr.), i.q. Semé.
Aversant, or Dorsed: of a hand of which the back only is seen.
Avocetta. See Snipe.
Awl: the ordinary brad-awl used by carpenters, and with this may be named the gimlet.
    Azure, a chevron between three awls, points reversed argent, hafts or--AULES.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three[nine] gimlets sable--CLAPHAM.
Axe, (fr. hache): there are various kinds of axes and hatchets. It is impossible to classify them, or give the whole of the varieties; but the following will be found the chief forms which appear. The handle of the axe is sometimes called the stave, or an axe may be hafted(fr. manché), and the blade is often referred to.
Common hatchet.
Common hatchet.
Turner's axe.
Turner's axe.
    1. The common axe or hatchet, is usually represented as shewn in the margin.
    In the arms of the TURNERS' Company it is represented somewhat differently.
    Gules, three axes argent--AXALL.
    Azure, three axes argent, handles or--AXTELL, Devon.
    2. Adz or Addice: this has the blade set transversely to the flattened handle, and is sometimes called the carpenter's axe.
    Argent, three addices azure, handles or--ADDICE.
    Azure, three carpenter's axes argent--WRIGHT, Scotland.
    Gules, a chevron between three carpenter's axes or, hafted argent--PENFOLD.
Bricklayer's axe.
Bricklayer's axe.
    3. Brick, or Bricklayer's-axe: a charge in the armorial insignia of the Company of BRICKLAYERS and TILERS, of London. The metal portion only of the axe in exhibited, and this is made broad with the sides hollowed, as shewn in the margin.
    Azure, a chevron or; in chief a fleur-de-lys argent enters[i.e. between] two brick axes palewise of the second; in base a bundle of laths of the last--BRICKLAYERS' Company, incorp. 1508.
    4. Chipping-axe: this occurs in the arms of the London Company of MARBLERS(afterwards united to the MASONS), and is the axe which is still used by quarrymen in chipping the stones before they leave the quarry.
    Gules, a chevron argent between in chief two chipping-axes of the last and in base a mallet or--Company of MARBLERS.
    5. The Slaughter-axe. The axe used by butchers for killing animals. Such an axe occurs in the arms of the BUTCHERS' Company.
    Azure, two slaughter-axes addorsed in saltire argent, handles or between three bull's heads couped as the second armed of the third, viz. two in fess and one in base, on a chief silver a boar's head couped gules, between two block brushes (i.e. bunches of knee holly or butcher's broom) vert--COMPANY OF BUTCHERS, London and Exeter.
Paviour's Pick.
Paviour's Pick.
    6. The Pick-axe seems to be the miner's pick-axe, also called the hew; somewhat similar to it is the double Coal-pick, and the tool called a Paviour's pick.
    Sable, three pick-axes argent--PIGOTT, Cambridge.
    Argent, three hews or miner's pick-axes sable--William CHARE, in Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge.
    Azure, three pick-axes or--PACKWOOD, Warwick.
    Argent, three pick-axes gules--PICKWORTH.
    Argent, on a cross engrailed sable a compass dial in the centre between four pheons or; a chief gules charged with a level staff enclosed by two double coal-picks or--FLETCHER, co. Derby, granted 1731.
    See also Mill-pick.
    7. Battle-axe(fr. hache d'armes), is variously represented. The common form is given in the margin, and it is found very frequently employed as a crest.
    Azure, a battle-axe or, headed argent, the edge to the sinister--HEYNGESTON.
    Argent, a battle-axe, head downwards, held by a lion rampant guardant proper, within a border azure--CRACKNELL, Devon.
    Azure, three battle-axes or, staves argent--BAINBRIDGE.
    Azure, a battle-axe in pale or, headed argent--OLDMIXON, Somerset.
    8. The Broad-axe seems to be so called only from the breadth of the blade differing in no other respect from other axes.
    Sable, three broad axes argent--Sir John PORTER.
    Gules, three broad axes argent, a demi fleur-de-lis joined to each handle with inside or, between as many pierced mullets of the last--Thomas TREGOLD.
Danish axe.
Danish axe.
    9. The Danish axe was probably so called because it occurred in the royal arms of that kingdom, in which it is drawn like a Lochabar axe, but some apply the named to an axe whose blade is notched at the back. There is a form without the notch borne by HAKELUT, and called a Danish hatchet. The Indian tomahawk occurs in the arms of HOPKINS, granted 1764.
    Sire Walter HAKELUT, de goules, a iij haches daneys de or, e une daunce de argent--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
    Sable, three Danish axes argent--DAYNES, Devon.
    Gules, five Danish axes palewise in saltire argent--ROGER MACHADO, [Clarenceux King of Arms, temp. Henry VIII.]
    Gules, a Danish battle-axe argent, held by an arms in armour proper--HINGSTON, Devon.
Lochabar axe.
Lochabar axe.
    10. The Lochabar axe has a curved handle and a very broad blade, and represents perhaps a Scotch axe.
    Gules, a Lochabar axe between three boar's heads erased argent--RANKEN, Scotland.
    Argent, two Lochabar axes in saltire heads upward, between a cock in chief and a rose in base--MATHESON, Benetsfield.
    11. Pole-axe, or Halbert, (fr. haillebarde): the axe with a long pole, often called the halbert or halberd. It was used by the men at arms in processions and on great occasions for keeping back the crowed.
    Argent, two halberts in saltire azure--ECCLES, Scotland.
    Gules, two pole-axes in saltire or, headed argent, between four mullets of the last--PITMAN, Suffolk.
    Gules, three pole-axes or--Sir Walter HAKELETT, temp. Edward I.
    Azure, a halbert or, the edge to the sinister, its lance-head argent--HEYNGESTON.
    Ermine, two halberts in saltire sable--MAGDESTON, Lincoln.
Aylet. See Cormorant.
Ayrant. See Eyrant.
Az: in tricking may be used for azure, but bl. is more usual.
Azure, bright blue, i.e. the colour of an eastern sky, probably derives the name from the Arabic lazura(conf. lapis lazuli, Gr. lazorion, Span. azul, Italian azurro, Fr. azur), the name being introduced from the East at the time of the Crusades. It is sometimes called Inde from the sapphire, which is found in the East: (see example under cadency.) Heralds who blazon by planets called it Jupiter, perhaps from his supposed rule over the skies; and when the names of jewels are employed it is called Sapphire. Engravers represent it by an indefinite number of horizontal line.