Mace, (Civic): this device, derived from the insignia of the office of the Mayor, is borne occasionally in coats of arms.
    Per chevron ermine and azure; in chief a plume of three ostrich feathers argent between two chaplets vert with roses gules; in base a civic mace, enclosed by the collar of the Lord Mayor of London, or--Sir James DUKE, Lord Mayor of London, 1848.
    ..... A[? verger's] mace in bend dexter surmounted of a pastoral staff in bend sinister ..... BIRDE, Bp. of Bangor, 1539; afterwards of Chester, 1542-54.
    The fr. Masse d'armes is a weapon, and somewhat similar to the club called Massue, the latter term being in French armory more frequently employed. See under Staff.
    D'or à deux masses d'armes en sautoir de sable liées de gueules--GONDI.
Mackerel, (fr. mackereau: the scomber of Linnæus): this fish is borne chiefly for the sake of the name.
    Gules, three mackerel, haurient argent--MACKEREL, Somersetshire. [Also by a family at Norwich.]
    Argent, on a chevron between three mackerel[haurient] gules, a rose of the field; a chief chequy of the first and second--MACBRIDE.
Macle, i.q. Mascle.
Madder-Bag. See Bag of Madder, under Bale.
Magellan Goose. See Goose.
Magnet, or rather Magnetic needle, is represented in one instance, and a Compass-Dial in another. A compass also occurs in the hands of the demi-miner, which serves as the crest of the Company of MINERS ROYAL[Inst. 1568].
    Ermine, on a bend azure, a magnetic needle pointing to the pole-star or--PETTY, Ireland.
    Argent, on a cross engrailed sable a compass-dial between four pheons or; a chief gules charged with a level staff enclosed by two double coal-picks of the third--FLETCHER, Derby.
Magpie, (fr. agace or pie): the Magpie and the Jay(fr. geai) are blazoned in several coats of arms, and in nearly all cases proper.
    Argent, a chevron azure between three magpies proper--HORLEY.
    Argent, a fesse wavy gules between three magpies proper--OVERTON, co. York.
    Magpies are also borne by the families of PLUMESDON; OTHEWELL; CARIGS; CANHEYS; PEYTON, co. Lancaster; WATERS, Ireland; KINGDON, Cornwall; PIPER, Ibid.; JACKSON, co. York; HEWETT, London and York.
    Ermine, on a chief sable three jays or--TREGEAN, Cornwall.
    Argent, a fesse between three jays sable--CRAIK.
    Argent, a chevron azure between three jays proper--JAY, Devon.
    D'or, a trois agaces, on pies au naturel, au soleil de gueules posé en abîme--DURSUE, Normandie.
Maiden's head. See Heads.
Maintenance, Cap of, q.v.
Maison, (fr.): a house, occurs only in French arms.
Majesty, In his: said of an eagle crowned and holding a sceptre.
Mallard. See Duck.
Mallet. See Hammer.
Mallow: this plant occurs in one coat of arms, perhaps on account of the name: sometimes, however, they are blazoned nettle leaves.
    Gules, a chevron between three sprigs of mallow-leaves argent--MALHERBE.
Man: although not found in early arms, in later arms the human figure is found represented in all varieties. The man in armour has already been noted as frequent, especially as a supporter: no less frequent is the Savage, or, as he is indifferently termed, the Wild-man, or Wood-man, a man wreathed about the head and loins with leaves, and generally carrying a club.
    The man is frequently represented naked, or sometimes only vested round the loins, as in the case of the Savage. The Watchman, in the arms of the town of WARWICK, would be represented as a soldier. In the arms of the MINERS' COMPANY the miner is described(see Mine), but more minutely in the description of the supporters of the arms of that Company(see below). Men are also frequently referred to be their nationality, e.g. an African, a Negro(see under Cinnamon), a Moor, a Blackamoor, an Indian, a Beloochee Soldier, a Danish Warrior, &c., &c. A man may also be represented in various positions, e.g. in one coat hanging on a gallows. See under Armour, also under Head.
    Azure, three woodmen[sometimes blazoned men of Kent] in fesse proper holding in their right hands clubs argent, in their left escutcheons of the second each charged with a cross gules--WOOD.
    Sable, three bars or; on a canton gules a demi woodman holding a club over the dexter shoulder gold--WOOD, Devon.
    Sable, a wild man holding a club argent--EMLAY, co. York; Harl. MS. 1404. fo. 154.
    Argent, a savage shooting an arrow from a bow gules--BONNIMAN.
    Per fesse azure and argent; on the first a demi-savage issuing wielding a wooden mallet proper; on the second three branches of oak vert--KIRKWOOD, Scotland.
    The field a landscape, the base variegated with flowers, a man proper vester round his loins with linen argent, digging with a spade all of the first--GARDENERS' Company[Inc. 1616].
    A castle triple towered, on the dexter side the sun in its glory, on the sinister a crescent, on the top of the two front towers a watchman--A Seal of the Town of WARWICK.
    Argent, on a mount vert an African proper wreathed round the middle with feathers, holding in the dexter hand a bow, and in the sinister three arrows both of the third--ROUPELL, Chartham Park, East Grinstead, Sussex.
    A man habited as in Indian, on his head a cap, in the dexter hand a long bow, in the sinister an arrow--Ancient Seal of Town of PORTPIGHAM or WEST LOOE, Cornwall.
    Argent, goutty de sang, a Danish warrior armed with a battle-axe in the dexter and a sword in the sinister hand all proper--BLACKER, Carrickblacker, co. Armagh.
    Per chevron azure and argent, six crosses patty four and two or; in base a Beloochee soldier habited and armed, brandishing a sword proper, mounted on a bay horse caparisoned; on a chief silver the fortress of Khelat; a canton charged with a Dooranee badge--WILTSHIRE, 1840.
    Sable, a naked man with arms extended proper--DALZELL, Earl of Carnwath.
    Sable, a naked man hanging on a gallows proper--DALZIEL.
    As already said, the different varieties of men are more frequently exhibited in the supporters of coats of arms, a few examples, therefore, are here given, which speak for themselves: a remarkable one, viz. a student of the University of Oxford will have been noticed under Knitting-frame.
    An armed man with a drawn sword--RALSTON.
    Two men in armour--EYRE.
    A European soldier of the 40th Bengal native infantry and a Bengal native artillery-man--Major-General KNOTT.
    A Chinese Mandarin, and a Scinde soldier--POTTINGER.
    Two Highlanders--MACKENZIE of Kilcoy, co. Ross.
    Two Indians wreathed about the head and middle vert--JOHNSTON, Aberdeen.
    Two savages wreathed about the loins and resting their exterior hands on clubs--SPOTTISWOOD, co. Berwick.
    A miner, his face, legs, and arms of a brownish colour, vested in a frock argent tied above his knees as at work, cap and shoes of the last, holding in the dexter hand erect a hammer azure handled proper(for dexter supporter). Another miner proper, the cap, frock, and shoes argent, the frock loose and down to the ankles; in the sinister hand a fork azure handled proper(for sinister supporter)--Company of MINERS.
    A Russian habited in the dress of the country(for dexter supporter). An Indian vester round the waist with feathers of various colours(for sinister supporter)--DISTILLERS' Company.
    In French heraldry the homme d'armes, i.e. Man in Armour, occurs, but the variety of men does not seen to be so large, only Sauvage having been observed.
Man-tiger. See Satyr.
Manacles. See Fetterlock.
Manche, (fr.). See Maunch.
Manche(fr.): more usually emmanché hafted; of an axe, &c.
Mancheron: used(chiefly by the French) for any kind of sleeve.
Manchets: a name for small loaves or cakes. See under Peel.
Mandrake, (fr. mandragore): this only occurs on one English coat of arms.
    Gyronny of eight gules and sable three mandrakes argent[another or]--BODYHAM.
    D'azure à cinq plantes de mandragore d'argent mal ordonnees; au franc quartier d'hermine--CHAMPS, Nivernais.
Maned, of a Horse: rarely of other animal, e.g. of an Antelope, &c., as the term Crined is more frequently used.
Mangonel. See Sling.
Mantelé, (fr.): while the Chapé (q.v.) is supposed to obscure, as with a hood, a part of the shield, so mantelé is supposed to obscure the same with a mantle, i.e. a greater part is so obscured: (according to some=party per chevron extending to the top of the escutcheon). Not, however. used in any English arms.
Mantle, (Mantling, or Cappeline, fr. Lambrequin): this device of the painter to give prominence to the coat of arms and crest in considered in theoretical heraldry to represent the lambrequin, or covering of the helmet, to protect it from the sun or rain. Some authorities contend it should be of the principal colour and metal of the bearer's arms, but red and white have most frequently been used in England. The Royal mantling should be of gold and ermine; that of peers is often of crimson(representing crimson velvet), lined with ermine. This kind of mantle cannot be used by ladies, being inseparable from the helmet.
    The Robe of estate, however , may be used as a mantle(fr. manteau), is which sense it may be borne by all ranks of gentlemen, and by peeresses, and it represented as encircling the crest, if any, and the whole of the shield or lozenge with its external appendages. The mantle may be embroidered on the outside with the arms, or be powdered with heraldic objects.
    No man of lower rank than a knight(or perhaps than a peer) should double his mantle with ermine.
Maple-tree: this has been observed but in one coat of arms.
    Argent, three maples sable--BAY.
Marcassin. See Boar.
Marché, (old fr.): for the cow's hoof.
Marigold, (fr. fleur de souci): this more frequent than might be supposed. It is equally common in French arms. It will be observed that one coat of arms a French marigold is specified.
    Pean, on a fesse engrailed or, between three squirrels sejant argent, each holding a marigold slipped proper, a stag's head erased azure between two fountains also proper--SMITH, Lydiate, co. Lancaster.
    Azure, a horse passant argent bridled gules between three marigolds or--MORECROFT, Churchill, co. Oxford.
    Gules, a chevron or between three marigolds of the last stalked and leaved vert--GOLDMAN, Sandford.
    Or, on a chevron azure between three French marigolds slipped proper two lions respectant of the first--TYSSEN, London, 1689.
    D'azur, a trois soucis d'or--HERTES, Picardie.
    D'argent, au chevron de gueules accompagné de trois soucis de même feuillés et soutenus de sinople--ROBIN.
Marined, (fr. mariné): a term fancifully applied to any beast having the lower parts of a fish, e.g. a Lion marined for Sea Lion, q.v.
Marlet, Marlion, Merlion. See Martlet.
Marquess: the second order in the peerage of England, being below a duke, but above an earl. The title seems to have been originally given to certain officers to whom was committed the government of the Marches, or borders of Wales. We find the word Marchio used in this sense as early as the reign Henry III. The first Marquess in the modern sense of the word as Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, whose elevation for life to the marquisate of Dublin by King Richard II. (in the year 1386) gave no small offence to the earls, who were obliged to yield him precedence. In Sept. 1397, the same king made John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, Marquess of Dorset, which title was taken from him in the next reign. The oldest existing marquisate is that of Winchester, created by King Edw. VI. in 1551. A special coronet belong to the Marquess.
Marqueté, (fr.): spotted, used of a trout. See under Salmon.
Mars. (1.) The planetary name for Gules. (2.) Astronomical sign of. See Letters.
Marshal: a title formerly granted by the Sovereign at will. William the Conqueror appointed the Earls of Hereford and Arundel Marshals of England, but in 1672 the office of Earl Marshal was annexed to the Dukedom of Norfolk.
Marshalling is the art of arranging several coats of arms in one shield, for the purpose denoting the alliances of a family.
    Before marshalling was introducing rare instances occur of arms composed, i.e. when an addition of a portion of the arms of a wife has been made to those of the husband. The instance usually quoted(though of most doubtful authority) is that of Henry II. taking an additional lion upon his marriage with Eleanor of Guienne.
Shields accolees.
Shields accolées.
    a. Impaling. The simplest and earliest way of placing the arms of a husband and wife was side by side. Shields thus placed are said to be accolées, or in collateral position. Contemporary with this practice, but continuing much longer, was the custom of impaling arms by dimidiation, the dexter half of the husband's arms being joined to the sinister half of the wife's.
    This was much practised about the time of King Edward I. The arms of Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, and Mary his wife, daughter of Guy de Chastillon, may be taken as an example. They are borne by Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, founded by the latter in 1343.
    Barry of ten argent and azure, over all ten martlets in orle gules, for VALENCE.
    Vair, three pallets gules, on a chief or, a label of three points azure, for arms borne by CHASTILLON.
    In some cases the husband's arms only were dimidiated, the wife's being borne entire. The implement, whether of whole or dimidiated arms, was referred to by Heralds as Baron et Femme.
    An early instance of dimidiation, though rudely represented, occurs on a brass in Stanton Harcourt Church, Oxfordshire, which commemorates Sir Richard Harcourt(ob. 1330), who married Margaret, daughter of Sir John BEKE of Eresby.
    Gules, two bars or(for HARCOURT) impaled with gules, a cross moline[or sarcelly] argent(for BEKE).
    Dimidiation in many cases, however, was found inconvenient, and was exchanged for impaling the coats entire, though bordures, tressures, and orle were usually omitted(as they are still) on the side next the line of impalement.
    An an instances of impaling an example form the arms in Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire, is given.
    Sable, a lion rampant argent crowned or, for SEGRAVE.
    Or, a saltire engrailed sable, for BUTTETOURT.
    In a few early instances, in which the wife was of much higher rank than the husband, her arms were placed upon the dexter side; a seal of John of Ghent, as King of Castile and Leon, is an example.
    When the wife is an heiress(even in expectation) it is now customary for the husband to bear her arms upon an escutcheon or pretence; but it is evident that until the husband has issue by the heiress, and until the death of her father, he should merely impale her arms; because until then be cannot transmit her inheritance to his posterity. Instances might be cited of husbands bearing their wives' arms both upon an escutcheon of pretence over their own, and also as an implement.
    Many modern heralds condemn the practice of a knight impaling the arms of his wife within the garter or collar of his order, but there are may precedents for so doing. The widow of a knight, though she continues to impale the arms of her deceased husband in a lozenge, must of course relinquish his insignia of knighthood.
    When a man marries a second wife, he should certainly cease to impale the arms of the first. Some, however, have thought proper to impale both, which may be done in two ways, as shewn in the annexed cuts(figs. 1, 2), the bend shewing the position of the man's arms, and the numerals those of his wives. The other figures shew how the arms of three, five, and seven wives might have been borne, or at least represented. When a widow of a peer marries a second time, her second husband impales her paternal arms only.
Various modes of impaling Wives' arms.
Various modes of impaling Wives' arms.
    Bishops, deans, heads of colleges, and kings of arms, impale the insignia of their offices with their own arms, giving the dexter, as the place of honour, to the former.
    b. Quartering. Arms any be quartered for several reasons. First, a sovereign quarters the ensigns of his several states, generally giving the precedence to the most ancient, unless it be inferior to some other. The first English monarch who bore quartered arms Edward III., who assumed,--
    Azure, semée of fleur-de-lys or(for FRANCE)
in 1340, three years after his taking the title of King of France, his mother, in whose right he claimed the crown of France, being daughter and heiress of Philip the Fair. He is said to have set the example to others.
    The arms, however, of Castile and Leon are quarterly(see ante, under Castle), and are sculptured on the tomb of Eleanor, Queen of Edward I., who died 1296, and thus afford an earlier example. Again, in the Inventory of of the goods of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, taken in 1322, we find--
    "j. autre[quintepoint, i.e. quilt,] quartelé des armes Dengleterre et de Hereford."
    An early instance of quarterling arms is that of John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, who married King Edward's youngest daughter Margaret, and died 1375. Their arms are emblazoned upon the north side of the king's tomb at Westminster:--
    Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, a maunch gules, HASTINGS. 2 and 3, barry of twelve, argent and azure, over all eight martlets in orle gules--VALENCE, impaling 1 and 4 France ancient, 2 and 3 England, being the arms of his wife.
    Feudal Arms are sometimes quartered by subjects, as arms of dominion are by princes; and an augmentation is sometimes so borne. But the most common reason for quartering is to shew what heiresses have married into the family.
    An elected king, or one succeeding under any special arrangement, generally places his hereditary arms upon an inescutcheon over the insignia of his dominions, as did the Emperors of Germany, and as William of Orange did, when raised to the throne of Great Britain. This has been the usage in the kingdom of Greece.
    It was a frequent practice from the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VIII. for the husband, if he acquired any great possession through his wife, to quarter her arms with his own, and even to place them in the first quarter; or sometimes to give her arms alone; or, reversing modern usage, to give her arms and other, bearing his own in an escutcheon surtout.
    The rules attending the Quartering of arms are somewhat complicated, and very according to the attendant circumstances. The general principle is that when a man marries an heiress, all the issue of that marriage are entitled to bear both the maternal and paternal coat quartered; also the quarterings to which the mother may be entitled, so that an escutcheon may be charged with the arms of any number of families. Indeed in an achievement of the KNIGHTLEY family, in the hall at Fawsley, Northamptonshire, there are 334 quarterings.
    The manner in which quarterings are acquired will be best shewn by an example. One is therefore given in the three plates annexed, and the frontispiece, which are derived from a pedigree of the WILLOUGHBY family drawn up in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. By attention to the following examples a clearer idea of the system will be obtained than by printing any code of regulations.
                Sir Philip MARMION, Knt., nat. circa temp. R. Jo.               
          =Joan, daughter and coheiress of Sir Hugh, Baron of KILPECK.          
    Sir P. M. bore the paternal arms alone, viz. Vair, a fesse gules, fretty argent. The arms of his wife(which, according to modern practice, would be borne upon an escutcheon of pretence) were Sable, a sword in pale, point downward, argent, hilt and pomel or. The lady being an heiress, this coat descended to her children.
               JOAN, daughter and coheiress of Sir Philip MARMION.              
                            =Sir Alex. FREVILE, Knt.                            
    The arms of Sir A. F. were Or, a cross patonce gules. His wife being a coheiress of the families of Marmion and Kilpeck, bore, or by later usage might have borne, their arms quarterly.
                     Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt. son and heir                     
                       =Maude, daughter of .... DEVEREUX.                       
    He inherited the arms of Frevile from his father, and those of Marmion and Kilpeck from his mother. As his wife was not an heiress, the coat of Devereux(Argent, a fesse gules, in chief three torteaux) was impaled by him during her lifetime only, after which the family of Frevile had nothing further to do with it.
        Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Baron of Henley in Arden, son and heir       
      =ELIZABETH, d. and coh. of John de MOUNTFORTE, Baron of Beaudesert.       
    The quarters belonging to this Sir B. F. were the same as those of his father, without any addition. His wife inherited the arms of Mountforte(Bendy of ten, or and azure), De la Plaunche(Argent, billetté sable, a lion rampant of the last, crowned or), and Haversham(azure, a fesse between six cross crosslets argent.)
           Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Lord of Henley in Arden, son and heir     
                       = .. daughter of ... Lord STRANGE.                       
    This Sir B. F. was entitled by inheritance to the following quarters--Frevile, Marmion, Kilpeck, Mountforte, De la Plaunche, and Haversham. His wife's arms(Argent, two lions passant gules, armed and langued azure) were borne in the same manner as those of Devereux.
        Sir Baldwin FREVILE, Knt., Lord of Henley in Arden, son and heir.       
         =JOICE, d. and coh. of John, Lord BUTTETOURT, of Welley Castle.        
    His mother not being an heiress, he bore his father's quarters without any addition. His lady inherited the arms of Buttetourt(Or, a saltire engrailed sable), Dudley(alias Somerie, or, two, lions passant azure, armed and langued gules), and De la Zouche(Gules, ten bezants, 4, 3, 2, 1), which descended to her posterity.
         MARGARET, daughter and coheiress of Sir Baldwin FREVILLE, Knt.         
             =Sir Hugh WILLOUGHBY, of Willoughby on the Wold, Knt.              
    Sir H. W. bore the paternal arms(Or, on two bars gules, three waterbougets argent) alone. His lady inherited Frevile, Marmion, Kilpeck, Mountforte, De la Plaunche, Haversham, Buttetourt, Dudley, and De la Zouche.
             Richard WILLOUGHBY, Esq., son and heir, ob. s. p. 1471.            
    He bore the arms of Willoughby, followed by the quarters which he inherited from his mother. His arms, as represented in the plate(see frontispiece), afford an example of the achievement of an esquire complete, viz. shield, helmet, mantle, crest and motto.
    Stained glass in the windows and brasses on the floors of churches often afford much assistance in determining family connections through the marshalling of the arms. Annexed are the arms as emblazoned upon the brass at Winwick, Lancashire, of Sir Peter Legh, who died 1527; but who, on the death of his wife, had relinquished his secular position for the priestly office, so that he is represented wearing a chasuble over his armour, but over the former a shield is represented bearing seven quarterings. They are respectively:--
    1. Argent, a cross sable, in the dexter chief quarter a fleur-de-lis of the second--HAYDOCK.
    2. Gules, a cross engrailed argent--NORLEY[afterwards taken by LEGH.]
    3. [? Azure] a chevron between three cross crosslets[? or]--Unknown.
    4. Argent, a mullet sable, charged on one point(?) with a bezant--ASHTON.
    5. Vert, a cross flory or--BOYDELL.
    6. Lozengy argent and sable--CROFT of Dalton.
    7. Azure, a chevron argent between three covered cups or--FRECKELTON.
                  Robert LEIGH of Adlington, co. Chester.                       
    =Maud(second wife) daughter and coheiress of Sir Thurston NORLEY,           
               Lord of Norley, &c., and heiress to BOYDELL.                     
    The arms of this Robert Leigh were Azure, two bars argent, over all a bend compony or and gules. His marriage was so great a match that the family, now or later, relinquished their own arms, and took those of (2)Norley instead. It seems that by this marriage were brought in the arms of--(3), Ashton(4), and Boydell(5).
                     Piers LEIGH of Hanley, beheaded 1399                       
    =Margaret(first wife), daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Daniers,          
         Lord of Grappenhall and Brone, widow of Sir John Savage.               
    The Leighs did not quarter the arms of Daniers. Probably they never got the lands.
                Sir Piers LEIGH, slain at Agincourt, 1415.                      
       =Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir Gilbert Haydock, Lord of              
                     Haydock and of many other manors.                          
  Sir Piers LEIGH, knighted by Richard Duke of York, at Wakefield, 1460,        
        =Margaret, daughter(not heiress) of Sir Richard Molineux.               
             Piers LEIGH, ob. 1468, in his father's lifetime.                   
      =Mabel, daughter and heiress of James Croft, Lord of Dalton and           
  Claghton, and heiress to her mother, who was heiress of ... Freckelton.       
    By this match came in the arms of Croft(6), and Freckelton(7). Their arrangement in the shield upon the brass in anomalous; but such anomalies are not unfrequent.
    "Ladies often," says Haines(p. cxiii), "bore arms on their dresses, usually those of their husbands on their mantles or cloaks, and their own on their kirtles or gowns, as at Cardington, Beds, c. 1530; but after the fifteenth century their own are more frequently on the sinister side of the mantle, their husbands' bearings occupying the dexter. The brass of Elizabeth KNEVET, 1518, at Eastington, Gloucestershire, is a good example of a lady in an heraldic mantle." The six quarters represent the families of 1. KNEVET, 2. CROMWELL, 3. TATERSHALL, 4. CAYLEY, 5. BASSET, and 6. BISHOPSDON.
    When the number of coats of to which a person is entitled is an odd one he usually fills up the last quarter by repeating the first. The royal arms brought into any family by an heiress(and there are more such cases than might be supposed) are sometimes placed in the first quarter, so e.g. they were borne by Cardinal Pole.
    If a man marries two or more heiresses successively, the arms of each will descend only to her own children.
    When a man bears a double surname(e.g. DYKE-ACLAND) it is the practice for his first quarter to contain the arms pertaining to those names quarterly, and for the second to contain his own paternal coat. This, however, is a modern usage, and, as it seems, not a very good one.
    It is not uncommon, to avoid confusion by marshalling too great a number of coats in one escutcheon, to select a few of the principal, leaving out, for example, the secondary quarters brought in by heiresses. Many families entitled to a hundred or more quarters use but four, e.g. Howard, Duke of Norfolk, has done so for many generations.
    In conclusion, it may be observed that quartered arms many be borne on banners, surcoats, and official seals, just as single coats are.
Marteau, (fr.): a large hammer used by smiths.
Martel. See Hammer.
Marten. See Weasel.
Martin. See Swallow.
Martlet, (fr. Merlette, possibly the diminutive of the merula, merle, or blackbird): a bird resembling a swallow, with thighs but no visible legs. They form a very common bearing, being found in early Rolls, and are as common in French arms in English. They may be of any tincture, even of ermine(see example under Crescent), and are very frequently represented in orle(q.v.). It is used also as the difference of the fourth son.
    Gules, a fesse between six martlets or--BEAUCHAMP, Powick, co. Worc.
    Sable, a martlet argent--ADAMS, co. Pembroke.
    Roger de MERLEY, barrée d'argent et de goulz, a la bordure d'azure et merlots d'or en la bordur--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Roger de WATEVILL, de argent a iij chevrons de goules, a un merelot de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Henri de APPELBY de azure a vj merelos de or--Ibid.
    Monsire TEMPEST d'argent une cheveron de gules entre trois merletts du sable--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Argent, five fusils conjoined in fesse gules, in chief two martletts respecting each other--DAUBENE.
    Monsire de FENWIKE, port d'argent, chief gules, a vj merletts de l'une et l'autre[i.e. counterchanged]--Ibid.
Martre, (fr.): the marten. See Weasel.
Martyr. See Saint.
DE QUINCY, Earl of Winton.
DE QUINCY, Earl of Winton.
Mascle, (fr. macle): a lozenge voided: indeed in a roll temp. Henry III. they are blazoned as faux lozenges. Mascles are supposed to represent the links which composed chain armour. When the mascles touch each other, as shewn in the engraving annexed, they should(now) be blazoned as conjoined. Mascles so arranged generally extend to the edges of the escutcheon, nearly so. The first three examples shew the variation of blazon for the same arms.
    Le Conte de WINCHESTER, de goules a six mascles d'or voydes du champ--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le Comte de WINCHESTER, de goules poudre a faux losenges d'or--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le Counte de WINCESTRE, de goules a vii lozenges d'or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Gules, seven mascles conjoined, 3, 3, 1, or--Roger DE QUINCY, Earl of Winton.
    Sir Johan de GYSE, de goules a vi mascles de veer e un quarter de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Azure, on a fesse argent, between three mascles or, as many cinquefoils of the first--PURVIS, Suffolk[Comptroller of the Navy, 1735].
Masculy would appear in some few cases to have been used as synonymous with lozengy; since the term 'o mascles voidies' occurs, and a comparison of the different blazoning of the same arms in one case points in this direction; nor is it probable that the charges in the arms of the 'Earl of KENT' were drawn as mascles. Still in many cases the term probably had its present meaning.
    Guillemes de FERIERES ... de armes vermeilles ben armés, O mascles de or del champ voidiés--Roll of CAERLAVEROCK.
    Sire Allisandre de FREWYLLE, d'or, a une croys mascle de ver e de goulys--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Baudewyne de FREWYLLE, d'or, a une croys de goulis a les mascles de ver--Ibid.
    Monsire Baldwin de FREVILL, port les armes de Latymer[i.e. gules a une crois patey or] a cinq loisanes de verre en la crois--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Le Conte de KENT, masculée de verrée et de goules--Ibid.
    Sir Toham de BEZOM, mascle d'argent e de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Le bon Richart de la ROKELE ...         Mascle de goules et de ermine.      
    Cil ot son escu fait portraire            Roll of Carlaverok.               
    Crosses and other ordinaries may be formed of mascles as of fusils and lozenges, and although some contend that a fesse mascle or masculy should begin and end with a half, and that otherwise it will be so many mascles conjoined in fesse, the distinction can scarcely be sustained by facts.
    Sire Geffrey de AUBEMARLE, de goules crusule de or a une bende masclee de ermyne--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Henri FAUCONBERGE, de argent a ij barres mascle de sable--Ibid.
    Ermine, a fesse masculy gules[elsewhere five mascles in fesse gules; and five fusils in fesse gules pierced]--HUTTON.
Masculyn: there is a curious figure composed of a single mascle with the ends terminating in fleurs-de-lis, to which the name seems to have been given in one instance of masculyn fleur-de-lisé(i.q. fleury).
    Azure, a masculyn fleur-de-lysé or, within and without five young men's heads couped argent crined or--Henry MAN, Bp. of Sodor and Man, 1546-56[Harl. MS. 5846].
Masoned, (fr. maçonné): a term used to describe the lines formed by the junction of the stones in a building. It is sometimes applied applied to the field, but more frequently to a castle, tower, or wall, q.v.
    Argent, masoned sable, a chief embattled of the last, [otherwise sable, an embattled wall throughout argent, masoned of the first]--RAYNELL, Devon.
    Argent, masonné and on a chief azure, a demi-lion issuant or--BEAW, Bp. of Llandaff, 1679-1706.
    Gules, a fret sable masoned argent--SCHEERLE.
Massacre, (fr.): stag's head and horns affronty. See Deer.
Masse, (fr.): Mace.
Massue, (fr.): a large club or Mace. See also Club under Staff.
Mast. See Ship.
Mastiff. See Dog.
Masuré, fr.=in ruins.
Roll of Matches.
Roll of Matches.
Matches, roll of: the match formerly used for the discharge of fire-arms was kept in a roll, as exhibited in the margin.
    Argent, a fesse gules between two rolls of matches sable, kindled proper--LEET, co. Cambridge.
    Argent, on a fesse gules between two rolls of matches sable fired proper a martlet of the field--LETE, Hunts.
Matchlock: a doubtful figure which has been blazoned matchlock, bill-head, ploughshare, and crescent. Probably what was intended by the figure is a rest for the gun when firing it, and not the gun itself, to which that name is given.
    Argent, a chevron between three matchlocks sable--LEVERSEGE.
    Argent, a bend engrailed and in chief a matchlock sable--COSANCE, Higham Barrow.
    Sable, on a chevron argent, between three matchlocks[pistols] or, as many roses gules barbed vert seeded or--HOPKINS.
Mattock; i.q. Hammer.
Maunch, (fr. manche): an ancient sleeve for as a frequent device in the earliest rolls of arms. Sometimes in French arms it is called manche mal taillée, to distinguish it from an ordinary sleeve. Generally but one maunche is borne. No doubt the three little manches[manchelles] are allusive to the name of MANSEL.
    Reinauld de MOUN, de goules ov ung manche d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Robert THONY, de argent a une maunch de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire de HASTINGS port d'or a une manche de gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire de MOUN, gules a une manche d'ermin--Ibid.
    Gules, a maunch ermine, with a hand proper, holding a fleur-de-lis or--MOHUN, Earl of Somerset.
    Or, a maunch gules--HASTINGS, Oxfordshire.
    Argent, a maunch sable--HASTINGS, Leicester.
    Argent, three sleeves erect sable--BLAKE.
    Sable, a hand proper holding a fleur-de-lis and vested in a maunch issuing from the dexter side of the shield or--CREKE.
    Argent, an anchor azure surmounted by a maunch sable charged with three crosses patty of the field--COLPOYS.
    Argent, three maunches sable; [another Argent, a chevron between three maunches sable]--MANSEL.
    D'or, à une manche mal taillée de gueules--DASTING, Normandie.
    D'or, à trois manches mal taillées de gueules--CONDÉ DE COEMY, Champagne.
May-flowers. See Hawthorn.
Medal: in later coats of arms of very debased heraldry special medals or medallions, clasps, &c., granted for services in war have been frequently adopted. Sometimes a coin is introduced, e.g. a pagoda(i.e. a Madras coin), and in one old instance what is called a penny-yard penny. This is a coin which is said to have been struck in Penyard Castle, near Ross, Herefordshire.
Penny-yard penny.
Penny-yard penny.
    Or, a lion rampant gules, a canton of the last, thereon pendant from a mural crown of the first a riband of the second fimbriated azure, a representation of the gold medal and clasp presented for services in the Peninsular War--MACDONALD, Perth.
    Erminois, on an eagle displayed double headed gules an eastern crown or; a chief vert charged with pendant from a chain two oval medallions is pale, the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fesse, blade wavy, point downwards, the dexter in relief gold--Sir Thomas S.RAFFLES, Lieutenant-Governor of Java, &c.
    Gules, two estoiles, in chief argent a lion passant; in base or on a chief of the second a wreath of laurel vert, enclosing two swords in saltire proper, pomels and hilts or; in chief the medal for Waterloo--MCINNES, Charlton Kings, co. Gloucester.
    Azure, three palets gules on a chief azure an many martlets of the first with a canton of the second charged with the medal presented to him by the East India Company proper--MARTIN, Wivenhoe, Essex.
    Azure, two swords in saltire argent .... on a chief ermine a bee volant between two star pagodas proper--BLADES, Sheriff of London, 1812.
    Azure, three penny-yard pence proper[i.e. argent]--SPENCE.
Medallion. See Medal,
Meiré, or Meirée. See Potent.
Melting Pot. See Founder's furnace.
Membered, (fr. membré): refers to the legs of birds argent, and to the talons and tongues of breasts of prey.
Même, De, (fr.): of the same tincture. In English blazon, however, to avoid repetition, usually the expression 'of the first' or 'of the second' is employed.
Menu, fr.=small and fine, e.g. menu-vair, the old form of miniver applied to a fur. See Vaire; also a menue burlure is found=barrulet(q.v.) as distinguished from grose burlure, used in the same roll and=bar.
A Merchant's Mark.
A Merchant's Mark.
Merchant's Mark: since those engaged in trade were not formerly allowed to bear arms, the merchants adopted 'marks,' often composed of their initials or other special letters intertwined, and sometimes other devices intermingled; and, though contrary to rule, they placed them in shields and sometimes marshalled them, with arms. The subject of merchants' marks, found as they are frequently in stained glass, on brasses and carved in wood and tone, is too wide a subject to treat in a short article; besides which they scarcely come under the head of heraldry. One example is given, which is characteristic of vary many others. It is from stained glass in S.Michael's Church, Oxford. The letters may possibly signify Thomas R ... Merchant of Oxford. From the white roses(barbed and seeded or) we may infer that he was attached to the House of York.
Mercury. The planetary name for Purpure.
Merillion: an instrument used by Hat-band-makers, and borne by their Company. It is figured as in the margin.
Merle, (fr.), blackbird.
Merlette, (fr.), or mertlet. See Martlet.
Merlion, or marlion. See Falcon.
Mermaid, (fr. siréne): composed of the upper half of a woman(with dishevelled hair) joined to the lower half of a fish. It occurs but very seldom as a charge upon true English arms. The Siren seems to be only another name for the mermaid.
    Argent, a mermaid gules, crined or, holding a mirror in her right hand, and a comb in her left, both gold--ELLIS, Lancashire.
    Vert, three mermaids two and one, each holding comb and mirror or--WOLLSTONECRAFT, Essex and London, granted 1765.
    Azure, a siren with comb and glass argent within a bordure indented gules--French family of POISSONNIERE.
    A mermaid is found on the Seal of Sir William Bruvire, or Bruere, temp. Richard I., and probably had its origin in the tales told by travellers who joined in the crusades.
    Mermaids occur frequently as supporters; e.g. to the arms of the Burgh of MONTROSE, as also as crests, e.g. of Lord BYRON; and Sir John WALLOP, temp. Henry VIII., who bore a black mermaid with golden hair.
    The German family of DIE ERSTENBERGER bear as their crest a mermaid, but with wings instead of arms.
Meslé: mingled. Used by a few old writers in describing a field of metal and colour in equal proportions, as gyronny, paly.
Metal: (1.) The metals employed as tinctures in heraldry are two in number, that is say or and argent. See Tinctures.
    (2.) Blocks of metal are frequently introduced into heraldry, and are called by different names, and are generally conventionally represented. We find ingots of gold, cakes of copper, blocks of tin, and pigs of lead. We also find a mineral named, viz. the calamine stone.
Ingots of gold.
Ingots of gold.
Cake of Copper.
Cake of Copper.
Calamine stone.
Calamine stone.
    Argent, on a chevron between three mullets gules a crescent or; on a chief azure three ingots of gold palletwise, fretted with another in bend proper--WILSON, Sneaton, Castle, Yorkshire.
    Azure, on a chevron engrailed three blocks[of metal] or, each charged with a cross of the second--HOBSON.
    Ermine, three cakes of copper proper; on a chief gules a chamber[i.e. a chamber-piece] or--CHAMBERS, London, granted 1723.
    Or, on a cross gules between four Cornish Choughs proper five blocks of tin marked with the letter W.--KNAPMAN, co. Devon.
    Vert, on a fesse or between three doves close argent beaked and legged gules, each with an ear of wheat in the bill of the second, as many pigs of lead azure--GREENSMITH, Steeple Grange, co. Derby, granted 1714.
    Two arms embowed proper, both hands holding a calamine stone argent spotted with red, yellow, and blue--Crest of the Society of MINERAL and BATTERY Works, incorporated 1568.
Meubles or meubles d'armoires: charges generally of whatever kind.
Mew. See Sea-Gull.
Mi-Parti, (fr.). See Dimidiated.
Michael, (S.) and S.George, Order of. See Knights.
Midas. See Heads.
Mill, (fr. moulin): portions of the mill machinery are represented on coats of arms. We find first of all the Mill-stone, and this is generally borne with the mill-rind or fer de moline upon it.
    Azure, three mill-stones argent, on each a mill-rind sable--MILVETON, Cheshire.
    Next the Mill-wheels are sometimes found, as also the cogs of the same, and mill-clack. See under Tremoile.
    Azure, on a fesse argent, between a beehive surrounded by bees volant in chief, and a mill-wheel in base or; two roses gules barbed and seeded proper--CALROW, co. Cheshire.
    Gules, three mill-wheels or--CHAWCERS.
    Sable, on a bend between three cogs of a mill-wheel or as many elm leaves vert--COGGS, London.
    Azure, a mill-clack in fesse or--MILLS, London; (descended from MILLS of Cornwall).
    The Mill-rind, or Mill-rine, has already been noticed under Fer-de-Moline. See also Wind-mill, and Water-mill under Wheel, Silk-throwers-mill, &c.
Mill-pick: a tool used by millwrights. It is drawn differently from the pickaxe, paviour's pick, &c. (q.v. under Axe).
    Sable, a chevron between three mill-picks argent--MOSELEY, Moseley, Staffordshire.
    Gules, a fesse chequy argent, and of the first between three mill-picks(or pickaxes) or--PIGOTTS.
    Argent, three mill-picks gules--PICKWORTH.
    Argent, a chevron between three mill-picks sable--MILLERS' Company, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Mine: this is shewn but in one coat of arms, and it is characteristic of the extraordinary details which were introduced into coats of arms in the sixteenth century.
    Argent, a mine open of earth colour, the upper part variegated with various shrubs vert; within the mine a miner proper vested sable, on his head a cap argent, round his body a belt of the last, and in the attitude of working the dexter side of the mine with two hammers; on the sinister side a candle of the first lighted proper in a candlestick azure fixed in the mine: on a chief brown a square plate or, between a bezant on the dexter and a plate on the sinister--Royal MINERS' Company[Inc. 1568].
Miner. See Man.
Mineral. See Medal.
Miniver, i.q. Menu Vair. See Vair.
Miraillé: a French term signifying variegated of several tinctures, applied e.g. to butterflies.
Mirror, (fr. Miroir): is represented as a small circular looking-glass with a handle when borne by a Mermaid(q.v.). In French arms it is more frequent, and is described as de toilette, ovale, arrondi, and pommeté, i.e. the frame adorned with knobs.
    Argent, a tiger statant reguardant, looking down into a mirror in base, handle to the dexter all proper--[From old glass in Thame Church, impaled after the arms of Hadrian de BARDIS, Prebendary of Thame.]
    Argent, a tiger reguardant at a mirror azure--SIBELLS. [But Qy.]
    D'Azur, à trois miroirs arrondis d'argent--MIRAMBEL, Limosin.
Mitre, (fr. Mitre): one of the principal insignia of the episcopal office, although not belonging to it exclusively. There were three kinds of Mitres recognized by old writers--the precious, the 'aurifraged,' and the simple.
    The privilege of wearing a mitre was first conceded to abbots and priors about the eleventh century. Soon afterwards it was decreed that mitred abbots exempt from episcopal jurisdiction should wear the second mitre mentioned above, the third being assigned to non-exempt abbots and priors. These rules do not appear to have ever been very strictly observed or enforced. It is the first which is always represented in heraldic drawing.
    Though the use of the mitre as a part of the episcopal costume had, until quite recently , become obsolete in the Anglican Church, its prelates have continued to bear in above their arms. The mitres of the two archbishops, and the Bishop of Durham, are sometimes encircled with ducal coronets, which, however, is, at least in the two former cases, a practice of late origin, and without authority. The Bishop of Durham might(until lately) with propriety enjoy this mark of temporal dignity, as he was Count Palatine of Durham. His mitre in the sixteenth century was represented with a plume of ostrich feathers issuing from the sinister side and with the coronet.
    The annexed figure of a mitre is taken from a roll of the peers of England, date 1515. The abbots' mitres drawn in that document are precisely similar in form, but differ in the colour of the enclosed triangular spaces. Earlier mitres were generally lower: in later times they have usually been represented much higher and more acutely pointed. It all cases they should be represented with the labels, or pendent ribbons at the sides of the mitre. Sometimes the term stringed is applied to these when denoting their tincture.
    As charges, mitres occur in the insignia of several English sees and abbeys, and previous to the introduction of the practice of bishops impaling the insignia of their sees, they often differenced their paternal arms by the addition of mitres, keys, or other official insignia within the shield.
    Gules, three mitres or--See of CHESTER.
    Azure, three mitres or--See of NORWICH.
    Azure, a saltire argent; in chief a mitre of the last garnished or--See of EDINBURGH.
    Or, three torteaux, with a label of three points azure, charged with a like number of mitres gold[for difference]--William COURTENAY, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1381.
    Checky or and azure, on a fesse gules, a mitre stringed argent; all within a bordure of the second--CLIFFORD, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1401; Worcester, 1401; afterwards of London, 1407-21.
    Argent, on a fesse azure, a mitre or; in chief three buck's heads caboshed gules; in base as many pheons sable--Thomas de BECKINGTON, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443.
    Sable, three mitres or--Robert MASCALL, Bp. of Hereford, 1404-16.
    Very few families bear mitres, but the family of BERKELEY bears for a crest(without any wreath) a mitre gules, labelled and garnished or, charged with a chevron between ten crosses patee six in chief and four in base--the family arms. Similar crests are used by some families of HARDING.
    Azure, three mitres or--MYTERTON, Newcastle.
    Or, on a bend between two cotises and as many garbs azure a mitre of the first--TYLSON.
Mitry: this awkward word is suggested to a bordure charged with eight mitres.
Mitus. See under Pheasant.
Moile. See Bull.
Mole, (fr. taupe): this occurs more frequently than might have been expected. With it may be classed the mole-hill, though this is perhaps used to signify any small hill or hillock. See also under Mound.
    Azure, on a cross patonce or fretty gules in the dexter chief a plate charged with a mole sable--MOLLE.
    Argent, three moles sable--NANCOTHAN, Cornwall.
    Argent, three moles sable, snouts and feet gules--NANGOTHAN, Scotland.
    Argent, a chevron between three moles sable--TWISTLETON.
    Argent, a mole-hill in base sable--ASCHAW.
    Argent, three mole-hills proper--ILSLEY.
    Moles are also borne by the families of NEVELE, MEDPATH, QUICK, co. Devon, and MITFORD, Earl or Redesdale.
Fish of Mogul.
Fish of Mogul.
Mogul, Fish of, (lat. Cyprinus Rohita): this fish, which is allied to the Carp(of which there is no English representation as an armorial bearing, though it is not unfrequent on the Continent) is used as a badge of dignity called the MAHI MARATIB, which dignity is said to have originated with the Mogul dynasty founded in 1206. General(created in 1807 Lord) LAKE had this dignity or order conferred upon him, and bore it on his arms.
    Sable, a bend between six cross crosslets fitchy argent; on a chief of the last the fish of Mogul per pale or and vert, banded vert and gules surmounting the Goog and Ullum honourable insignia in saltire--Viscount LAKE Delhi, 1807.
Mole or Molet: old form of Mullet.
Molette d'éperon, (fr.): Mullet.
Moline. See Cross Moline, §24. Also Mill.
Monastery: a curious device, the following being a unique example, and evidently chosen on account of the name.
    Per fesse purple and vert; on a fesse sable a monastery with two wings argent; in base three monks, the centre one affronty the other two confronting him habited, all proper--MONKHOUSE, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Monsters, (fr. monstrueux): bearing in mind how much, is the way of devices, heraldry derived from the crusades and pilgrimages to the Holy Land, and what a taste seems to have been created for romance at the beginning of the twelfth century, as evidenced by the rapid expansion of the stories surrounding the exploits and death of King Arthur, it is no wonder that tales of travellers suggested remarkable animals for the varieties of distinguishing charges. The Griffin, and with it the Dragon, the one a compound of the Lion and Eagle, the king of beasts and of birds, the other an imaginary Crocodile, with the head of a serpent and the wings of a bat, were the two favourites. From the latter the forked tongue, painted of a different tincture(generally gules), added to the terrible appearance of the monster.
    Somewhat similar to these was the Cockatrice, and with it the Wyvern; these animals having but two legs instead of four, and partaking more of the character of the reptile than of the beast. Examples of each will be found under the respective heads of Griffin and Cockatrice; beneath the first of these heads are grouped the Dragon, Alce, and Opinicus; beneath the other the Wyvern, Basilisk, Amphistera, and Hydra.
    Another class of monsters arose from adding wings to beasts, i.e. to the Horse, Stag, and Bull, and the python or winged serpent may be classed with them; these will be found noticed under the heading of Pegasus, the winged horse. In the same way the Lion and the Ox, amongst the symbols of the Evangelists, are always represented winged.
    After adding birds' and bats' wings to some animals it was only a step to add fishes' tails to others, and such appears to by simply the origin of such monsters as those to which the name of sea-horse, sea-lion, sea-dragon, and sea-dog have been applied.
    But next we find a group in which men appear combined with portions of animals; the old Satyr from Roman story, with the Satyral and Centaur(or Sagittarius), which last was one of the sign of the Zodiac and King Stephen's badge; also the Lampago, and man-tiger, the last two being probably but one figure. All these appear on shields. Nor is the representation of mythical forms of woman overlooked. The Sphinx with the woman's head standing at the head of them, and the classical Harpy, follows on one side, the Mermaid and Siren on the other. The mystery of fire was associated with the Phœnix and the Salamander. These latter will be found noted under the respective headings of Satyr, Sphinx, Mermaid, and Phœnix.
    Lastly, combinations of animals will be found in the examples of the Unicorn and Apre, the one a horse with the tail of lion, the other a bull with the tail of a bear: Allocamelus, partly an ass and partly a camel; the head of the Goat, which has been varied according to fancy, forming the lion-goat, and the deer-goat; and even the Eagle is in one case represented with hound's ears.
Montant, (fr.): used when a charge(which has of itself no definite direction) is directed towards the chief, e.g. insects crustacea and the like: nearest English equivalent perhaps erect.
Montjoie, a hill composed of six hillocks. See Mount.
Moon, (fr. lune, lat. luna): the moon is a common device. It is occasionally borne full, when it is termed in fer complement, and it is then figured with a human face. It may also be illuminated, that is, surrounded with very short rays. It proper tincture is argent. When sable it is supposed to be eclipsed.
    When a half moon is represented with the horns towards the dexter side of the shield it is supposed to be increscent, and is described as in her increment; when the horns are turned to the sinister side it is supposed to be decrescent, and is described as in her decrement(or, as some blunderingly write it, in her detriment). But these terms are chiefly found in theoretical works, and not often in practical blazon. When the horns are represented uppermost the charge is simply a Crescent, and this from the earliest times was the special ensign of the Turks.
(Decrescent.) DELALUNE.
(Decrescent.) DELALUNE.
(Increscent.) BALSWILL.
(Increscent.) BALSWILL.
    Azure, the sun, moon, and seven stars or, the two first in chief, the last in base; [otherwise Azure, seven estoiles in orbicular form, in chief the sun and full moon or]--John de FONTIBUS, Bishop of Ely, 1220-25.
    Gules, two flaunches ermine on a chief azure a sun between two moons or--DAY, co. Derby.
    Azure, a cross calvary on a griece of three steps argent between a sun in splendour and a moon in her detriment proper--MARTIN, Ireland.
    Azure, a moon descrescent or--DELALUNE[or DELALYNE].
    Azure, an increscent[i.e. a moon increscent] or--BALSWILL.
    Gules, a moon increscent or--DASTURES[or DESTURES].
    Azure, three increscents or, each enclosing a mullet--GREGORIE, co. Devon.
    Ermine, three increscents gules--SYMMES, co. Northampton.
    Increscents are also borne by the families of BUNNELL; BAIRD, co. Haddington; FALLON, &c.
    The term luna is used signify argent in the fanciful system of planetary tinctures.
Moor-cock, (tetrao scoticus) or Grouse is borne by several families in allusion to their names.
    Argent, a moor-cock proper--MOORE, Fawley, Berks, Bart. 1627.
    Argent, on a fesse between three moor-cocks sable as many mullets or--MOORE, Pendridge, co. Dorset; MORE, co. Hants.
    Or, on a fesse humetty between three moor-cocks proper, a garb of the field--MORRIS or MORES, Coxwell, co. Berks.
    Sable, on a mount proper a stag lodged or, a chief of the third charged with a moor-cock of the second--MORTOFT, co. Norfolk; confirmed October, 1606.
    Or, a falcon sable preying on a moor-cock proper, on a chief of the second three birdbolts argent--KNOLLES, co. Devon.
    Argent, a chevron azure between moor-cocks proper--John LUXMORE, Bishop of Bristol, 1807; Hereford, 1808; St.Asaph, 1815-30.
    Azure, on a fesse dancetty between eight garbs or banded gules three grouse of the field beaked and membered of the third--DOWNAM, co. York.
    Borne also by families of HIGHMORE, MIDDLEMORE, MOOR and MORE, and FITZ-MOORE, and many families of MOREWEN, MORETON, HEATH, KINGWOOD, &c.
    The bird occurs also frequently as a crest. For Moorhen see under Coot.
Moor hen. See Coot.
Moor's head. See Head.
Mooted(or Moulted) up by the roots: used by an old writer for eradicated.
Morailles, (fr.). See Barnacles.
Morion. See Cap of Steel.
Morné, (fr.): of a lion without teeth, tongue or claws.
Morse. See Seal.
Mortar: the guns so called do not seem to be blazoned by this name is any arms, unless those borne by the family of GOTER are meant to represent them: but the ordinary pestle and mortar for some reason has been chosen as an armorial bearing by two families, of one of which there appear to be several branches which bear the pestle and mortar differently.
    Azure, three mortars and pestles or--BROKE, co. Warwick.
    Sable, three pestles in mortars argent--WAKLEY; Harl. MS. 1404.
    Sable, three mortars argent, in each a pestle or--WAKERLEY.
    Azure, a fesse between three mortars or--WAKERLEY.
    Gules, billetty and three ringed mortars argent--GOTER.
Mortcour(so spelt, but qy. an error Mortarium, or fr. Mortier): a candlestick used at funerals. It occurs only in the insignia of the Company of WAX CHANDLERS. In some drawings the ornamental foliage accidentally resembles small snakes.
    Azure, on a chevron between three mortcours argent as many roses gules(but another Azure on a chevron argent between three mortcours or as many roses gules seeded of the third barbed vert)--Company of WAX-CHANDLERS, London; Incorporated 1484. Arms granted by Holmes, Clarenceux, 1487.
Mortier, (fr.): a round cap worn by chancellors, &c., and placed above the crest in some French arms; somewhat similar to the Lord Mayor's Cap.
Motto: a word or sentence upon a scroll, generally placed below the shield, but sometimes, especially in Scotland, above the crest. The family motto should never be inscribed(as it too often is) upon a garter or circle, nor should it accompany the arms of any woman except the sovereign. In the case of William of WYKEHAM'S arms here given it will be seen the garter is reserved for the motto of the 'order.' His personal motto, adopted by his two colleges, is manners makyth man; and that it always found beneath. Bishops, as a rule, do not use mottoes.
    Many ancient mottoes were war-cries. Such it is probable were the following:--
    Forward. DOUGLAS, Duke of Queensbury. Crom a boo. (I will burn). FITZGERALD, Duke of Leinster. Courage sans peur. GAVE, Viscount Gage.
    Many mottoes refer obviously to the name of the bearer, as--
    Cavendo tutus--CAVENDISH. Per se valens--PERCEVAL. Pie repone te--PIERREPONTE, Earl Manvers. Scuto amoris divini--SCUDAMORE. Time Deum, cole regem--COLERIDGE.
    Some have reference to a charge in the arms to which they are annexed, or to the crest above it, e.g.--
    Soyes sage et simple--SPRY; the crest being: on a wreath a serpent nowed, thereon a dove.
    But the generality of mottoes express a sentiment, hope, or determination. Such are the following:--
    Dum spiro spero--DILLON. Garde la foy--COX, POULET, RICH, &c. Spero meliora--CORY. Toujours prest--CARMICHAEL.
    Mottoes are often borne by several successive generations, but may be changed at pleasure. The languages most in use are Latin, French, and English; but in Scotland they are often in the old Lowland dialect, and in Wales, in the language of the principality. A few peers used Italian mottoes, and some recent ones are even in Oriental languages.
    The present royal motto, Dieu et mon Droit, was certainly used as early as the reign of Henry VI. It was probably a war-cry long before, as King Richard I. is recorded to have said, "Not we, but God and our right have vanquished France at Gisors." The Cri de guerre of the kings of France was Mon joye Saint Denis. Scottish heralds term such war-cries Slogans or badly spelt Sloghorns.
Moucheté, (fr.): spotted with small leaf pattern like on lace, and in one case used of black spots on the lamprey.
Mouchetor, (fr.), moucheture: said to be an Ermine spot without the three specks usually placed at its upper end.
Moulin, (fr.), Mill. See also Windmill.
Moulin, Fer de. See Fer de Moline.
Mound. See Orb, also Mount.
Mount, (fr. montagne); in later heraldry it is not unusual to separate the lower portion of the shield by a curved line, and by tincturing the same vert to represent therein a mount supposed to be covered with grass. The French heralds use a specific term for this device, viz. terrassé. On this some other device is placed, most frequently a tree, but often an animal grazing, e.g. a stag(see one or two examples under Deer). It may be covered with flowers, or be burning, &c. The mount is sometimes incorrectly written mound, which is a very different device. [See under Orb, and note arms of BERWICK below.] It is sometimes blazoned as a hill, or hillock, (fr. tertre), or even mole-hill where there is more than one mount represented. A mount mounted is said to mean a large mount with a smaller one upon it. The French use the term coupeaux for a series of hills. The mountain also occurs, and perhaps may be distinguished somewhat in the drawing from a mount.
    Argent, in chief a gem-ring gules; out of a mount in base three trefoils vert--DORRIEN, co. Herts.
    Argent, on a mount inclining to the sinister at oak-tree proper, acorned or, debruised of a fesse azure--Richard WATSON, Bp. of Llandaff, 1782-1816.
    Or, a mountain[couped in base] azure inflamed in several placed proper--MACLEOD, Lord of Lewis.
    Gules, a chevron ermine between in chief two mounds and in base a talbot passant or--DAVIS, Bristol.
    Argent, three hills in base azure--BRINCKMAN, Baronetcy, 1831.
    Vert, three hillocks argent--HILLS, Middlesex.
    Per fesse argent and chequy argent and gules, a hill of three mounds azure--HOHEBURG.
    Argent, three mountains issuing from the base, one in front and two behind vert; on the top of each a cross Calvary gules--HILL, Ireland.
    Argent, a chevron sable between three mole-hills with grass proper, each charged with an annulet of the first[otherwise three hillocks of rushes vert, on each an annulet]--TYLDESLEY.
    D'or, à l'arbre arraché de sinople posé sur un tertre de même parti dor, au rocher de sinople--MONTOLIEU, Languedoc.
    De sable, à une montagne d'argent semée de flammes de gueules--MOUSTOULAT, Guyenne.
    D'Argent, à l'arbre terrassé de sinople, au cerf gueules passant au pied de l'arbre--LOURMONT, Normandie.
    D'or, à une montagne de trois coupeaux d'azure--CAUDECOSTE, Dauphiné.
    The French have also a mount of six hillocks(à six coupeaux), which is called a Montjoie.
    De gueules, à deux bourdons d'or posée en chevron accompagnés de trois montjoies d'argent[1st and 3rd Quart.]--GUILLART DE FRESNAY, Poitou.
Mounting: a term used for rampant, applied to beasts of chase and sometimes to reptiles.
Mourned: used for blunted, but(fr.) morné=disarmed.
Mouse. Rere-mouse only found. See under Bat.
Moussu or mossu, old fr.=emoussé or blunted, said to be applied by French heralds to a Cross with ends rounded. See §29.
Mouvant: a term peculiar to French heraldry, and signifying that a portion of a charge only is visible, as if issuing from one of the sides or corners of the shield. (See e.g. under Cloud.) The following examples explain the use of the term.
    D'azur, à un lion d'argent regardant un soleil d'or mouvant de l'angle dextre de l'écu--DU GARDIER, Dauphiné.
    De gueules, à lavant bras gantelé d'argent mouvant du flanc senestre de l'écu et tenant une bride de sable--DE L'ESCAILLE, Brabant.
Mulberry, (fr. mûre, old fr. moure): the leaves of this plant occur on arms as early as temp. Henry III. as well as in recent arms. One example only of a branch has been noticed on arms, viz. on those of BASSANO(see under Silkworm), but it was used as a device or cognizance by MOWBRAY.
    Sire Hugh de MORIENS, de azure a iij foiles de moures de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Vert, three mulberry leaves or--WOODWARD, co. Norfolk, 1806.
    Vert, a wolf salient argent; impaling argent three mulberry leaves vert two and one--GAMBOW.
    Azure, three mulberry leaves or--MOREYNE, Suffolk.
    Azure, a Spanish merchant-brig under sail proper; on a chief invected argent two mulberry leaves, the points opposed to each other; on each leaf two silkworms also proper--FAVENC, London.
Mule. See Ass.
Mullet. (fr. molette): this bearing is generally taken to represent the rowel of a spur, and in modern French heraldry is called molette d'éperon. In old French blazon it is sometimes termed rouwell, q.v. It might, however, when not pierced be taken to represent a star, and, as will be seen by the examples, it appears originally to have been interchangeable with the estoile. It usually has five points, and this number is always to be understood when no other is mentioned. In French heraldry the normal number of points is six.
    Le Conte de OXFORD, quartele d'or et de goules[sic], ung molet d'argent ent le quarter devant--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le Counte de OXENFORD, quartile de or e de goules; a un molet de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Le Counte d'OXFORD, port quarterly d'or et gules; a une estoiele d'argent en le quarter gules devant--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Quarterly gules and or, in the first quarter a mullet argent--VERE, Earl of Oxford.
    William de ODINGSELES, d'argent a la fece de goulz a deux molets en le chief goulz--Roll, temp. HEN III.
    William DODINGCELES, dargent a une fesse de goules a deus roueles de gules--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Johan DODINGCELES, de argent a une fesse de goules; en la chef un molet de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II. [Similar in Roll, temp. ED. III.]
    Nicholas de MOELES, dargent a deux barres de goules a trois molets; en le chief goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Rauf DELAHAYE, dargent, a ruell de goules--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Robert de HAMSART, tout apreste' .... Rouge o trois estoiles de argent--Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300. [Cf. Gilbert HANSARDE under Estoile.]
    Sire Robert HANSARDE de, goules a iij moles de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire HANSTED, gules a trois mulletts argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Sir Renaud de COBHAM[de goules a un chevron de or]; en le cheveron iij moles de azure--Roll, temp. ED. II. [Cf. John de COBHAM under Estoile.]
    Sire Johan de WIGKETONE, de sable, a 3 moles de or, od la bordure endente de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Le bon Baron de WIGNETONE ... portoit bordure endentee O trois estoiles de or ensable--Roll of Carlaverock.
    Argent, on a bend cotised sable, three mullets or--LENTHALL, Haseley, co. Oxon.
    Argent, on a mullet sable an annulet or--ASHTON, co. Lancaster.
    Mullet besides having for the sake of variety more than five points(or, as they are termed in one instance, horns), may be pierced of the field, or voided of some other tincture, and this is found to be the case with very early examples. Sometimes, though pierced is not mentioned, it may be understood.
    Sire William de HARPEDENE de argent a un molet de goules percee--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Argent, a mullet of six points pierced sable--HARPDEN, Gloucestershire.
    Monsire de BRADBOURNE, port d'argent a une bend gules trois molletts d'or percés--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire John de HOTHAM, d'or, sur une bend sable trois mulletts d'argent voyde gules--Ibid.
    Monsire de KNEVILLE, gules a trois molletts d'or voyde vert--Ibid.
    Monsire de BONVILLE, d'or, sur une bend sable, trois molets d'argent voyde du champ--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Sire Miles de HASTYNGES, de or une, fesse de goules; en le chef ij moles de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Or, a fesse, and in chief two mullets of six points pierced gules--HASTYNGES, Oxfordshire.
    Argent, on two bars sable six mullets of as many points or, three and three--HOPTON, co. York.
    Azure, three crescents each enclosing a six-pointed mullet[or rather estoile] argent--HOBHOUSE, co. Somerset.
    Argent, three bars sable; in chief two mullets pierced of the last, the horns barry of the first and second--HOUGHTON, London.
    Edmondson has blazoned these as star-fishes, for which Guillim pretends that mullet was the ancient name.
    A mullet is used for a difference of the third house. (See Cadency.)
Mullet, (a fish). See Gurnet; also Sea Urchin.
Muraillé, (fr.), also mureld, walled; i.e. masoned and embattled.
Mural, applied to a Crown.
Murr. See Auk.
Murrey. See Sanguine.
Muscovy Duck. See Duck.
Mushroom, (fr. champignon): not observed in English arms, but found in French arms.
    D'azur, à un chevron d'argent accompagné de trois champignons d'or--GUYOT D'ANFREVILLE, Normandie.
Music. See under Book.
Musimon: described by Guillim as resembling a ram with goat's horns as well as its own.
Musket. The Musket is found amongst bearings as well as the Potgun, and the Pistol. They appear to have been drawn from the objects themselves. The Petronel, a kind of pistol used by the French, is given in heraldic books, but no case has been observed.
    Gules, two muskets in saltire within a bordure argent; a chief or charged with a lion passant guardant of the field--GUNN.
    Per fesse wavy gules and azure; [in chief] a lion passant gardant or, beneath the feet a musket lying horizontally proper; [the base] semy of fleurs-de-lis confusedly dispersed of the third--HOCKIN, co. Devon, 1764.
    Sable, on a chevron erminois between three pistols or, as many roses gules barbed and seeded proper--HOPKINS, 1773.
    Or, on a cross azure five pairs of pistols saltirewise of the first--TOULSON, co. Lancaster.
    Per saltire azure and or a lion rampant guardant of the first on a canton argent two pot-guns azure(another sable)--GOLD.
Muzzled, (fr. emmusélé). Of bears and other animals so provided.