Cabled, (fr. cablé): 1. of a cross with a cable pattern, i.e. of twisted rope; 2. of an anchor, &c., having a rope cable.
Caboshed, Cabossed, or Caboched, otherwise Trunked(old fr. caboche): terms applied to the heads of beasts, when borne full-faced and with no part of the neck being visible, so that it appears like the marks of a head. An example will be seen above, under bull, also under leopard: in the case of leopards' heads, however, as the word is not found used, it does not appear to be necessary. The term rencontre supplies the nearest equivalent in French heraldry; thus arms here figured would be blazoned in French rencontre de cerf.
Argent, a buck's head caboshed gules, attired or--TRYE, Glouc.
Cabré(fr.) is applied by French heralds to a horse which, brought to a check, is rearing(but not so much as acculé).
Sable, a chevron between three leopard's heads or--WENTWORTH.
Argent, in chief, sable three leopard's heads or--NORMAN.
Cadency, marks of, otherwise called Distinctions, or Differences(fr. brisures): variations of the original arms of a family, or marks attached to them for the purpose of pointing out the several branches, and the relation in which they stand to each other and to their common ancestor.
In ancient heraldry "a plain Label" (as Sir N. H. Nicolas remarks), "most frequently azure, appear to have been the distinction of the eldest son and heir apparent;" as, for instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, Maurice de BERKELEY, who joined in the expedition, is described as having over his arms(gules, crusilly with a white chevron) a label azure, because his father was still alive:
"E. Morices de Berkelée, Croissillie o un chievron blanc,
Ki compaigns fu de cele alée, Ou un label de asur avoit,
Banier ot vermeille cum sanc, Por ce que ses peres vivoit."
And again, one bore his arms in no manner different from his father[the Earl of Lennox] except the azure label:
"Cele au Conte de Laonois .... Ne la portoit par nul aconte
Patrik de Dunbar, fiz le Conte Fors de une label de inde diverse."
It also appears "that younger sons bore the label variously charged, sometimes with the whole or part of their mother's arms, or the arms of a distinguished family from which they were descended; that more distant branches changed the colours, or charges, of the coat; placed a bend over it; surrounded it with a bordure, or assumed a canton, plain or charged."
Although the charge of tinctures, and the addition, removal, or alteration of charges are very frequently marks of cadency, it must not be supposed that all families of the same name, and between whose arms there is some resemblance, are descended from the same ancestors, for the arms of ancient families have often been very unjustly granted with slight alteration to persons whose relation to such families consisted only in similarity of name.
The differences now in use may be divided into two classes; those used by the royal family, and those which should be borne by all others. The sons and daughters of the sovereign all bear labels of three points argent. That of the Prince of Wales is plain, but those of the other princes and princesses are charged with crosses, fleur-de-lis, hearts, or other figures for the sake of distinction. Princes and princesses, being the sons and daughters of the above, are distinguished by labels of five points charged in the same manner. All such differences should be borne on the arms, crest, and supporters.
The differences now in use for all families except that of the sovereign may be partially traced to the time of Edward III. They are as follows:--
First son. A label of 3 points. Fourth son. A martlet.
Second son. A crescent. Fifth son. An annulet.
Third son. A mullet. Sixth son. A fleur-de-lis.
Some heralds pretend that the seventh son was marked by a rose, the eighth by a cross moline, and ninth by eightfoil; but this theory does not seem to be borne out in practice.
This first son of the first son of the first house bears a label upon a label(or more agreeably to ancient custom a label of five points). The second a label charged with a crescent, and so on for all other sons of this branch.
SECOND HOUSE. First son. A crescent charged with label of
Second son. A crescent charged with a crescent.
And so on for the rest, but it is not usual to bear more than double differences. There are no differences for sisters(except in the royal family), as they are all equal, but they should bear the differences which pertain to their fathers.
Crescents, mullets, &c., used as differences, should be drawn smaller than usual, to distinguish them from ordinary charges. They may be placed upon any part of the arms which is most convenient. There does not appear to be any rule respecting their tinctures.
Sire Johan FILOL, de veer a un quarter de goules. Sire Johan son filz meisme les armes en le quarter un molet de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Caduceus, (fr. caducée): the rod of Mercury, with wings attached, and two snakes round it. Used chiefly as a crest.
Per saltire or and erminois, on a saltire azure between a caduceus in chief and a pine-apple in base proper, two swords in saltire argent, pomels and hilts gold--BARROW, Bath.
Calamine stone. See Metal.
Calf. See Bull.
Caltrap, written also Calthrop, and Galtrap, and by French heralds Chausse-trap, is an abbreviated form of Cheval-trap: in instrument thrown upon the ground to injure feet of horses, consisting of four iron spikes, one of which is ever uppermost.
Argent, three cheval-traps sable--TRAP, Glouc.
Calvary. See Cross of.
Azure, a cross between four caltraps or--WESTFALING, Bp. of Hereford, 1586-1603.
Vert, on a lion rampant or caltraps sable--LIGHTORLES.
Camel: the camel is borne but on few arms. Several branches of the CAMMEL family bear it.
Argent, a chevron between three camels sable--CAMMEL.
Cameleon, or Chameleon: the proper tincture is green, and it is drawn as in the margin.
Azure, a camel statant argent--CAMELL.
Argent, a camel passing through a ford of water proper--CAMELFORD.
Also borne by the following:--FALLOWERS, Cheshire; FALWITZ, Alderley; CLOVES, Wilts; WHEELER, Surrey; WILKIE of St.Vincent[a camel's head]; STUTOILE[Ibid].
Argent, a chevron sable between three cameleons vert--LANDON.
Camelopardel: the camelopard, or giraffe, with two long horns slightly curved backward, used only as a crest.
Azure, in chief a sun or, in base a chameleon on sandy ground proper--ORY.
Sable, three chameleons erect or, within a bordure argent charged with eight martlets sable--WORTHAM.
Campaned: having bells attached.
Canary. See Finch.
Candlestick, (fr. chandelier). The taper-candlestick, borne in the arms of the FOUNDERS' Company, and usually drawn as represented in the annexed engraving, has a spike, or, as it is technically termed, a picket, upon which the taper is placed. Vide also Mortcour, which is used at funerals.
Or, three candlesticks sable--KYLE, Scotland.
Cannelé, (fr.) invected.
Azure, two candlesticks[? chalices] in fesse or--EMERLE.
Ermine, three candlesticks, each enfiled with a wreath of laurel, and in chief ... --TORRENS.
.... A book expanded having a candlestick with a lighted candle in it above the book, on the leaves the words 'Lucerna pedibus,' &c.--College of S.Mary, MANCHESTER.
Cannet. See Duck.
Cannon. See Bell, also Gun.
Canting Arms(sometimes called allusive or punning arms, and by French heralds, armes parlantes) are very generally distributed. They are arms containing charges which are allusive to the name of the bearer. A few examples are annexed.
Gules, a castle triple towered or, and argent, a lion rampant gules(sometimes purpure, and often crowned or), quarterly--The kingdom of CASTILE and LEON.
Many even of early coats of arms allude, in some way or other, to the names of their bearer, and perhaps more than is commonly suspected would be found to be so, if we could always recover the early chance names given to the charges of which they are composed.
Sable, six swallows(fr. hirondelles), 3, 2, 1, argent--ARUNDEL, Wardour, Wilts.
Barry of six, argent and gules--BARRY, Ireland.
Gules, three covered cups or--BUTLER. [This family was originally named FITZWALTER, and bore Or, a chief indented azure, but one of them being appointed to the office of lord Butler of Ireland, they took the surname of BUTLER at the same time as their arms.]
Argent, three eagles displayed gules--EGLESFIELD, Cumb. (Founder of Queen's College, Oxford, 1340).
Argent, three eels naiant in pale sable--ELLIS, Norf.
Crest, a holy lamb--EVANS, Wales. [This is an allusion to S.John the Baptist; Evan being the Welsh form of the Christian name John.]
Gules, on a chevron between three ostrich feathers argent, a pellet(or gun-stone)--FETHERSTON, Herts.
Argent, on a mount in base vert, a hart lodged gules--HARTHILL.
Crest, a talbot's head couped argent, collared sable, to the collar a ring of the first--HAYWARD, Surrey. [This is a specimen of heraldic allusions of a more recondite character, the reference being to the Saxon haganpeapd. a house-dog.]
Or, three boots(hosen) sable--HUSSEY.
Azure, a cross moline or--MOLINEUX, Hawkley, Lanc.
Gules, a fesse between four dexter hands couped argent--QUATREMAYNE, Oxfordsh.
Azure, even acorns, 2, 3, 2, or--SEVENOKE(Lord Mayor of London, 1418).
Argent, a stork sable, beaked and membered gules--STARKEY, Chesh.
Azure, two trumpets pileways, between eight cross crosslets, 3, 3, 2, or--TRUMPINGTON, Cambr. (Sir Roger de Trumpington, ob. 1289).
Geoffrey de LUCY, de goules a trois lucies d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Arms parlantes do not often occur of later date than King James I., about which time they began to grow into disrepute from ignorance and misapplication, and were nick-named canting or punning arms. They were numerous at all preceding periods, not only in England, but throughout Christendom.
Nicholas de MOELES, d'argent a deux barres de goules, a trois molets en le chief de goules--Ibid.
Thomas CORBETT, d'or deux carbeaux noir--Ibid.
Roger de MERLEY, barree d'argent et de goulz, a la bordur d'azure, et merlots d'or en la bordur--Ibid.
Odinel HERON d'azur a trois herons d'argent--Ibid.
Canton, (fr. canton, but also franc quartier appears to be often used in this sense): resembles a first quarter of the shield in form, but of smaller dimensions; its size does not appear to be fixed, but is generally about one-third of the chief. In old French cauntel, (i.e.) canton, is used for Quarter, q.v.
When the word is used alone, a dexter canton is intended; it may, however, be placed upon the sinister side, if so blazoned, and when with a bend. Cantons in base occur upon foreign arms, but it is believed are never used in English armory.
The canton is sometimes the only charge in a coat; but generally it is supposed to be an augmentation of the original arms, or a difference.
Argent, a canton sable--Oliver SUTTON, Bp. of Lincoln, 1280-99; Charles SUTTON, Bp. of Norwich, 1792, and Abp. of Canterbury, 1805-28; [also SUTTON, Baron Lexington, 1645, and other families of that name].
Where there is a bordure the canton always surmounts it, and when borne upon a coat consisting of there charges(2 and 1) it generally covers the whole or greater part of the first. If more than three it generally covers the whole of one, if not of more. In very exceptional cases, however(and then the arrangement must be duly described), the canton itself is partially covered by some ordinary(e.g. a bend).
Argent, fretty gules, a canton gules--IREBY, Cumberland.
Gul. LONGESPE, dazur, a sis liuncels dor--Soun frer au tel a une cauntel dermine--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
It is often charged with another bearing, though generally plain, and the most frequent tincture is ermine, which rather tends to bear out a theory that its origin was suggested by some badge of honour placed upon the shoulder of the warrior.
Sable, a lion rampant argent, on a canton of the last a cross gules(i.e. a canton of S.George)--CHURCHILL, Duke of Marlborough. [Arms of Earl of Marlborough, 1689.]
A canton and fesse of the same tincture, as in the arms of WOODVILLE, should join, without even a line to part them. The same remark will apply to the uppermost of two or more bars, when occurring with a canton; but this is not so with a bend. When a canton and chief occur on the same coat the canton overlies it.
Gules, on a bordure sable eight estoiles or; on a canton ermine a lion rampant of the second; in fesse point an annulet of the third for difference--S.John BAPTIST'S College, Oxford[founded by Sir Thomas WHITE, 1557].
Or, three lioncels passant sable langued gules; on a canton of the second three bezants--GODWIN, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1584-90.
Monsire Philip le DESPENCER, port barre d'or et d'asur de vj peeces, a une quarter d'ermin--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Azure, six lions rampant argent; on a canton or a mullet gules--KIRBY, Kent. [The arms engraved are from Haseley Church, and perhaps are those of LONGESPEE, Earl of Salisbury, with the canton for a difference.]
Sire Walter TOUX de sable, billeté de or e un quarter de ermyn--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Rauf de ZEFOUL, d'argent, a une croys patee de verd; e en le cauntel un oysel de goulys--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Argent, a fesse and canton gules--WOODVILLE.
Cantoned. A cross or saltire between four charges is sometimes said to be cantonnée, or cantoned with such charges. A fesse joined to a canton is also sometimes called a fesse cantoned.
Argent, two bars azure on a canton of the second a cinquefoil or--PYPARD. [From glass formerly at Haseley.]
Ernaud de BOYS, argent, deux barres et ung canton goulez--Roll of Arms, temp. HEN. III.
Barry of six argent and azure, a chief ermine and a canton of the first--HOTHAM. [In some branches of the family a canton or.]
Barry wavy of six argent and sable, a chief gules and a canton ermine--BARLOW, Derby.
Barry of six argent and sable; a canton quarterly or and argent--BELSTED, Norfolk.
Barry of five argent and gules, a canton as the last; over all a bend sable--Sire Johan du BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1308-14; M. Roger le BOYS, Roll of Arms, 1392-97.
Cap: the principal caps in use as charges, parts of crests, or accessories to coats of arms, are the following:
The Lord Mayor's cap usually placed over the insignia of the city of London, or arms of a lord mayor, is thus represented. It is worn by the sword-bearer, and is of brown fur.
The caps borne by MAUNDEFELD are of a peculiar form, similar to that of the 'Doge's' cap. Those borne by DROKENSFORD, and called pilia pastoralia(if caps at all), were possibly similar.
Quarterly, azure and or four caps counterchanged--DROKENSFORD.
The family of CAPPER bear caps, like the figure annexed.
Argent, three caps sable bended or--CAPPER, Cheshire.
A Cardinal's cap or hat is always red, and has tassels pendent from its labels in five rows, instituted by Innocent IV., at the Council of Lyons, 1245. The continental archbishops and bishops(especially those of France) bear green hats of the same form over their mitres, the former with five rows of tassels, and the latter with four. A black caps of the same shape, with three rows of tassels, belongs to abbats. Prothonotaries use a similar hat with two rows of tassels. A black hat or cap, with one tassel on each side, belongs to all other clergymen.
Cap of Dignity or maintenance, called also Chapeau, is a cap generally of red velvet turned up with ermine, formerly peculiar to dukes(whence it is sometimes called a duciper), but now often used to place crests upon instead of a wreath.
Argent, three chapeaus sable(or cap of maintenance)--HALWORTH.
The term chapeau, however, is variously used for a cap or hat of any kind. In the arms of COPE it is probably a cap of maintenance; it that of KINGESTON it is probably a hat of some kind.
The cap of maintenance occurs as a charge in the insignia of the city of GLOUCESTER, and on the seals of Towns of WALLINGFORD and STAINES.
Quarterly ermine and azure, a chapeau gules turned up of the first between two greyhounds courant in pale or--COPE, Osbaston, Leicester.
The doctor's cap in the arms of SUGAR refers probably to the University degree.
Argent, a chapeau azure[elsewhere a steel cap proper], with a plume of ostrich feathers in front gules--John KINGESTON, 1390.
Sable, three sugar-loaves argent, in chief a doctor's cap proper--SUGAR, Somerset.
The long Cap, of a peculiar shape, which occurs in the crests of WALPOLE and BRYDGES, is shewn in the margin, and a cap somewhat similar is termed an Albanian bonnet, probably that worn by the peasantry.
Azure, trois bonnets Albanois d'or--VAUX, France.
The Abacot, a mere corruption of bycocket, is said in Spelman's Glossary to have been given to a cap worn by ancient kings of England, and is so copied into heraldic books.
The Infula is used in one case in the sense of a cap.
Argent, an infula embowed at the end gules, turned up in form of a hat, and engrailed with a button and tassel at the top or--BRUNT.
Caps of Steel: of these there are various kinds, and they cannot properly be included under the term helmet. The first in the Basinet(fr.), or Basnet, properly a plain circular helmet resembling a basin, though sometimes they are drawn(improperly) like squires' helmets. The Burgonet is a steel cap, worn chiefly by foot-soldiers, and of the shape shewn in the margin.
There is also the Morion(fr. chapeau de fer), which was worn by foot-soldiers, and is usually of the plain shape annexed, but it may be ornamented. In many ancient examples the points of these morions are turned to the dexter.
A somewhat different morion is given on the crest of CECIL, Marquis of Salisbury.
Argent, a chevron gules between three basnets proper--BASNET.
Caps(fr. chaperons) are also used for Falcons, q.v.
Argent, a fesse azure between three burgonettes[elsewhere morions] of the second garnished and nailed or--EVINGTON, Enfield, 1614.
Argent, a chevron gules between three morions proper--BRUDENEL, Earl of Cardigan.
Caparison, or housing(old fr. barde): the embroidered covering of a horse, which was often charged with the arms of the knight to whom the horse belonged, as on the seal of Edward CROUCHBACK, Earl of Lancaster. The horse represented upon his monument, and that of Aymer DE VALENCE, both in Westminster Abbey, are examples of the practice. The horses upon the great seals of King Edward I. and many of his successors are caparisoned with the royal arms.
All animals embroidered upon the housing of a horse should face his head. The same they be said of all charges which are different on each side; thus a bend upon the right side of the caparison of a horse would appear as a bend sinister.
Capital. See Gateway and Pillar.
Capon. See Cock.
Cappeline. See Mantling and Tent.
Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle.
Card for wool. See Woolcard.
Cards: playing cards are used in the arms of the company.
Gules, on a cross argent between in chief the aces of hearts and diamonds, but in base the aces of clubs and spades proper, a lion passant guardant--Company of CARDMAKERS.
Careering, (fr. cabré): a term applied to a horse in a position which would be called salient if a beast of prey were spoken of.
Carnation: (1) improperly used for flesh-colour, as no such tincture is recognised in heraldry(but frequent with French heralds); (2) a flower. The pink is also found.
Argent, three carnations gules, stalked and leaved vert--NOYCE.
Carp. See Mogul, fish of.
Azure, on a bend or within a bordure argent two pinks, slipped proper--WADE.
Pinks are also borne by families of EDSIR(Surrey), of MARLOW, and of LEVINGSTON, and by SKEVINGTON, Bp. of Bangor, 1510-33.
Carpenter's square. See Square.
Carreau, (fr.) (1) a quarrel, a kind of arrow; (2) a square charge like a block or delf.
Carter fish. See Turbot.
Cartouche: an oval escutcheon used by Italian ecclesiastics.
Cartwheel. See Wheel.
Casque. See Helmet.
Castle, (fr. chateau): the word castle used alone generally signifies either a single Tower, q.v. or two towers with a gate between them. A castle triple-towered is represented in the ensign of the kingdom of CASTILE, and is frequently found quartered in the arms of Queen Eleanor. The illustration is from glass still existing in Dorchester Church, Oxon.
Argent, a lion rampant sable, quartering gules, a castle triple-towered or--CASTILE and LEON.
Amongst other varieties which occur, are triangular and quadrangular castles; castles seen in perspective, and castles extending quite across the field. Castles are also described as domed, turreted(fr. donjonné), embattled, breached, &c., and it is not uncommon to describe in detail towers, gates, loopholes, windows, vanes, portcullises, and the like. Where the masonry is shewn by the addition of lines the term masoned is used. The windows and doors are sometimes represented as of a different tincture, and then are supposed to be closed; and the same if they are of that of the castle itself; but if of the tincture of the field they are supposed to be open, and the term ajouré might be used. Coulissé signifies that the portcullis is down.
Gules, three castles triple-towered within the royal tressure argent--Burgh of ABERDEEN.
Sable, a castle triple-towered or--TOWERS, Bp. of Peterborough, 1639-49.
Sable, two bars between three castles masoned or--CLEAVER, Bp. of Chester, 1788; of Bangor, 1800; and S.Asaph, 1806-15.
Sometimes the terms Fort, Fortress, Citadel, &c., are used. The Castle, too, may be surrounded with a fortification.
Gules, a castle towered and domed argent, masoned sable; on the dome a flag--Town of BARNSTAPLE, Devon.
Sable, a castle with towers turreted in perspective argent standing in water wavy azure and argent--CASTLEFORD.
Per fesse azure and argent; in base on a rock a castle breached, the Indian colours struck and flag-staff proper; in chief two eagles rising or--STIBBERT, London(1768).
Argent, a castle(or tower) triple-towered sable, chained transverse the port or--OLDCASTLE, Kent.
Per fesse vert and gules, in base a lion passant guardant on; in chief a quadrangle of castles walled argent--Town of LANCASTER.
Argent, on a rock proper a castle triple-towered and embattled sable, masoned of the first, and topped with three vanes gules, windows and portcullis shut of the last--City of EDINBURGH.
Argent, on a fesse azure, between two Cornish Choughs proper in chief, and in base a lion passant gules crowned or, a fort of the field--GARSTON.
In connection with the Castle the Barbican(that is to say the advanced work) is described in some insignia, and the projecting turrets overhanging the embattled wall, called Bartizans, in others. Other additions are occasionally named, e.g. a trench, or the castle, may be standing in water or surrounded by a wall.
Vert, on a chevron embattled ... &c.; a chief charged with the gates and fortress of Seringapatam proper--HARRIS, Baron Harris, 1815.
Per chevron azure and argent .... and on a chief silver the fortress of Khelat; a canton charged with the Dooranee badge--WILTSHIRE, 1840.
Per chevron vert and argent; on a chevron or between, in chief two castles of the second, in base another surrounded by a fortification proper, three torteaux--GREEN, Kent, Baronetcy, 1786.
Gules, two barbican of a castle having loopholes, gate, and portcullis, with two pointed side tower; on each of the latter a pennon waving argent, and ensigned on the centre of the battlement by a royal coronet or--Town of DONCASTER.
The badge of Jane Seymour, third queen of Henry VIII., blazoned upon a grant of lands made to her in 1536, presents a good example of a castle. The tincture are as follows:--
Gules, out of water in base, on embattled wall enclosing a castle with three gables from the embattled parapet, a piece of tapestry hung along the front between the bartizans and displaying three shields[shields described] ... Town of NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE.
The walls argent, the ground vert, the tree of the same fructed gules, the phœnix or, in flames proper, and the roses alternately white and red.
Castles occur rarely in the old rolls of arms.
Monsire de GRANSON pale d'argent et d'azure de vi. piéces, a chastelez d'or en une bend gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
The Castle is borne very frequently in the insignia of cities and towns, with other charges; of these insignia, however, the evidence is often only derived from the seal. The following may be named, but the list might probably be extended.
ABERDEEN; BARNSTAPLE; BEDFORD; BERKHAMSTEAD, (Hertford); BISHOPS CASTLE, (Salop); BOSNEY, (Cornwall); BRIDPORT; BRIDGEWATER, (Somerset), BRIDGENORTH, (Salop); BRISTOL; CARDIGAN; CARLISLE; CARMARTHEN; CLITHERO, (Lancashire); CORFE, (Dorset); DENBIGH; DEVIZES; DONCASTER; DORCHESTER, (Dorset); DUBLIN; DUNBAR; EDINBURGH; EXETER; FORFAR, (Scotland); GUILDFORD, (Surrey); HAVERFORDWEST; KINGHORN, (Scotland); KNARESBOROUGH; LANCASTER; LAUNCESTON, (Cornwall), LINCOLN, LUDGERSHALL; MALMESBURY; NEWBURY; NEWCASTLE under Lyne; NEWCASTLE under Tyne, (three); NORTHAMPTON; NORWICH; ORFORD; PEMBROKE; PLYMOUTH; PONTEFRACT; QUEENBORO'; SAFFRON WALDEN; STAFFORD; TAUNTON; TEWKESBURY; THETFORD; TIVERTON; WARWICK; WINCHESTER(five); WORCESTER; YARMOUTH, (Hants).
Cat, (fr. chat): occurs not infrequently. Probably the wild-cat is generally intended, thought the special reference to the Cat-a-mountain in several arms seems to imply a distinction. A spotted cat is also referred to.
Cats are found blazoned most frequently passant, but also rampant, salient, statant, and couchant. With French heralds the term effarouché is used to signify the cat when rampant(as if scared), and herissonée with 'the back up.' The wild-cat is supposed always to be represented guardant, although it be not stated in the blazoning. Musion, a fanciful name for a cat, is used by BOSSEWELL.
A cat's head is also found on one coat.
Argent, two cats passant gules--CATT.
Gules, two cats passant guardant argent--CATTON.
Per fesse azure and vert, in chief a cat argent couchant, coward; in base a pierced cinquefoil of the last--CATHARNE, Pembroke.
Vert, a cat statant, tail erect argent, within an orle of eight trefoils slipped or--VAGHAN.
Argent, three mountain-cats passant in pale sable--KEATE, Herts.
Per pale sable and gules, a mountain-cat between three roses argent--LIMPENIE.
Sable, on a fesse argent, between three mountain-cats or, a cross formy of the field--HILL, Berks.
Sable, a chevron ermine, between three spotted cats passant argent--HARTHORP, London.
Cats are also borne by the families of CHIVAS, Aberdeen; DUANE, London; ADAMS, Northampton; TIBBETT; LIPPINGCOTE, Devon, GIBBS, Dorset; and KEATS, Dover.
The crest of the Duke of Sutherland is a cat-a-mountain sejant guardant proper: and two wild-cats are the supporters to the arms of FARQUHARSON of Invercauld; while the lezard, a beast somewhat resembling the wild-cat, is the dexter supporter of the SKINNERS' and MUSCOVY Merchants' Companies, as well as the crest of the former.
Azure, a cat's head erased argent, between eight crosses crosslet of the second, 3, 2, 2, and 1--TOLDERREY, Kent.
Cathedral. See Church.
Catherine Wheel. See Wheel.
Caudé, (fr.): of tails of comets when of a different tincture.
Cauldron: in found only in connection with the children in the cauldron. See example under Bishop.
Cautel, or Cauntel(old fr.), found also spelt cantel and chantel: appears to be generally a corner at the Sinister chief point of the shield, but superseded in modern heraldry by the canton. See Quarter.
Cave: this singular charge occurs in one coat of arms.
Gules, a cave proper, therefrom issuant a wolf at full speed regardant argent--WILLIAMS.
Cedar. See Pine-tree.
Censer, (fr. encensoir): no example having been found in English arms the following French example is given.
D'or, à l'encensoir d'azur--LAMBERT, Limousin.
Centaur. See Satyr.
Centre-point: the fesse-point. See Points of the escutcheon.
Cercelé. See recercelé and Cross cercelée.
Cerclé, (fr.): encircled, e.g. of a Tun or barrel.
Cercle, (fr.): a large voided circle, only used in French arms.
Chabot. See Perch.
Chafant, (fr.): enraged, and is applied to the wild boar.
Chaffinch. See Finch.
Chain, (fr. chaine): (1) a series of annulets(q.v.) when interlaced are commonly called a chain, and are borne as distinct charges, as in the insignia of the kingdom of NAVARRE.
Gules, a cross and saltire of chains, affixed to an annulet in the fesse-point, and to a double orle of the same, all or--NAVARRE, taken after the battle of Tolosa, 1212.
(2) Chains are also often fixed to the collars of animals and to other charges, e.g. to a portcullis, an anchor, &c., and are frequently of a different tincture from the charge, and the term chained is used either when two animals are chained together, or when a chain is attached to the collar of a single animal.
Argent, three circles of chains sable--Hoo.
Argent, a chain of nine links in saltire, five gules and four azure--HATCHET.
Azure, a chain couped in chevron between three mitres all argent; at the dexter end of the chain a padlock of the last--EVESHAM Benedictine Abbey.
Gules, a chain of seven links in pale argent--KENDALL.
Sable, three chains each of four links palewise argent--ANDERTON, co. Lancaster.
Argent, two barbels haurient, respecting each other, sable, collared and chained together or; the chain pendent and ringed at the end--COLSTON, Essex.
Chain-shot. See Shot.
Gules, a stag statant argent collared and chained or--BOIS, co. Brecknock.
Chair: this is used in one case in a singular manner.
Or, out of a chair resembling a mural coronet reversed argent a demi-lion rampant sable--TALSTOCK.
Chalice: generally drawn in old examples as in the margin, though often with an octangular foot.
Azure, a sun in splendour, in base a chalice or; [otherwise a chalice or and in chief a sun]--VASSALL.
Chamber-piece. See Gun.
Azure, two chalices in fesse or[elsewhere blazoned candlesticks]--EMERLE.
Chameleon. See Cameleon.
Chamfrain, (old fr.): signifying the armour-plates which cover the head of a horse.
Champagne: rarely and irregularly used for the lower part of the shield generally, i.e. the 'ground.' See Point.
Champaine, (1) Champaine(corrupted by some writers to Champion), otherwise urdé and warriated: is an embattled line, but with the top and bottom of each division pointed instead of square, and so resembling somewhat the line usually drawn in vair. It occurs, though rarely, as a line of partition.
Purpure, a bend champaine argent--ARCHBY,
(2) The term Point Champaine, or Champion(q.v.) also is used. It is included in the forms of Abatement.
Argent, a pale champaine vert--BOWMAN.
Bendy of six champaine purple and argent--BOWBRIDGE.
Gyronny of four champaine or, enarched argent and gules--BRAUNECK.
Champion. See Champaine.
Chape. See Sword.
Chapeau. See Cap. See also Chapeaux under chaplet.
Chapel. See Church.
Chaperonne, Chapourn, or Shafferoon: (1) a name given to the small shields containing crests, initials, death's heads, &c., placed upon the heads of horses, either with or without a hood, at pompous funerals; (2) Chaperonné, or chapourné, appears also to be used to signify hooded, being applied to falcons, &c.
Chapé: a partition of the shield used by French heralds, and found by two lines drawn from the centre of the upper edge of the shield, diverging towards the flanks, and leaving the field resembling somewhat a wide pile reversed; the tincture is applied to the two portions thus parted off.
Chaussé is similar to Chapé, but with the lines diverging from the base towards the two corners, and leaving the field resembling an expanded pile. The line may be curved, and the partition is then blazoned chaussé arrondi, &c.
De gueules, chapé d'argent--BOUTREN de Franqueville, Normandie.
Chaplet, (old fr. chapelet, pl. chapeus): is, when not otherwise described, a garland of leaves with four flowers amongst them, at equal distances. It is to be distinguished from the wreath(q.v.), and though usually composed of leaves will be found blazoned of various tinctures.
Ecartelé d'argent, et de gueules, chapé de l'un en l'autre--DE MONTBAR, Bourgogne.
De gueules, chaussé d'hermines--DE BRESSY de Sablous, Normandie.
Sire Rauf LE FITZ WILLIAM, burele de argent e de azure, a iij chapels[in Falkirk roll 'chapeus'] de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
It is more usual, however, to designate the material of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of roses(and this, perhaps, is the most frequent) or of flowers generally, or it may be of leaves, and often of laurel leaves. In the latter case it is termed a crown triumphal.
Party per fesse, argent and azure, three chaplets counterchanged--DUKE.
Sable, three chaplets argent--JODRELL, Stafford.
Sable, three chaplets gyronny argent and gules--DYRWARD.
Monsire William PLAICE, port d'asur, au chief d'argent deux chapeaux des roses vermals--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Rarer instances occur of chaplets of holly, or of hazel, or of brambles, while the single instance of the chaplet of rue is a name sometimes given to the crown of rue(q.v.) which occurs in the arms given by Frederick of Barbarossa to the Duke of SAXONY.
Monsire de HILTON de Haderness, port d'argent, a trois chepeletts de roses vermaux--Ibid.
[Chaplets of roses are also borne by the families of SAXTON; DEAN; FAULDER; GREYSTOCK; FITZRALPH; LASCELLES, and others.]
Argent, on a chevron sable, between three chaplets of flowers gules, another chevron ermine--BOROUGH.
Argent, a lion rampant azure, holding in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert, in chief a scroll sable, thereon the word "Emmanuel" or--EMMANUEL COLL., Cambridge.
Or, two bars azure, on a canton argent a chaplet of laurel proper--HOLME.
Argent, a garland of laurel vert, between three pheons gules--CONQUEROR, Frierton.
[Chaplets of laurels are also borne by the families of PELLEW; KEATS, Dover; NIGHTINGALL, Norfolk.]
Argent, a fesse engrailed humetty sable, between three chaplets of holly leaves proper--Nicholas BUBBEWYTH, Bp. of Salisbury, Bath and Wells, 1408-24.
When the material is oak the device is often blazoned as a wreath, and there is especially a 'wreath of oak acorned' which bears the name of the 'Civic wreath,' or the Civic Crown. It is supposed to represent the Roman crown conferred upon public benefactors, especially upon those who had saved the life of a citizen. The leaves should be represented tied together by a ribbon. The Ducal Coronet(q.v. under Crown) had originally oak leaves, but strawberry-leaves have been substituted.
Gules, on a chevron argent, between, in chief three chaplets of hazel or, and in base a plough proper, three shakeforks sable--PEER, Hazelwood, Devon.
Argent, a lion rampant gules encircled by a wreath of brambles proper--DUSILVA, Portugal.
Argent, a chevron gules; in base an oak wreath vert, tied azure; on a chief of the second, three mascles of the first--PELLEW, Cornwall, .
The Crown obsidional is also mentioned in old works on heraldry, which is a chaplet graminy, i.e. composed of twisted grass, and is fancifully said to have been bestowed upon any general who had held a city against a besieging force.
Azure, on a fesse, between three garbs or, a wreath of oak vert between two estoiles gules--SANDBACH, Lancaster.
[Chaplets of oak also borne by the families of STUDD, Ipswich; DICKSON, Norfolk; LLOYD, Sussex; MURRAY, Mexico, and others.]
Gules, a lion passant guardant, and in chief two civic wreaths or, a chief wavy, charged with a ship of war before Algiers proper--PELLEW.
Argent, a civic crown or wreath of oak acorned proper, on a chief azure a serpent nowed or, and a dove of the field respecting each other--SUTTON, Norfolk.
Gules, an eagle displayed argent armed or; on a canton of the second a chaplet graminy vert--GOODALL, Suffolk[granted Mar. 1, 1612].
The term garland as well as wreath, it will be observed, is used sometimes instead of chaplet.
Chapourne. See Chaperonne.
Charboucle. See Escarboucle.
Charge, (fr. meuble, but more accurately meuble d'armoirie, or meuble de l'ecu): anything borne on a coat of arms, whether upon the field, as was more usually the case in ancient arms, or upon on ordinary, or indeed upon another charge. The position of a charge, unless occupying the centre of the field, i.e. the fesse-point, has to be stated. (See under the article blazon.) The great variety of the charges which have been adopted in Coats of arms, will be seen by the Synoptical view given in the Appendix, and this by no means contains all the minor varieties, nor all the extraordinary objects chosen in more recent times. The contrast between recent arms and the more simple bearings of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries is very marked.
Charged with, (fr. chargé), signifies having a charge thereon.
Charity: the representation of charity is thus blazoned from a seal.
A figure of Charity with one child in her arms, and three others standing near her naked; on the dexter side a shield hung on a tree, with the cross of S.Andrew on it, to which the figure is pointing; on the sinister side of the escutcheon a thistle issuing from the ground in base, stalked and leaved; over it a regal crown--The SCOTS CORPORATION[Incorporated 1665].
Chart: This device seems to be used in a solitary instance.
Per chevron wavy, azure and erminois, a chart of Chesterfield's Inlet, between in chief two estoiles argent and in base on a mount vert a beaver passant proper--CHRISTOPHER, London.
Chased. See under Thunderbolt.
Chastel: written sometimes for Castle.
Chataignier, (fr.): the Chestnuttree, but not noted in any English arms.
Châtelé, (fr.): by French heralds signifies charged with castles(e.g. the bordure of the royal arms of Portugal is so blazoned.
Chaudière, or Chaudron, (fr.): a cauldron, in French arms, but rarely.
Chausé. See Chapé.
Chausse-trap. See Caltrap.
Chequy, Checky, Checquer-bearing, (fr. échiqueté, old fr. eschequeré): terms applied to a field or charge divided by perpendicular and horizontal lines, into small squares of metal and colour alternately. There should be at least twenty squares in the shield. If less, the number is named(as in the shield of TOLEDO, where there are 15). When only 9, with the French heralds the terms equipollé is applied.
This pattern is said by some to be derived from the game of chess, which if not originally introduced into Europe by the Crusaders was certainly revived by them. Others, however, with greater probably derived it from the Steward's or 'chequer' board. In the Exchequer of the kingdom, and the Chancellor of that department, the word is still retained; and the 'Checkers,' a frequent sign of small inns, with the board painted in squares on the outside, still hands down the tradition of the account board. It is not, however, impossible that this board gave the name to the game of chess played upon it.
While the number of pieces in the field must be, as already said, as least twenty, a fesse or other ordinary when blazoned chequy must contain three rows of squares, for if there be but one, the ordinary will be compony, and if but two, counter-compony. At the same time the field may have but two rows in chief of a fesse, for so the arms of Lord Clifford are represented in the glass windows at Dorchester, Hasely, &c.
When a bend, chevron, or saltire is checquy, the square are not placed perpendicularly, but slanting in the direction of the ordinary.
Roger de CLIFFORD escheque d'or et d'azur ove ung fesse de goulz--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
At the same time there are some peculiar forms which may be noted.
Le Conte de GARENNE[i.e. Warren] escheque d'or et d'azur--Ibid.
Rauf le BOTELLIER de goules a ung fesse escheque d'argent et de sable et croiseletts d'or--Ibid.
Or, a fesse chequy argent and azure--STEWARD, Scotland.
Chequy of nine pieces or and azure--GENEVA.
Chequy of twelve, sable and argent--ST.BARBE, Somerset.
Chequy in perspective argent and sable--PROSPECT.
Cherry: both the tree and the fruit of the tree are found in armorial bearings. The fr. crequier(q.v.) also is sometimes referred to as the wild cherry-tree. The griotte also occurs.
Chequy of lines palewise and chevronwise gules and or--SPOTWORTH.
Argent, a cherry-tree fructed proper--ESTOWER.
Cherub, or Cherub's head(fr. cherubin): this is drawn as the head of an infant between a pair of wings.
Argent, three cherry-trees, 2 and 1 vert fructed gules, each on a mount of the second--SHRUBSOLE, Canterbury.
Argent, a saltire sable between four cherries gules slipped vert--SERGEAUX.
... on a chevron between three martlets ... as many cherries stalked; in chief three annulets ... --CHERITON, Bp. of Bangor, 1436-47.
The charge is also borne by the families of MESSARNEY and THORNTON.
Argent, a chevron dancetty, between three cherubs gules--ADYER, Kent.
Chess-rook, (old fr. rok): the figure called 'rook' in the game of chess, from the Italian rocca, a tower or castle. The chess-rook is an ancient bearing, and of frequent occurrence. It is also in the arms of ZULEISTEIN termed a zule, and this is borne on an escutcheon surtout by the Earls of ROCHFORD.
Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherub's heads argent--ADNEY.
Sable, a chevron between three cherubim or--CHALONER, Yorksh.
Azure, a fesse dancetty between three cherubim's heads or, faces argent--ADY, Kent.
Sire Richard de WALSINGHAM,--de goules a iij roks de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
The charge is also borne by the families of MARSHALL, AOLUITE, OGILVIE, and ORROCK.
Gules, three chess-rooks ermine--Simon le FITZ SYMON, Roll, temp. ED. I., Harl. MS. 6137.
Or, three chess-rooks gules--COLVILL.
Azure, a fesse between three chess-rooks or--BODENHAM, Hereford.
Gules, three zules argent; a label of three points of the last--ZULEISTEIN.
Cheval-trap. See Caltrap.
Chevalier, (fr.): a man in complete Armour, q.v.
Chever. See Goat.
Cheverons: old term for 'party per chevron.'
Chevillé, (fr.)=attired, is used of the stags' horns, when they have five or any greater number or branches. The word ramé(fr.) is also used, and appears to be synonymous.
Chevron, (fr. chevron, old fr. cheveron): an ordinary occupying one-fifth of the field. The origin and meaning of this term has afforded ground for many guesses, but in diversifying the forms which bars across the shield may take, that of the chevron is a very natural one. The name itself is derived directly from the fr. chevron, i.e. rafter of a roof.
It is found in the earliest of the Rolls of Arms, and is one of the most frequently employed of the Ordinaries. At the siege of Caerlaverock, for instance(A.D. 1300), Henry le TYES had a banner argent, or, as the poet writes, 'whiter than a brightened lily,' with a chevron gules in the midst. And at the same siege, Robert FITZWALTER, "who well knew of arms the business," on a yellow banner had a fesse between two red chevrons. Both of these arms are to be seen in stained glass in Dorchester Church, Oxon, in a window which was probably nearly contemporary with the siege, and perhaps recording the benefactors to the Church.
Baniere ot Henris li TYOIS
Plus blanche de un poli lyois
O un chievron vermeil en mi.
O lui Robert le FIZ WATER
Ke ben sout des armes le mester ...
En la baner jaune avoit
Fesse entre deus cheverons vermaus.
It has two diminutives, the chevronel, which is half its width(more or less), and the couple-close, which is half the chevronel.
Moris de BARKELE,--goules ung cheveron d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
A chevron is subjected to the same kind of variation in respect of outline as the bend, that is, it may be engrailed, indented, embattled, counter-embattled, dauncetty, wavy, raguly, fimbriated, &c.
Le Conte de WARREWIK,--chequy d'or et d'azur, a ung cheveron d'ermyn--Ibid.
Azure, a chevron embattled ermine--REYNOLDS, co. Leicester.
In one early roll two chevrons appear to be blazoned as a chevron gemel.
Azure, a chevron dauncetty or--HAMELL, co. Buckingham, and HAMILTON, co. Gloucester.
Argent, a chevron ermine fimbriated sable, between annulets gules--CLUTTON.
Sire William de HOTOT,--de azure, a iij cressanz de argent e un cheveron de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
It may be party as to tincture, compony or even quarterly, and, on the other hand, it may be voided, that is, the field may be made visible through it, leaving merely a narrow outline.
Sire Johan de HOTOT,--meisme les armes, le cheveron gymile--Ibid.
Argent, a chevron per pale or and gules--WESTON.
Further, the chevron may be charged with other devices of various kinds, and amongst these is especially to be noted the surmounting of one chevron by another. In the arms of STEER it will be observed that we have two different blazonings for the same arms, one describing the chevron as voided, the other as one chevron on another. And in the case of the arms of STALEY we have a further complication, since this chevron may be blazoned in two different ways, either as a chevron engrailed surmounted by a chevron plain, or as a plain chevron fimbriated. Precisely similar arms, as regards outline, are those of DUDLEY, which are blazoned as voided. It seems to be a case where authority can be found for either system of blazon, and it is difficult to say which is best.
Argent, a chevron quarterly sable and gules--HONYWOOD, Kent.
Ermine, a chevron compony gules and argent--HILL.
Argent, a chevron voided gules--STEER, Ireland.
A chevron may be enhanced, that is, borne higher up on the escutcheon(no instance has been observed in which it is abased), and it may be reversed, that is, it may have its point downwards, like a pile, or it may be combined with a pile, but such variations are of rare occurrence. It is also sometimes found couped, that is, not extending to the edge of the escutcheon, or with the apex terminated by some other charge, when it may be said to be ensigned of such a charge.
Argent, on a chevron gules another of the first--STEER.
Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided or--DUDLEY, Berks and Bucks.
Argent, on a chevron engrailed azure another plain sable--STALEY.
[Or as it is elsewhere blazoned--Argent, a plain chevron sable, fimbriated and engrailed azure--STALEY.]
Gules, on a chevron argent three bars gemells sable--THROCKMORTON.
Gules, on a chevron argent .... bars nebuly sable--HANKFORD.
Or, on a chevron engrailed azure bars wavy argent--BROWNE.
Or, on a chevron gules bars sable--Lewis PROUDE, Charterhouse, 1619.
Gules, a chevron enhanced argent--CARLYON.
Chevron couched: one which springs from one of the sides of the escutcheon. It should be mentioned whether it is dexter or sinister.
Argent, a chevron reversed gules--GRENDON.
Ermine, a chevron couped sable--HUNTLEY; also JONES, 1730.
Ermine, a chevron couped gules--AMOCK.
Argent, a chevron embattled and ensigned on the top with a banner between in chief two estoiles, and in base a sun gules--EUENE.
Argent, a chevron supporting on its point a cross patty sable--TRENEREEK.
Sable, a chevron ending in the middle point with a plain de lis argent--KEY.
Argent, a chevron, the top ending with a cross patty sable--FINDON; Harl. MS. 1386.
Argent, a chevron sable and pile counterchanged--ATWELL, co. York; Harl. MS. 1465.
Or, a chevron couched dexter gules--TOURNEY.
Chevron inarched. Of this form there are two varieties, as shewn in the margin, found in modern heraldic designs, but probably no ancient authority for the form exists.
Or, a chevron couched dexter azure--DOUBLET.
Argent, two chevrons, couched(and counterpointed?) vert--COUCHMASTER.
Purpure, a chevron couched sinister or--BIGHTINE.
Argent, a chevron inarched sable--HOLBEAME, Lincoln.
A Chevron arched(fr. courbé), resembles a semi-circular arch across the field. It only occurs in foreign arms, and is to be distinguished from the arched fesse by the curve being somewhat more decided.
Purpure, a chevron inarched argent--ARCHEVER, Scotland.
For Chevrons interlaced, see Angles.
Besides the above there are various forms of broken chevrons. But the terms do not appear very distinctly defined by heralds, and the actual examples are but few. We find the terms fracted, disjoint, bruised, or debruised(fr. brisé), and rompu or downset, the last term, to all appearance, being a barbarism derived from the French dauncet, which would be equivalent to dancetty.
Argent, a chevron debruised between three crosses botonny fitchy sable--BARDOLPH, Stafford.
In the margin are given illustrations of one or two forms found in books, but no ancient examples have been observed. With the French engravers the chevron brisé is generally drawn in a similar manner to fig. 1, though the two portions are often still further apart, so as not to touch at all. Rompu and failli seem to be used by them when the sides of the chevron are broken into one or more pieces.
Argent, a chevron debruised sable, between three cross-crosslets fitchée of the last--GREENWAY[Glover's Ordinary].
Per pale argent and sable, a chevron bruised at the top, and in base a crescent counterchanged--ALEXANDER, Kinlassie.
.... a chevron debruised by a fesse charged with a crescent, all between three annulets .... HEDLEY, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Azure, a chevron disjoint or broken in the head or--BROKMALE.
Per fesse gules and sable, a chevron rompu counterchanged--ALLEN, Sheriff of London, 18¡¬deg; Jac. I.
Or, a chevron rompu between three mullets sable--SALT, Yorks.
In chevron would be applied to charges arranged chevronwise.
Per chevron. See Party.
Chevronelly, i.q. Chevronny. See at end of Chevron.
Chevronny, (fr. chevronné): is used when the field is divided into an even number of equal portions chevronwise. Chevronelly appears to be used more correctly.
Chevronelly of four, argent and gules--WHITHORSE.
Chevronel: a diminutive of the chevron, of which it is nominally one half the width; the term being used properly when there is more than one chevron. With the older writers, however, the term chevron is used, and so may still be used when there are two or even three chevrons.
Chevronelly of five, argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable--WINTHORP, Suffolk.
Chevronelly of six, gules and argent--CHALKHILL, Middlesex.
Chevronelly of seven, or and gules, over all a lion rampant of the last--HASARD, Essex.
Or, three chevronels gules.--CLARE.
Other ordinaries may be charged with the chevronel, while it in its turn is subjected to the same varieties as the chevron; though, of course, but rarely such varieties occur.
Or, three chevronels per pale, the first azure and gules, the second gules and azure, the third as the first.--WALTER DE MERTON, Bp. of Rochester, 1274-77, and founder of Merton College.
Argent, two chevronels sable, between three roses gules, barbed and seeded proper.--William of WYKEHAM, Bp. of Winchester, 1367-1404. [Founder of the College of S.Mary at Winchester and at Oxford.]
Argent, on a fesse sable, three chevronels couched sinister of the field.--TRENOWITH, Corn.
Chevronels are sometimes interlaced, or braced, and under the latter term an illustration will be found. See also Couple-close.
Cheyne: old fr. for Acorn.
Chief, (fr. chef): the first of the Ordinaries, and occupying about one-third one the shield from the top downward.
The fillet is by some considered its diminutive, while others hold that it can have none. Some English heraldic books, and most foreign, speak of instances of two chiefs, one abased below the other in the same coat, but no English examples are ever adduced.
A chief is frequently charged with other bearings, and it may be nebuly, wavy, indented, dancetty, engrailed, embattled, bevilly, &c., but it is only the lower side which is subjected to these variations.
Robert de MORTEYN BRETON, d'ermyn a la cheif de goules. Roll, temp. HEN. III.
A chief may also be party per pale, per bend, &c., or even quarterly. When divided by a horizontal line the expression per chief is more accurate than per fesse.
Rauf le FITZ RANDOLF d'or ung cheif endente d'azur.--Ibid.
Sire William DABETOOT, de ermyne od le chef bende de or e de sable. Roll, temp. ED. II.
Or, a chief gules--LUMLEY, Essex.
Paly of six, argent and sable; a chief wavy azure--BURMAN.
Argent, gouty de poix; a chief nebuly gules--ROYDENHALL.
Argent, a chief dancetty azure--GLANVILE, Earl of Suffolk.
Ermine, a chief quarterly gules and or--PECKHAM. [Abp. Cant. 1219-92].
The chief does not, as a rule, surmount other charges, and consequently such have often to be abased. The bend, for instance, starts from the dexter corner just beneath the chief. When associated with a bordure(unless there is direct statement to the contrary) the bordure would be turned and continued beneath the base line of the chief.
Quarterly; first and fourth argent, a cross bottonnee gules; second and third gules, three suns in splendour or; over all on a chief party per pale gules and argent, three cinquefoils counterchanged--John CHRISTOPHERSON, Bp. of Chichester, 1557-58.
Barry wavy of six, argent and azure; a chief per pale ermine and gules--BARLOWE, Derbyshire.
Barry of six, gules and or per pale counterchanged; a chief, the dexter side per bend as the first and second, the sinister, per bend sinister like the second and first; over all an escutcheon argent--HAGELEY.
Chequy gules and azure; a chief per chevron wavy of the first and or--Sir Nicholas HAUBERKES. [From Glover's Ordinary.]
Chequy azure and or; a chief per chief nebuly of the first and second--TAVESTOKE. [Ibid.]
Gules, a chief dancetty argent within a bordure azure--BARET[or BARRATT, Sheriff of London, 1379.]
It is contended by some writers that the chief has a diminutive, and to a figure as shewn in the margin is given the name of fillet. French heralds, however, blazon this as chef retrait, the word filet being used for a diminutive of the cotice. The word combel is also given by some English heraldic writers as meaning the same thing. It is said that the fillet does not occur at all in English arms, but perhaps the following example may be cited--
Argent, on a bend sable, three roses of the first; on chief gules three crosses patty or--CAREY, Bp. of Exeter, 1820, afterwards Bp. of S.Asaph, 1830-46.
Argent, two bars and a canton gules; over all a fillet sable--BOIS or DEBOYS, 1315, Ingham Church, Norfolk.
In Chief is a term frequently used when the charges are to be placed upon the upper part of the escutcheon, and differently from their ordinary position, There are also three points(q.v.) in the escutcheon connected with the chief, viz. the dexter chief point, middle chief point, and sinister chief point.
Chieftain. See Head.
Child: Children, bays and infants are represented on armorial bearings as early as the sixteenth century, and in a great variety of ways. Perhaps some of the oldest are those where the eagle snatches away the child from its cradle, which occurs in different families, and is variously depicted in the arms of the branches of the same family. Of course such arms are readily associated with tradition, but it is scarcely within the scope of a 'glossary' to discuss them. More frequently, however, the children's heads(q.v.) alone occur.
Argent, an eagle sable, crined gules, standing on a child proper, swathed or lying in a cradle vert--COULCHIEFE.
The three children in a tub or vessel are generally referred to the miracle of S.Nicolas, who restored them after they had been murdered and salted down for food; and in the insignia of the SEE OF ABERDEEN the Bishop is represented as praying over them. (See under Bishop.) Some curious legend must account for the origin of the following.
Azure, an eagle preyant sable upon a child swaddled gules--CULCHETH, Lancaster.
Argent, a tree eradicated sable; on it a nest of the first, in which is a child proper, swaddled gules, seized on by an eagle volant of the second.--RISLEY.
Sable, a goat argent, attired or, standing on a child proper, swaddled gules, and feeding on a tree vert--DAVIES, Hope, Co. Montgomery.
To another, (probably that of W. de ALBINI) is due the arms of Richard BARNES, Bishop of Carlisle, in which a naked child, front faced, is represented in one instance as holding in both hands the tongue of a bear. The following is one blazon.
Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable, semie des estoiles of the third, ready to devour a naked child of the fourth; on a chief of the second, three roses gules radiated with rays of the sun proper--Richard BARNES, Bp. of Carlisle, 1570; Bp. of Durham, 1577-87.
Other blazoning of these arms is found.
Azure, a bend argent between two estoiles or, a bear passant sable estoiled or, seizing a man proper; on a chief azure three roses gules radiated or--BARNES.
The FOUNDLING HOSPITAL in London has for its insignia:
Azure, on a bend argent, between two estoiles or, a naked boy, front faced, holding in both hands proper sable the tongue of a bear statant of the last estoiled gold, a chief as the second charged with three roses gules radiated like the third.--BARNES[the arms confirmed 1571, Harl. MS. 5847].
Per fesse azure and vert; in chief a crescent argent between two mullets of six points or; in base an infant exposed and stretching out its arms for help proper. Motto, 'Help.'
Chimera. See Sphinx.
China Cokar. See Palm.
Chisel: this occurs variously in different branches of the family of CHESSELDEN. It also occurs in the crest of the Company of MARBLERS drawn as in the margin.
Argent, a chevron sable between three chisels or handled of the second--CHESELDON, Harl. MS. 1386.
Chough. See Cornish Chough.
An arm embowed vested azure cuffed argent, holding in the hand proper an engraving chisel of the last--Crest of the MARBLERS' Company.
Chub, (leuciscus cephalus): this fish, common to England and belonging to the order cyprinidœ, seems only to have been chosen for the sake of the punning name, since it is only borne by the family of CHOBBE.
Vert, three chub fish haurient sable--CHOBB.
Together with the above must be classed the roach(leuciscus rutilus, fr. rosse). The most authentic instance of a delineation of this charge is perhaps found on Lord de la Roche's seal.
Gules, on a chevron between three chub fish argent three shovellers sable; on a chief dancetty of the second three escallops of the first--CHOBBE[and one of the quarterings borne by Lord DORMER, of Wing, Bucks].
Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent--Seal of Thomas Lord DE LA ROCHE affixed to the Barons' letter to Pope Boniface VIII., 1301.
Again it is represented on the seal to Thomas Arundel, Abp. of Canterbury, 1397-1414, where the shield bearing the fish(which are supposed to be roach) is represented as borne by one of the four murderers of Thomas à Becket, though what connection they had with the Roche family is not known.
It may perhaps be noted that the application of this charge to the name of the family is a singular instance of the punning adopted in heraldic devices, for the remains of Roche Castle, founded by Adam de la Roche, still exist on an insulated rock(fr. roche) of great height, and it has been suggested that the proverb 'sound as a roach' has its origin in the same confusion of the French and English language.
The roach is found borne differently by different descendants of the family, e.g.
Gules, three roach naiant or within a bordure engrailed argent--Sir David ROCHE of Carass, Limerick.
Church: this is not unfrequently represented in coats of arms of recent date, but there seem to be no special characteristics to be noted in the several examples, and the method of representing the church seems somewhat arbitrary. This is so in a very marked way on the insignia of the Burgh of CULROSS.
Sable, three roach naiant in pale argent--De La ROCHE, Herefordshire.
Azure, three roach naiant argent within a bordure or--Walter ROCHE of Bromham, Wilts.
Gules, three roach naiant in pale argent--Peter de RUPIBUS[or Sir Pierre des ROCHES], Bp. of Winchester, 1206-38,
Or, a bull passant gules between three roach haurient proper, a chief chequy or and azure--Sir William ROCHE, Lord Mayor of London, 1540.
Argent, on a bend sable three roach of the field--HUYSHE, Devonshire.
Gules, a chevron engrailed between three roach naiant argent; on a chief of the second three herons sable, billed and membered gules--HOBBS, Middlesex.
Azure, a fesse or, in base a church argent--TEMPLETON.
Together with the church will be conveniently grouped the cathedral and the chapel(fr. chapelle). These, like the church, are found only in one or two modern coats of arms.
A church with a spire; on the dexter chief the sun in splendour, on the sinister a crescent; at the dexter end of the church three ears of corn on one stalk, at the sinister end of the church a saltire--Seal of town of ASHBURTON, Devon.
Azure, a perspective view of the church of S.Servanus, shewing the south side, in which there is a gate, with a window on each side; the top of the west end[!] of the church ensigned with a passion cross; in the west end another gate, and two windows over it and one window over the two last; a square steeple terminating the building towards the east[!], above the battlements of which is a cupola ensigned with a ball on the top of a rod, all argent masoned sable--Burgh of CULROSS, Scotland.
Azure, on a cross argent, between four suns or, a Cathedral church gules--NICHOLSON, Virginia[granted 1693-4].
Beneath the same heading will be conveniently noted the Porch, the Shrine, and the Alter-tomb.
Per fesse argent and vert, a chapel of the first, roofed gules between four escallop shells counterchanged--CHAPPELL, Cambridgeshire.
Gules, three porches of churches with double doors expanded argent--LESINGTON.
Church-bell. See Bell.
.... A shrine of Gothic work; over it an angel holding an escutcheon gules; three lions passant guardant in pale or--Seal of borough of WILTON, Wiltshire.
Gules, on an alter-tomb a lamb passant guardant argent carrying a banner of the last charged with a cross of the first, resting the dexter forefoot on a mound or--Augustinian College of ASHRIDGE, co. Buckingham.
Churn: this device seems to be borne only by one family, but the origin of the selection has not been ascertained.
Azure, three butter churns or--READE, Wales.
Cimier. See Crest.
Cinabar, or Cinabre. See Gules.
Cinquefoil, (fr. quintefeuille) or quintefoil: a bearing of conventional form, having five leaves, as the name implies, and, as a rule, with the centre pierced.
Gules, a cinquefoil pierced ermine--Town of LEICESTER.
Cinnamon: a solitary instance of the leaves of this tree, which is a native of Ceylon, occurs as follows.
Robert QUENCY de goules ung quintefueile de hermyne--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
William BARDOLF d'azur a trois quite feuiles d'or--Ibid.
Sire Johan PAYNEL de goules a un quintefoil de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Or, a cinquefoil gules--VERNON.
Or, three cinquefoils gules--DYKE.
Gules, a cinquefoil or--ALLIN.
Azure, a cinquefoil ermine pierced of the field--ASHLEY.
Argent, a cinquefoil azure--MOTON or MUTTON.
Argent, three cinquefoils gules--DARELL.
Argent, two bars gules, in chief three cinquefoils of the second--STOKWITH.
On, a chevron gules, between in chief two cinnamon leaves erased vert, and in base a negro girt with white linen striped blue, carrying on a bamboo yoke two bundles of cinnamon proper, three cinnamon leaves as the first--PYBUS, Hertford(granted 1768).
Circle of Glory. See Nimbus.
Citadel. See Castle.
City. See Town.
Civet, (fr. civette), or, as it is commonly called, the Civet Cat(viverra civetta of Linnæus): appears at least upon one coat of arms.
Sable, three civet cats passant in pale argent--SEEVES, Scotland.
Civic Crown, and Civic wreath. See Chaplet.
Civic Mace. See Mace.
Clacks. See Mill-wheels.
Clam: a local term for the cockle, or escallop, by Scottish heralds.
Clapper. See Bell.
Clarenceux. See Heralds.
Clariné, (fr.): belled; applied to cows, sheeps, &c., having bells.
Clarion, or Claricord. See Rest.
Clasp. See Book and Medal.
Claws of, and Clawed. See Hammer.
Claymore, or Clymore. See Sword.
Cleché. See Cross clechée, §16.
Clenched: of a hand when closed.
Cleyed: i.q. clawed, applied to boars, 'tusked and cleyed or.'
Clock: this charge is believed to be confined to the bearings of the company which have been thus blazoned.
Sable, a clock each of the four corner pillars of the case erected on a lion couchant, and on each capital a mound ensigned with a cross pattée, and on the dome of the case an imperial crown supposed by circular arches springing from the pillars, under which arches the bell appears, and on the centre of the dial-plate a double rose, all or--CLOCKMAKERS' Company, London.
The credit of this minute example of blazon(presenting a great contrast to the simple insignia of more ancient companies) is due to Sir Edw. Walker, Garter, who granted it in 1677.
Close: a term applied to wings of birds; and to helmets.
Closet: this may be considered as the diminutive of the Bar, of which it is half the width, i.e. a tenth of the shield, so that only nine closets can be borne in one shield; the term closetty is sometimes used signifying barry of many pieces, though the term barry may be used of any even number of pieces.
Argent, a chevron between two closets gules--MALBISE.
Closing-tongs. See Founder's-tongs.
Argent, three bars closetted gules[=9 barrulets]--BERNSTEAD.
Argent, three closets sable--ANCHILECK, Scotland.
Cloth, Piece of: this is a charge borne by the Company of TAILORS OF CHESTER. A somewhat similar bearing in the insignia of the MERCHANT TAILORS OF LONDON is called a Parliament-robe.
Argent, a tent between two pieces of scarlet cloth; on a chief azure .... --Company of Merchant TAILORS, Chester.
Clothiers' implements. The habick was a tool used for holding the cloth firm whilst it was operated on by the teazel or other instrument. The word is probably a corruption of the 'habiting hook,' and it is represented on the arms of the Company, as shewn in the margin.
The teazel is referred to elsewhere, under thistle. The shears for cropping the pile or nap for rendering the surface smooth will be found under the implements of Weavers.
The preen appears to be an instrument which was used for much the same purpose as the teazel. It does not, however, occur in the insignia of any of the companies, but it is found in the arms of a private person, where it seems to have been chosen for the sake of the name.
Azure, a preen or--PREENER.
Clouds(fr. nuée) sometimes occur as bearings, as in the cases of the MERCERS' and DRAPERS' Companies, and a few families. Very frequently arms, &c., are represented issuing from the clouds; and in French arms still more so, since the dextrochere as it issues from the side of the shield is generally surrounded by clouds. The partition-line called nebuly(fr. nuagé), which may be considered as a conventional representation of clouds, is common in heraldry. See also examples under Ray and Tiara.
Sable, a chevron ermine between two habicks in chief argent and a teazel in base slipped or--CLOTHWORKERS' Company, London[originally incorporated 1482, by the style of the Fraternity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin of the Sheermen of London; confirmed in 1528, but incorporated as Clothworkers' Company by Queen Elizabeth: arms granted 1530].
Azure, three clouds proper radiated in base or; each surmounted with a triple crown of the second, the cap gules--DRAPERS' Company[arms granted 1439].
Cloué, (fr.): nailed; said of horse-shoes, dog-collars, &c., when the nails are of a different tincture.
Sable, a hand proper vested argent issuing out of the clouds in chief of the second rayonnée or, feeling the pulse of an arm also proper issuing from the sinister side of the shield, vested argent: in base ... &c.--College of PHYSICIANS, incorporated 1523.
Gules, a cloud as a chief nebuly azure and argent, with thirteen rays alternately plain and wavy descending palewise or--LESUNE, Harl. MS. 4199.
Gules, a battle-axe held by a dexter arms in fesse issuing from clouds on the sinister; in chief two mullets argent--PETTET.
Clove: the spice so called. It is usually drawn not exactly in its natural form, but as in the margin, resembling the arms of the Cross Avellane, to which the filbert has been supposed to supply the design.
Argent, a chevron gules between nine cloves sable, three three and three[or better, perhaps, in 'three groups of three']--GROCERS' Company, Lond. [Inc. 1346, arms granted 1531].
Clover-leaf. See Trefoil.
Or, a camel passant between three cloves sable--CLOVE, Wilts.
Sable, a chevron between three cloves or--DUFFIELD.
Vair, on a fesse gules, five cloves argent--BUSHBY, Cumberland.
Cloyshacke. See Harp.
Club. See Staff.
Cluster of Grapes. See Vine.
Clymant, or Climant: salient, applied to the goat.
Coach: such a charge will be found only in the arms of the Company.
Azure, a chevron between three coaches or--Company of COACHMAKERS and COACH HARNESS-MAKERS[Incorporated and arms granted 1677].
Coal-pick. See Axe.
Coambulant: rarely used for walking side by side.
Coat of Arms, or Coat-armour: the general term for the escutcheon or shield of arms, but properly applicable to the Surcoat, and especially to that of a pursuivant.
Cob-fish. See Herring.
Cock(fr. coq), sometimes called barn-door cock or dunghill-cock, but as other species are always mentioned with some additional epithet, no such distinction is necessary. The game-cock is sometimes specially named, and so is the hen.
The Cock is found, though rarely, in ancient rolls of arms. And with the Cock should be grouped the Capon and the Cockerell(fr. coquerelle). It will be observed that in very many instances the charge is borne for the sake of the play upon the name of the bearer.
A cock with the comb of a different tincture may be blazoned crested or combed(fr. crêté) of such tincture; so also with the gills, or uncelles, when the term jellopped(written frequently jowlopped) or wattled(fr. barbé or barbelé) is used. Other terms are also found; armed(fr. armé or onglé); legged or membered(fr. membré); spurred(fr. éperonné); beaked(fr. becqué). With the French the term hardi is used when the right leg is raised; and in both English and French arms crowing(fr. chantant), when the beak is represented as open.
William de ESTOTEVILE de la Marche, burelé d'argent et de goulz a trois cockes noirs--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
The Cock's head is also frequently borne as a charge.
Sire Richard de COKFELD, de azure a une crois e iiij coks de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Argent, three barn-door cocks crested and jowllopped sable--COCKAYNE[also borne by COCKBURNE, Scotland].
Gules, three barn-door cocks argent, armed, crested, and jowllopped or--COCK.
Azure, a dunghill-cock perched upon an escallop or--OTTERBURY.
Argent, a cock gules--CHEKE.
Azure, three cocks argent--CHANTICLEER, Cornwall.
Sable, three cocks or, membered gules--OVINGTON, Kent.
Argent, three cocks sable, armed, crested, and wattled or--POMFRET, 1730.
Argent, three game-cocks gules, crested and wattled sable--COCKMAN.
Argent, a fesse between three hens sable--AYLOFT.
Argent, three capons sable armed, crested, and jowllopped or--CAPONHURST.
Argent, on a chevron vert three cockerells of the first membered gules--CHICKERIN, Norwich.
Gules, a chevron between three cocks crowing argent--CROW, Suffolk.
D'argent, au coq hardi de sable, crêté becqué, barbé et membré de gueules--LE COCQ, Artois.
D'or, au coq chantant de gueules--LE COQ, de Bièville, Normandie.
Argent, on a fesse between three cock's heads erased sable crested and jellopped gules a mitre or, all within a bordure of the third, charged with eight ducal coronets of the fourth--JESUS College, Cambridge.
Cockatrice: amongst the monsters with wings the Cockatrice and the Wyvern(Sax. wivere, a serpent) are frequently represented in heraldry. The differ from the groups of Griffins and Dragons, inasmuch as they have only two legs, and the hinder part of the body ends in a large and long tail. The Cockatrice is represented as having the head of a cock, but the tongue extended and barbed. Otherwise it is very similar to the wyvern, the essential difference being that the wyvern has the head of a serpent, but with the tongue extended and barbed. The frequency of such devices was due, no doubt, to the tales of travellers brought from the East, which had a special charm for many a designer of arms.
Argent, on a fesse between three cock's heads erased sable, crested and jellopped gules, a mitre or--John ALCOCK, Bp. of Rochester, 1472; Bp. of Worcester, 1476; Bp. of Ely, 1486-1500.
The Cockatrice, perhaps, when correctly drawn, should have the legs and feet of a cock-the Wyvern those of an eagle, but these details are seldom observed in representation.
Argent, a cockatrice azure, combed, beaked, wattled, and membered gules--DANCYE, Lancaster.
Similar to the Cockatrice is the Basilisk, and it is usually held to be synonymous with it, but it is said in books of heraldry to have an additional head, like that of a dragon, at the end of the tail, and hence the Basilisk is sometimes termed an Amphisian Cockatrice. Similar also is the Amphistere, which is found frequently in French coats of arms, and is described as a winged serpent with dragons' feet, of which the tail ends in another serpent, or in more than one serpent; in the latter case it is said to be gringolé of so many serpents. The Hydra(fr. hydre) also occurs in heraldic designs, but though compared with the dragon it is more like the wyvern, having only two legs, even if it has those. The peculiarity is that it partakes somewhat of its mythological prototype, inasmuch as it has seven heads-though in one case the blazoning especially reduces the number to five.
Argent, a cockatrice volant sable, crested, membered, and beaked--LANGLEY, Lancaster.
Or, a cockatrice, the tail nowed with a serpent's head sable, comb, wattles, and head gules; in the beak a trefoil vert--ASHENHURST, Derby.
Argent, a wyvern, wings endorsed, gules--DRAKE, of Ashe, Devon. (Bart., 1660.)
Argent, on a bend sable, between two lions rampant of the last, a wyvern volant, in bend of the field, langued gules--RUDINGS.
Argent, a wyvern passant azure--DAVET.
Argent, a wyvern with wings endorsed sable--TILLLEY, Devon.
Gules, a wyvern volant or--SOUTHWELL.
Gules, a wyvern or, on a chief azure three mullets or--Priory of S.Peter, HEREFORD, and also of HAVERFORDWEST.
Vert, a wyvern-dragon passant volant argent swallowing a child proper--WARRINGEHAM[from Harl. MS. 1404].
Sire Johan de FOLEBOURNE de or, a un chevron de sable e ij wyvres de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sir Edmon de MAULEE, de or, a une bende de sable: en la bende iij wyvres de argent--Ibid.
Or, a wivern between three fleur-de-lys vert--HINCHLIFFE, Bp. of Peterborough, 1769-94.
Gules, a wivern or, on a chief azure, three mullets pierced of the second--HEREFORD Priory, Pembrokeshire.
[The figure of the Wyvern here given in the margin is from one of the supporters of the arms of KENNEDY, co. Ayr.]
Cockatrices also occur in the arms of the families of DRAKE; BRENT, Co. Kent; BOOTH; BOGAN, Devon; BROWN, Norfolk; JONES; Henry SEYNES, Newark.
Wyverns are borne by TAME, Oxford; DRAPER, Oxford, 1613; BRENT, Oxford, 1613; MACBEATH, Scotland; DE WINTON, Gloucester.
Argent, a cockatrice with wings endorsed and tail nowed; at the end thereof a dragon's head all sable--LANGLEY, Dalton, Yorkshire.
Cockerel. See Cock.
Argent, a basilisk, wings endorsed, tail nowed sable--LANGLEY, Hathorpe Hall, Yorkshire.
D'azure, a l'amphistere d'or--DU BOURG SAINTE-CROIX, Bresse.
Paly of six or and azure, on a chief gules, three five-headed hydras as the first--GRANDPRÉ.
A hydra, wings endorsed, vert, scaled or--Crest of BARRET of Avely.
Cockle-shell. See Escallop.
Cocoa-nut. See Palm.
Cod. The representations of different varieties of fish are not always to be distinguished, though the names are so in the blazon. The Cod, the Hake, the Ling, and the Whiting(all belonging to the family of Gadidœ), are found on various coats of arms. The Hake is rather more slender, and comparatively larger about the head, than the cod, but otherwise the drawing does not distinguish the several kinds. Indeed the drawing of fish in heraldry is very arbitrary, and it will be observed it is mostly in punning arms that fish occur.
Sable, a chevron between three codfishes naiant argent--CODD.
The haddock(which is grouped by naturalists under the same division) does not occur in any coat of arms, but the crest of the family of HADDOCK, Lancashire, is--
Azure, three codfishes naiant in pale argent--BECK.
Azure, three hake fishes hauriant argent--HAKE.
Argent, on a bend sable, three whitings proper--WHITING.
Azure, three whitings hauriant argent--WHITTINGTON.
Argent, on a fesse dancetty azure, three ling's heads erased or--CALDWELL, Staffordshire.
On a fesse wavy between three dolphins embowed, three hakes naiant with a coronet over each--Mayor's Seal, town of WEXFORD.
Gules, three hakes hauriant argent--HAKEHED, Ireland.
Azure, three hakes hauriant argent--HACKET.
Vert, three hakes hauriant argent--DONEY. [Blazoned sometimes as breams.]
A dexter hand holding a haddock.
A species of ling is called sometimes the burbot, but it lives in fresh water; and this is also called the coney fish, and supposed to be allusive in the following arms.
Argent, on a chevron azure, a coney courant between two burbot or coney fish hauriant of the field. On a chief chequy argent and azure a rose gules--Richard CHEYNEY, Bp. of Gloucester, 1562-79.
Cœur. See Heart. With French heralds 'en cœur' means in the fesse-point,
Cog. See Mill-wheel.
Cognizance, See Badge.
Cointise: a surcoat; old fr. term used for the lambrequin or mantle, q.v.
Cokar, China. See Palm.
Cold-wells. See Wells.
Coler(old fr.), collar.
Collar. A plain collar is not unfrequently found surrounding the necks of Dogs, Lions, &c. It is generally of gold, sometimes of silver, rarely of another tincture. The plain collar does not appear to be employed separately as a charge, but when an animal is said to be 'collared' or gorged(fr. accolé or colleté) a plain collar is implied; still animals are often gorged with ducal and other coronets.
When a beast is gorged and chained, the chain must be affixed to the collar and reflected over the back, as in the annexed example. Sometimes a double collar is named.
Argent, a lion rampant, gules, ducally gorged and chained or--PHILIPPS, Pembroke.
Collar of SS. Collars studded with the letter S, or consisting of many of that latter linked together, either alone or alternately with other figures, have been at times much worn by persons holding great offices in the State, as well as by the gentry of various ranks from esquires upwards. They were worn by the Lords Chief Justices, the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, the Lord Mayor of London, the Kings of Arms, and Heralds, and the Serjeants at Arms, though frequently they are little more than ordinary chain collar with the links twisted so as to resemble the letter S.
Sire Johan de HAVERINGE, de argent a un lion rampaund de goules od la couwe forchie e un coler de azur--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Argent, three annulets or, on a chief argent a greyhound courant gules collared of the second--RHODES.
Sable, a lion rampant ermine with a collar gemel azure; therefrom pendent on escutcheon of the last charged with a mullet argent--POWNALL, Lancaster.
The signification of the letter S in connection with the collar has been variously explained. Perhaps the best conjectures are, either that the device was invented to represent the word Souerayne, the favourite motto of Henry IV., which he bore when Earl of Derby, and retained when he succeeded to the throne; or else that that word was suggested by an after-thought of some courtier, or perhaps of the royal jeweller himself, as explanatory of the form which the workman had adopted, and which was so suitable to chain-work.
There is ample evidence that the collar of SS was originally a badge of the house of Lancaster, and that Henry IV. was the first sovereign who granted to the nobility as a mark of royal favour a licence to wear it; and, according to an old chronicle, Henry V., on the 25th day of October, 1415, gave to such of his followers as were not already noble permission to war "un collier semé de letters S de son ordre."
The right of knights to wear such a collar of gold was recognised by Act of Parliament, 24 Hen. VIII., but restricted to persons who were not below that grade.
The collar of SS begins to appear upon monuments at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and upon distinguished persons of both sexes. It is represented as if worn by Sir Thomas Burton, in 1381, on the brass at Little Casterton Church(though the brass was not executed till circa 1410). It is also represented as worn by Sir Robert de Hattfield, who is attired as a civilian, and by his wife, on the brass in Oulton Church, Yorkshire, which is dated 1409. On a brass in Hereford Cathedral it is represented as worn by Lady Delamere(1435), but not by her husband. The monumental effigy in Little Dunmow Church, Essex, to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon, who lived temp. King John, is of no value as evidence, as the effigy is of the fifteenth century. The example here given is from the brass of Sir John DRAYTON, 1411, which exists in Dorchester Church, Oxon.
The Collar of Suns and Roses also should be mentioned here, being one of the badges of Henry IV. It occurs on several brasses, and the right to bear this mark of favour was no doubt acquired direct from the sovereign. This collar was not so common as that of the SS. According to Haines, it occurs on brasses at Rougham, Norfolk, c. 1470; at Lillingston Lovell, Oxon, 1471; at Broxbourne, Herts, 1473; at Sardley, Derbyshire, 1478; at St.Albans, 1480; and at Little Easton, Essex, 1483.
Some kings of arms and heralds have also encircled their arms with the collars pertaining to their degrees.
Collar-point. See Point.
Collared, i.q. gorged(fr. colleté): having a collar, q.v.
College. In one case only as yet a representation of a College occurs in a coat of arms, and it can scarcely be said to be an English example.
Vert, a college argent masoned proper; in chief the rising sun or, the hemisphere of the third--VIRGINIA College.
College of Arms. See Herald.
College-pots. See Cups.
Collying: a term applied by writers on falconry to the bird with head erect when preparing to take flight, and may be found applied by some heralds to the eagle also.
Colours. Although, properly speaking, there are but the nine tinctures in Heraldry(q.v.), of which two are metals, yet in some coats of arms certain colours are incidentally and perhaps irregularly named. Such, for instance, as a lion party of an ash colour; a horse, of a bay colour; a horse's head and wild-ducks, brown; the mine, in the arms of the Miners' Company(q.v.), of earth colour, with the chief brown colour. The carnation is frequently used with the French heralds for pink or flesh colour, applied to human subjects, and especially the face; grey is applied to hair, russet is said of a parrot, and yellow of a pheasant's breast. With respect to white, it may be used instead of argent for the lining of mantles, which are not generally taken for cloth of silver, but a pure white fur, which some call the litvit's skin. It often happens, too, that certain charges are blazoned 'proper,' and these when rightly represented frequently require the used of other colours than the recognised tinctures of heraldry. Gold and silver, with heralds of the seventeenth century, are terms used for or and argent in complicated arms, where these tinctures have been already named, but solely for the purpose of avoiding repetition of the same word.
Argent, a lion rampant sable, the head, paws, and half of the tail ash colour--GWILT, South Wales.
In poetical blazon, however, with old writers, other than technical terms are used. For instance, at the Siege of Caerlaverock, which tool place A.D. 1300, we learn from a contemporary poem of the siege that Robert FITZ-ROGER had his banner.
Argent, a horse passant, bay colour, between two tilting-spears in fesse sable--SHEKEL, Pebworth.
Argent, a horse passant, bay colour, holding in his mouth a tulip slipped proper--ATHERTON. [Noted by Glover as a quartering.]
..... A chief or charged with three horse's heads erased brown--WRENNE.
Gules, a chevron argent between three wild ducks brown--WOLRICH.
D'argent, aux deux jumeaux accouplés de carnation posé sur une terrasse de sinople--Martin de BOUDARD.
Gules, three men's heads couped at the shoulders argent, crined grey--EDYE.
Per pale, argent and gules, in the dexter fesse point a parrot russe, beaked and legged or--Richard SENHOUSE, Bp. of Carlisle, 1624-26.
Argent, a chevron azure between three pheasant cocks vert, beaked and legged gulles, breast yellow--Richard CHOPIN, Alderman of London.
"De or e de rouge esquartelée, O un bende tainte en noir,"
which we should now blazon.
Quarterly or and gules, a bend sable.
And the Earl of Hereford had.
"Baniere out de Inde cendal fort De or fin, dont au dehors asis
O une blanche bendelée Ot en rampant lyonceaus sis,"
De deus costices entrealée
which would be blazoned now as.
Azure, a bend argent cotised or, between six lioncels rampant of the second.
Other examples will be found, e.g. in an example given under cadency, where it will be seen that 'gules' is described as 'red as blood,' vermeille cum sanc; and under chaplet, 'deux chapeaux des roses vermals.'
Colt. See Horse.
Columbine, or Columbian flower, (aquilegia vulgaris), seems to be used more frequently than many other flowers. Possibly this may be owing to the fact that it was the badge of the House of LANCASTER. It occurs in one of the London insignia. The ancient and heraldic method of drawing is shewn in the margin, but in modern times it has been drawn as shewn below, in the arms of HALL, Bishop of Oxford. The fr. ancolie is borne by the family of BACONEL, Picardie, while the allied campanule is borne by that of HESPEL, Artois,
Argent, a chevron sable between three columbines azure slipped proper--COVENTRY, Lord Mayor of London, 1425.
Column. See Pillar.
Argent, a chevron between three columbines pendent azure, barbed gules, slipped vert--TIMOTHY HALL, Bishop of Oxford, 1688-90.
Argent, a chevron engrailed gules between three columbines proper, stalked and leaved vert--COOKS' Company, incorporated 1472.
Sable, a bend argent between three columbines of the second--WALSHE, Norfolk.
Argent, a saltire chequey or and azure between four columbines proper--COLLINGBORNE, Devon.
Or, on a bend azure three buckles of the first, in chief a Columbian flower slipped proper--STIRLING, Dundee.
Or, three columbines buds vert--CADMAN.
Argent, two columbine slips crossed and drooping proper, flowered purple--BESSELL.
Or, a chevron sable between three columbines azure--CHEPMERDEN.
Comb, (fr. peigne): the comb when blazoned without any prefix is to be represented as in the margin. It is not uncommon, as will be seen. More frequently the kind of comb is named: e.g. the Jersey-comb or wool-comb, flax-comb, curry-comb, &c.
Gules, a chevron between three combs argent--PONSONBY.
Comb. (1) See Flax-comb and Wool-comb under Woolcard; (2) See Curry-comb; (3) See Cock's comb.
Azure, a lion passant guardant between three combs or--Company of COMBMAKERS, incorporated 1636.
Sable, three combs argent--TUNSTALL, Bp. of London, 1522; or Durham, 1530-59.
Ermine, on two bars sable three combs argent--LUCAS.
Argent, a fesse wavy between three combs gules--TERNOM, Essex.
Argent, on a bend gules three combs or--COMBE.
Combed: used of a cock when then comb is of a different tincture.
Combel. See Chief.
Comet, (fr. comète), or Blazing-star: an estoile of six points, with a tail extending from it in bend. The term bearded(fr. caudé) is applied to the tail when the tincture is different.
Azure, a comet or--CARTWRIGHT, Scotland. [Otherwise, Azure, a comet in the dexter chief point with rays streaming in bend or.]
Combatant: a word expressive of the position of two lions rampant face to face, or of two goats. The word rampant, though sometimes used as well, is superfluous.
Azure, a four-pointed comet star ... --HURSTON.
Per fesse or and azure, a pile counterchanged; in the chief a lion rampant; in base on each side of bottom of pile a blazing comet counterchanged--COLDWELL, Prebendary of Ely, 1702.
Or, two lions(rampant) combatant gules, armed and langued azure--WYCOMBE.
Commisse. See Tau Cross, §34.
Argent, two goats salient, combatant argent--KIDD.
Compartment: a term peculiar to the heraldry of Scotland. An ordinary compartment is a kind of carved panel placed below the shield bearing the motto, and the supporters standing upon it. It has no fixed form, but may be varied at pleasure.
Compartment of special forms, however, have been attributed to certain Scottish families.
Compasses, (fr. compas): in the insignia of the Company of Carpenters, as well as in others named, this instrument is borne expanded chevronwise, as shewn in the margin. For the Compass Dial, see under Magnetic Needle.
Argent, a chevron engrailed between three pairs of compasses expanded at the points sable--Company of CARPENTERS.
Complement: fulness; the moon in her complement='full moon.'
Argent, an annulet between the legs of a pair of compasses sable--HADLEIGH.
Azure, three pairs of compasses extended or, pointed sable--BONNY.
Per chevron crenelly or and sable, three pairs of compasses extended counterchanged--CARTWRIGHT.
Gules, a chevron argent between two pairs of compasses in chief extended at the points and a sphere in base or; on a chief of the last a pale azure between two roses of the first seeded of the third barbed vert; on the pale an escallop of the second--JOINERS' Company[Inc. 1569].
Sable, on a chevron engrailed between three towers argent a pair of compasses of the first--MASONS' Company[Inc. 1411; arms granted 1473].
Sable, on a chevron between three towers argent a pair of compasses open chevronways of the first--The FREEMASONS' Society[as given by Edmondson].
Compony. See Goboné.
Composed arms: a name given by heraldic writers in cases where a man has, or in supposed to have, added a portion of the arms of his wife or ancestors to his own, to shew his alliance or descent. The introduction of marshalling, q.v., is considered to have superseded it.
Conché, (fr.): applied to a Dolphin much curved, the head nearly touching the tail(i.e. like a spiral shell).
Cone: of a pine, q.v.
Coney. See Hare.
Confronting: said of two animals facing, or respecting each other. Conf. Affrontant.
Congers, or Conger-eels. See Eels.
Conjoined, or Conjunct, or Joinant: joined together, so as to touch each other; e.g. of annulets(not to be represented as interlaced): applied also sometimes to Mascles.
Contourné, (fr.): of animals, turned(contrary to the general rule) towards the sinister side of the shield.
Contrary-conyd: used by Upton for gyronny; perhaps only meaning counter-posed.
Contre, (fr.) i.q. Counter.
Contre hermine: the fr. term for ermines.
Contre trevis: old fr. term for party per fesse.
Coot, or Baldcoot: amongst the family of the Rails(rallidœ) the Coot(fulica atra) and the Moor-hen(gallinula chloropus) alone are found on coats of arms.
Argent, three coots proper--COOTE, Lincoln.
Copper. (1) See Wiredrawers; (2) Cake of. See Metal.
Argent, a chevron between three coots sable--SOUTHCOTE, Devon.
Sable, a bend between six baldcoots or--BOULCOTT, Hereford.
Gules, on a bend argent three baldcoots sable, beaked and legged of the first, in the sinister chief a unicorn's head erased as the second--MARSDEN, Manchester.
Argent, a chevron between three moor-hens ... LUXMOORE, Devon.
Borne also by families of COOLIN, KILBURNE, &c.
Coquilles. See Escallops.
Corbie, and Corbeau. See Raven.
Cord: cords by themselves are but seldom borne, but are very frequently attached to other charges, which are there described as corded(fr. cordé), and this is used of almost any charge bound with or having cords, when those cords are of a different tincture, e.g. a bale, woolpack, bag, bow, harp, &c., though some of these are described also as stringed. In one or two exceptional cases an ordinary is corded , e.g. a bar, Cross, &c., meaning that it is wreathed round with a cord, and not to be confused with cabled.
Or, a chevron ermine between three cords erased at each end and tied in knots vert--CLEAVER.
Although not borne by name, cords are frequently so in fact, under the name of knots, of which there are the following varieties, though they are chiefly employed as badges, and not as charges. It may be noted that theoretically the cords are of silk.
Azure, four hawk's bells or conjoined in saltire by a double and wreathed cord alternately argent and sable--Sir Ralph JOSSELYN, Alderman of London.
Sable, two bars argent, corded or wreathed gules--WAYE, Devonshire, confirmed 1574].
Bourchier's Knot. This device is many times repeated upon the tomb of Abp. Bourchier(1486) at Canterbury, hence the name. It appears also in the east window of the Dean's chapel in that cathedral, where it is tinctured or.
The Bowen's Knot is a name which is given to a knot known at the Tristram or true-lovers' knot, and which is figured as in the margin; but with the French the lacs d'amour, which sometimes occurs, is figured rather differently.
Gules, a chevron between three tristram or true-love knots argent--BOWEN. [Sir James ABOWEN,-also Abp. OWEN and BOWEN.]
The DACRE family are recorded to have a peculiar and distinctive knot on their badge or cognizance. The Arms of the family who were established in Westmoreland and Cumberland are as follows:--
Gules, a chevron between in chief two true-love knots, in base a lion rampant or--Sir Jamys ap OWAIN.
Or, on a chevron gules a true-lovers' knot of the first--Town of STAFFORD.
Azure, a lion rampant or, in a true-love knot argent between four fleurs de lys, their stalks bending towards the centre of the second--HOGHE.
D'azur, à un lacs-d'amour de sable, accompagné de trois molettes d'éperon du même--GUILBERT, Normandie.
Gules, three escallops or--DACRE. And it will be observed that the scallop shell is repeated in the badge.
The Lincolnshire branch of the HENEAGE family have, according to the visitation of the county, a peculiar badge or cognizance in the shape of a knot which is suggested by the motto "Fast though united." This knot does not appear to have been used as the crest, which is a greyhound couchant.
The three following knots is a similar manner are respectively the badges of the three families of LUCY, STAFFORD, and WAKE. The last is borne by the family as a crest.
The Harington Knot is simply an ordinary fret q.v., while the Gordian Knot is a term applied to the insignia of the kingdom of NAVARRE.
The Hatband(q.v.) of the FELTMAKERS' Company might be considered a kind of knot, and the hanks of silk or cotton are also frequently termed knots.
Cordals: the tasselled cords sometimes attached to mantles and robes of estate.
Cordon(fr. Cordelière), is the silver cord which encircles the arms of widows. Its institution has been attributed to Anne of Bretagne, widow of Charles VIII, King of France, "who," says Ashmole(Order if G., p. 126), "instead of the military belt or collar, bestowed a cordon or lace on several ladies, admonishing term to live chastly and devoutly, always mindful of the cords and bonds of our Saviour Jesus Christ; and to engage them to a greater esteem thereof, she surrounded her escocheon of arms with the like cordon." The special used is to distinguish the arms of widows from those or wives; but in English it is but rarely painted upon funeral achievements. The precise form and number of the knots is arbitrary. The arms given in the illustration are thus blazoned.
Argent, a bend engrailed sable--RADCLIFFE; and sable a saltire argent--ASTON.-The arms within a cordon.
Cormorant(lat. Phalacrocorax, fr. Cormoran), written by some naturalists, Corvorant, occurs at times in arms. The bird in the arms of WARBURTON, and forming a portion of the insignia of LIVERPOOL, is a cormorant, but it is known and blazoned there by name of the lever. Perhaps the Sea Aylet also may be considered similar to the Cormorant. Cormorants' heads sometimes are borne, as also Sea Aylet heads.
Sable, a cormorant argent--POPELLER.
Probably allied in shape to the Cormorant, but not determinable to what species it belongs, in the Gannapie, which is found in some arms and referred to in heraldic works.
Azure, three cormorants or--SEVENS, or SEVANS, Kent.
Gules, on a bird wavy argent three cormorants sable, beaked and membered or--Sir Robert READE[Puisne Justice of the King's Bench, 1496].
Argent, a cormorant sable, beaked and legged gules, holding in the beak a branch of sea-weed called laver inverted vert--City of LIVERPOOL
Or, on a chevron azure between three cormorant's heads erased sable as many acorns slipped of the first--CHIDDERLEGH, Cornwall.
Argent, a cross sable between four sea aylets of the second, beaked and membered gules--John AYLMER[Bp. of London, 1577].
Quarterly; first and fourth, argent a chevron between three cormorants sable; second and third, a fret--WARBURTON[Bp. of Gloucester, 1760-79].
Argent, a chevron counter compony vert and azure between three gannapies of the last membered gules--WYKES[Glover's ordinary].
Corn. See Wheat.
Argent, a chevron chequy azure and vert between three gannapies proper--WIKES, Devon.
Argent, a chevron sable between three gannapies[elsewhere drakes] azure--YEO, Colliton, Devon.
Corner, (old fr. corniere). See Point and Esquire.
Cornet, used erroneously for Bugle-horn. Example cited from S.Benet's HULME, instead of coronets. Vide Crown.
Cornish Chough: a bird of the crow kind, very common in Cornwall. It is bluish black, with red or orange-coloured beak and legs. This bearing was confined to Cornish families until Barker, who was Garter King of Arms, temp. HEN. VIII. granted it indiscriminately to any applicants for arms, and amongst others to Cardinal WOLSEY, who was borne in Suffolk; and so now borne by CHRIST CHURCH College, Oxford. [See an illustration of these arms under blazon.]
Argent, three Cornish choughs proper--PENESTON, Cornwall[and PENISTON, Oxfordshire].
The Beckit supposed to resemble the Cornish chough, though the name does not appear in works by modern naturalists. But it is interesting as the canting arms ascribed(at what date is not clear) to S.Thomas A BECKET.
Argent, a Cornish chough proper--TREVETHIN, Cornwall.
Argent, a fesse gules between six Cornish chough--ONSLOW, Shropshire.
Azure, a bend or, and on a chief argent two Cornish choughs proper--VYNER.
Azure, three Cornish choughs proper; on a chief gules a lion passant guardant or--Town of CANTERBURY.
Sable, guttee d'eau, on a fesse argent, three Cornish choughs--CORNWALLIS, Bp. of Lichfield, 1750; Abp. of Cant., 1768-83.
On, a cross engrailed gules, in the dexter chief a Cornish chough proper--MASSENDEN, co. Lincoln.
Argent, three arrows gules one and two between as many Cornish choughs proper two and one--CHASTEIN.
Azure, a lion passant or; on a chief argent three Cornish choughs proper--ROFFEY.
Argent, three Cornish choughs[beckits] proper two and one--BECKET, Abp. of Canterbury, 1162-70. [These, with the addition of a lion of England on a chief gules, were taken as the insignia of the city of CANTERBURY].
Coronel. See Cronel.
[Cornish choughs are also borne S.Thomas' Priory, Canterbury, S.George's Priory, Canterbury, and by NICHOLAS, Bp. of Bangor, 1408-17.]
Coronet. A small crown, or a crown borne by those who are not sovereigns; but generally synonymous with Crown, q.v.
Cotoyé, (fr.): a term used by French heralds with similar signification to accompagné, only that the charges are placed along the sides of, or in the same direction as the sides of, the ordinary to which the term is applied.
Cottices or Cottises, (fr. cotice; old fr. custere; liste is also used) are mostly, if not invariably, borne is pairs, with a bend, or a charge or charges bendwise between them. More frequently the term cotticed is used, and as long as the bend is plain(i.e. with straight sides) and the cottices the same, to say a bend cotticed is more convenient than to say a bend between two cottices. But as it happens sometimes that the bend is plain and the cottice not so, then the latter blazoning is found to be the most convenient.
Le counte CHAUMPAINE, dazur a une bende dargent a custeres dor diasprez--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
When a single 'cottice' is shewn, it is called a cost(lat. costa, a rib). The cottice may be considered as the diminution of a bend containing the one fourth part of the breadth of the ordinary.
Humphry de BOUN, d'azur ung bend d'argent entre six leonceux d'or cotisee d'or[ove ung labell de goules]--Ibid.
Le counte de HERFORD, dazur a sis Liuncels dor a un bende dargent lyte[i.e. with listes] dor--Another Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Although the term cotticed is strictly applicable to the bend only, it is sometimes applied also to fesse, pales, chevrons, &c., and ordinaries are occasionally to be met with which are double and even treble cotticed. An instance of cottising with demi fleurs-de-lis may be seen under fleur-de-lis. Cottisé with French heralds is sometimes used for describing a field covered with ten or more bendlets of alternate colours, and for a diminution of the cotice they use the term filet.
Gules, a bend argent, cotticed or--COVE.
Cotton: we have cotton incidentally mentioned in one or two arms. We have cotton tree(Gossypium) or cotton plant notably in the arms of the great founder of the firm of ARKWRIGHTS, and cotton-hanks(q.v.) as well as bundles of cotton are found borne by families bearing the name of COTTON.
Argent, a bend between two cotices engrailed sable--WHITFIELD.
Argent, on a bend engrailed, cotised plain sable three mullets or--Lancelot ANDREWES, Bp. of Chichester, 1605; of Ely, 1609; afterwards of Winchester, 1619-1626.
Argent, a lion passant between two cotices gules--GAWLER.
Sable, a bend between two cottices dancetty or--CLOPTON.
Ermine, a fesse gules, cotised wavy sable--DODD.
Argent, a fesse double cotised sable--GULFORD, Staffordshire.
Gules, a fesse double cotised argent--PRAYERS, Essex.
Argent, a fesse ermine, double cotised sable--HARLESTON.
Argent, on a mount vert, a cotton-tree fructed proper, on a chief azure between two bezants an inescutcheon of the field charged with a bee volant proper--ARKWRIGHT, Derby.
Couchant, (fr. couché), i.e. lying down, is a term not often used, but it may be applied both to beasts of prey as well as to beasts of chase, that is to the lion as well as to the deer. Beasts thus described should be drawn with their heads upright, to distinguish their position from dormant. With beasts of chase the more usual term to represent this position is lodged.
Barry of six argent and azure, three bundles of cotton or.--COTTON.
Argent, a chevron gules between three lions couchant of the second--NEWMAN, co. Cork.
Couched. See Chevron.
Argent, on a mount, a buck couchant under a tree all proper--HISLOP, Devon.
Argent, a chevron between three talbots couchant sinister argent--TRASAHER, Cornwall.
Coué. (old fr.), or cowé: i.q. coward. See Tail.
Coulissé, (fr.): a castle is so described when the herse or portcullis is down, and fills up the gateway.
Coulter of a Plough, q.v.
Counter, (fr. contre), simply means opposite; but with this general sense it is variously employed.
When applied to the position of two animals, it signifies that they are turned in contrary directions, i.e. back to back, as two foxes counter-salient in saltire. If but one animals is spoken of, it means that it faces the sinister, as a lion counter-rampant, that is in an opposite direction to that which is usual. Two lions accosted counter-couchant means that they lie side by side, with their heads in contrary directions. Again, two lions counter-couchant in pale denotes that one occupies the upper part of the shield, and the other the lower, one facing the dexter, the other the sinister. One line counter-couchant always faces the sinister. The term counter-passant(fr. contre passant) is used in the same way. A good example of counter-trippant will be found under Deer.
When applied to the tinctures the term counterchanged is of frequent occurrence, and signifies that the field consists of metal and colour separated by one of the lines of partition named from the ordinaries(per pale, per bend, &c.), and that the charges, or parts of charges, placed upon the metal are of the colour, and vice versa. Counter-coloured is sometimes, but erroneously, used. The annexed illustration affords a simple instance.
Per pale argent and sable, a chevron counterchanged--S.BARTHOLOMEW'S Hospital, London. [Indentical with those of LAWSON, Cumberland, (Bart., 1688.)]
Sometimes the counterchange is more complicated, as in the following.
Barry of six, argent and gules, per pale indented counterchanged--PETOE, Chesterton, Warwick.
When roundles occur in counterchanged arms(whether cut through by the line of partition or not) they are not called bezants, torteaux, &c., as in other cases, but retain the appellation of roundles.
Party per chevron or and azure, three mullets counterchanged--George DAY, Bp. of Chichester, 1543-51 and 1554-56.
Party per pale azure and purpure, three bars counterchanged--Adam HOUGHTON, Bp. of S. David's, 1361-89.
Or, a chevron paly of eight gules and argent, per chevron counterchanged--SURRIDGE.
In old French rolls the term de l'un en l'autre occurs, and is still used by French heralds: it is in most cases practically equivalent to the more recent term counterchanged. The following are examples, and another will be found previously given under bar gemel. See also under Party.
Sire Robert de FARNHAM quartile de argent e de azure, a iiij cressauz de lun en lautre--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Applied to various ordinaries and other charges, expressions like counter-embattled(fr. contre-bretesse), counter-fleury(fr. contre-fleuré), imply that both sides have alternate projections, while amongst the furs, counter-vair(fr. contre-vaire), counter-potent(fr. contre-potencé), &c., mean that the pieces are turned round contrary to their usual position. Examples are given under the several headings. Counter-camp is only a corruption of counter-compony. Counter-ermine is a term used by Nisbet for Ermines.
Monsieur de METSED, quarterly, d'or et gules, a quatre escallops de l'une et l'autre--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Applied to two chevrons the term counter-pointed would mean that the two chevrons are drawn in opposite directions, their points meeting in the centre of the shield.
Counter-compony See Gobony.
Counter-embattled, i.e. embattled, q.v., on both sides.
Counter-vair. See Vair.
Coupé, (fr.): used by French heralds for party per fesse.
Coupe, (fr.): Cup.
Couped, or Coupy, (fr. alaisé), cut off in a straight line, as in often the case with the heads and limbs of animals, and so distinguished form erased[see example under Boar]. It is important to say where a head or limbs is couped; for instance, if couped close it would signify cut off close to the head. A hand is often said to be couped at the wrist.
The word couped is sometimes applied to the extremities of ordinaries, but they are more often said to be humetté or alesé.
Per fesse sable and or, a tree couped and eradicated counterchanged--BUCHER,
Couped-fitchy is an expression used to signify that the cutting is not by a clean straight stroke, but that a point is left projecting.
Azure, a dexter hand couped at the wrist argent--BROME, co. Salop.
Heraldic writers say that an ordinary when blazoned couped and voided would differ essentially from the same ordinary blazoned voided and couped; but as no examples are given shewing that the difference exists in fact, it is hardly necessary to lay it drawn as a rule.
The French coupé has a distinct meaning, and is frequently employed to signify the partition of the shield horizontally into two equal parts. English heralds would describe the same as party per fesse.
Couple-close: this is one of the diminutives of the chevron, of which it should be one-fourth the width. Couple-closes are always borne in pairs, from which circumstance they derive their name. They are often borne with the chevron, which is then said to be between couple-closes, a more exact expression perhaps than coticed.
Argent, on a chevron between two couple-closes indented sable three escallops or--GONVILL. [The arms of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, founded 1348.]
Couple-close. See Chevronel.
Courant, Current, or Cursant: running at full speed as a Horse. See also Deer, and Greyhound under Dog.
Cousu, (fr.), meaning 'sewed to,' and the term is practically a device used by French heralds in blazoning arms, when a chief and the field are both of a metal or both of a colour, in order to avoid the breach of the rule which forbids metal to be placed upon metal, or colour on colour. The same would apply to a canton or any other charge where the rule is broken. But while German and Spanish arms are frequently regardless of the rule, and the French sometimes, breaches are exceedingly rule in English armory.
Purpure, a cross moline or; on a chief cousu gules a lion passant of the second charged on the body with the letter L--Professorship of LAW at CAMBRIDGE.
Covered pots. See Cups.
Cow. See Bull.
Coward: with the tail between the hind legs. See Tails.
Crab: the common crab(lat. cancer, fr. ecrevisse) occurs on the coat of arms of several families.
Argent, on a bend sable between two crabs of the second a cross crosslet of the first--CROSSE.
Cradle, a child. See under Child.
Argent, a crab sable--SHRODER.
Argent, a chevron engrailed azure between three crabs gules--BRIDGER, co. Gloucester.
Argent, three crabs erect sable--ALLYM.
Argent, three crabs erect, gules--ALVANSTON.
Cramp, or Crampoon, and sometimes cramp-iron(fr. Crampon), are similar to the pieces of iron bent at each extremity, used for the purpose of strengthening a building. In their origin the irons are supposed to represent the hooked attachments to the scaling-ladders. Hence a cross may be cramponny(fr. cramponné) when the ends are thus terminated. Cramps are generally borne in pairs, and are sometimes(though erroneously) called Fleams or Grapples.
Ermine, two cramps in saltire, sable--TIDERLEIGH, Dorset.
Crampet. See Sword.
Argent, a chevron gules between three crampoons erect, sable--CHETHAM, Suffolk.
Or, a fesse between three cramp irons sable--HAGEN.
Crampiron, Crampoon, and Crampouné. See Cramp.
Crancelin. See Crown of Rue.
Crane: this bird(grus cineria, fr. grue) is in heraldry often confounded with the heron and stork, it being in ordinary drawing precisely similar. It is borne by the following, and in two cases it will be observed that the crane holds in the dexter foot a stone, a somewhat singular device.
Argent, a crane sable standing on a staff raguly in base vert--CRANE, Cornwall.
Crenelly, Crenellé, and Crenellated. See Embattled.
Azure, a crane thrust through with a sword argent--FITHIE, Scotland.
Gules, a saltire ermine, between two cranes in pale argent and two garbs in fesse or--KIRSOPP, Northumberland.
Gules, a crane without the head argent--FINNIE, Scotland.
Argent, a crane holding a stone in the dexter foot gules; on a chief vert three crescents of the first--SIMPSON, Scotland.
Per chevron or and gules, in chief two cinquefoils of the second stalked and leaved vert, and in base a crane, argent, in the dexter foot a stone sable--DEARMAN.
Crequer plant, (fr. créquier): is described as a wild plum-tree, or cherry-tree, the fruit of which bears the name of 'creques' in the patois of Picardy, and from the peculiar representation in the following arms the word crequier will be found sometimes given in dictionaries as meaning a seven-branched candlestick.
Or, a crequer plant of seven branches eradicated sable--GIRFLET.
Crescent, (fr. croissant, old fr. cresaunt, pl. cressanz): a half-moon with the horns uppermost. The other positions of the half-moon, viz. increscent and decrescent, will be found mentioned under moon.
A crescent is the ancient ensign of the Turks, and was without doubt introduced into heraldry(properly so called) by the crusaders, and hence in arms dating from Henry III.'s reign onwards it is very frequently employed. It is also the mark of cadency assigned to the second house.
Azure, a crescent argent--LUCY. London.
In some coats it is noted that the crescents are to be reversed, i.e. with the horns downwards, and they are then blazoned as pendent.
Frank de BOUN, de goules ung croissant de hermyn, ung urle dez merlotts d'ermyn--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire William de RYTHE de azure a iij cressans de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Johan de HANLON de goules a iij cressanz de argent--Ibid.
Monsire de RITHERE port d'asur a trois cressants d'argent--Roll, temp, ED. III.
Monsire de WAUTLAND d'argent un fes gules a deux cressents gules en le chief--Ibid.
Sable, a fesse dancetty or, between three crescents argent--ROUS, Earl of Stradbroke.
Gules, five crescents or--William de KILKENNY, Bp. of Ely, 1254-56.
Argent, a lion rampant gules between five pierced mullets, the two in chief enclosing a pair of crescents sable, the others as the second--DYSON.
Gules, a bend argent between six crescents 'pendent' or--Esmond FOLLYOT.
Cresset. See Beacon.
Crest, (fr. cimier): a figure anciently affixed to the helmet(fr. casque) of every commander, for his distinction in the confusion of battle, and in used before the hereditary bearing of coat armour: it is not unfrequently confounded with the badge or cognizance, which is a different thing. The word timbre includes the crest, helmet, wreath, &c., in short every-thing which is above the shield.
Crests do not appear to have been considered as in any way connected with the family arms until the fourteenth century, when Edward III. conferred upon William of Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, the right to bear an eagle.
The earliest representations of a crest in mediæval times in this country upon any authentic record is perhaps that on the great seal of Richard the First, on which a lion appears figured on the helmet. It does not, however, seem to be a separate attachment, but to be a part of the helmet, and also appears in old illustrations to have been attached to the head of the horse as well as to that of the rider.
The royal crest of England--a lion upon a cap of estate--appears for the first time during the reign of King Edward III., upon one of his great seals. It continues the same to the present day, but is now generally placed upon the royal crown. The following are early instances of family crests:--
Quarterly; first and fourth barry of six or and azure, on a chief of the first, two pallets between as many esquires based of the second, over all an inescutcheon argent--MORTIMER. Second and third or, a cross gules--DE BURGH. Crest, out of a ducal coronet proper, a plume of feathers azure. Supporters, two lions guardant argent, their tails coward and reflected over their backs--Seal of Edmund MORTIMER, Earl of March[who died in 1424].
Ancient crests were, for the most part, the heads of men, or of birds, or of animals, of plumes of feathers. Such inappropriate figures as rocks, clouds, and rainbows, were never used for crests while heraldry was in its purity, The list of the varieties of crests found on arms at the present time would fill several pages, but it may be observed that heads and portions of men and animals are still found to be the most frequent.
A plume of seven feathers in one height, ermine, placed upon a ducal coronet gules, is the Crest of Sir Simon de FELBRIGGE, K. G. [upon his stall-plate at Windsor].
Le timbre sur le heaulme ung teste morien, &c.--Grant of Arms to Alan TROWTE, 1376,
Unless the contrary be expressly mentioned, a crest is always to be placed upon a wreath, and such was, in general, the most ancient practice, nor was it until the time of COOKE, Clarenceux, in Queen Elizabeth's reign, that the ducal coronet and the chapeau(which is also proper to a duke) were indiscriminately granted. Mural and other crowns are occasionally used in the same way.
Though corporate bodies may bear the arms of their founders just as the founders themselves borne them, it is scarcely in accordance with principle for them to bear helmets and crests(as many of the mercantile companies of London do). The oldest mercantile crest, perhaps, is that of the TALLOW-CHANDLERS, with the Head of S.John the Baptist in the charger, q.v.
Crested, (fr. crêté): of a bird when of another tincture. See under Cock. (2) Of a helmet, q.v.
Crevice, (corrupted from écrevisse), but used for the crayfish. See Lobster.
Cri di guerre. See Motto.
Crible, (fr.): a sieve; used only in foreign arms.
Crickets: the gryllus domesticus of the naturalists has been chosen for the bearings in at least one coat of arms.
Argent, three blackbirds proper between two bars dancetty gules; in chief a griffin segreant between two crickets of the second--GRIFFITHS, Hereford.
Crined, (fr. chevelé): used with respect to the hair of a man's head, or the mane of a horse when of another tincture. See Hair.
Cripping iron. See Glazier's nippers.
Critched: old form of crutched, applied to a staff.
Croaking of a raven, q.v.
Crocodile. See Alligator.
Croisé, (fr.): used by French heralds, of a banner bearing a cross.
Croissant, fr. for Crescent.
Croix, Rouge. See Poursuivants under Heralds.
Croix, (fr.): a cross.
Cronel, or Coronel, (old fr. burre: see Harl. MS. 1392): the head of a jousting-lance, somewhat resembling a crown, whence its name.
Argent, a bend between three cronels sable.--CORNALL, or CROWNALL.
Crook. See Crosier, also Staff.
Argent, a chevron engrailed between three coronels sable--BYKELEY. [But in the arms of another branch of the family blazoned ducal coronets.]
Ermine, in a fesse gules, three cronels or--CROMWELL.
Azure, a chevron between three coronels or--SCOPLEY, Middlesex.
Crosier, or Crozier, (lat. Crocia, a crook, fr. Croc, not from crux or cross): this word is properly restricted to the crook of an Archbishop, a Bishop, on an Abbot.
The Archbishop, besides his Crosier, made use also of a Staff surmounted by a cross; that of the Pope having a triple cross. That of the see of Canterbury is represented as surmounted by a cross formy. In actual examples, some few of which remain, the Archbishop's Staff is found to be of various patterns and highly ornamented. The annexed cut represents the Staff of Archbishop Warham(who died 1520), from his tomb at Canterbury. It is borne of this form, but not so highly ornamented, in the ensigns of the archiepiscopal sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dublin.
The Crosier of a bishop ends in a curve resembling that of a shepherd's crook, from which there is every reason to believe it was derived, notwithstanding the opinion of some, that its origin is to be traced to the lituus of the priesthood of pagan Rome. There are many existing specimens of episcopal staves, which, while they all retain the general form of a crook, differ very much in their enrichments. In heraldry the simple form shewn in the margin is generally adopted.
The Crosier and Staff surmounted by a cross are, however, often confounded under the general term Pastoral Staff, and the French term Crosse is used equally for the crosier as for the staff with the cross.
Azure, a crosier in pale or, ensigned with a cross formée argent, surmounted of a pall of the last, edged and fringed of the second, charged with four crosses formée fitchée sable--See of CANTERBURY.
The pastoral staves of Abbots resembled those of bishops, and were no doubt equally ornamented, especially when the Abbot was head of the Mitred Abbeys. However, it seems there was a custom to attach a small pallium, called also sudarium, or strip, to the crosier of Abbots to distinguish them from those of Bishops, though it was not generally adhered to; and this seems to be represented on the insignia of S.Benet's, HULME. Examples are also found of Abbesses represented with a pastoral staff, as on the brass of ISABEL HERVEY, Abbess of Elstow, Bedfordshire(ob. A.D. 1524).
Azure, on a chevron gules between three Cornish choughs as many pastoral staves erect or--Henry DEANE, Bp. of Bangor, 1496; Bp. of Salisbury 1500; afterwards Abp. Cant. 1501-30.
Azure, a bend or; over all a crosier in bend sinister, the staff argent, the crook or--Abbey of S.Agatha, RICHMOND, Yorkshire.
Argent, three bars gules, over all a crosier in bend, staff argent, head or--Gilbertine Priory at ALVINGHAM, co. Lincoln.
Azure, two crosiers endorsed in saltire or; in chief a mitre of the last--See of ARGYLL, Scotland.
Azure, two pastoral staves in saltire, and a mitre in chief or--SPOFFORD, Bp. of Hereford, 1522-48.
Gules, three lions passant guardant, over all a crosier, the staff gules, crook sable, all within a bordure of the last bezanty--Cistercian Abbey at VALE ROYAL, Cheshire.
Gules, a crosier reversed in bend sinister, surmounted by a sword in bend dexter proper; on a chief argent a thistle leaved also proper--CHURCH, Hampton.
Argent, a bishop's crook in pale sable--M'LAURIN, Dreghorn.
Sable, a crosier in pale or, garnished with a pallium crossing the staff argent[otherwise, having two ribbons entwined about it] between two ducal coronets of the second[otherwise between four crosiers or]--Abbey of S.BENET'S, HELME, Norfolk.
Cross, (fr. Croix; old fr. crois, croyz, &c.): the term Cross without any addition signifies, §1, a Plain cross, which, it is said, should occupy one-fifth of the shield; but when charged it may be occupy one-third. Its use as an heraldic ensign may be considered to be as early as any, and to belong to the time of the first crusades, in which the principal nations of Christendom are said to have been distinguished by crosses of different colours: and it is naturally found to be most frequently employed in the insignia of religious foundations.
The following Abbeys, Priories, &c., bear the crosier in their insignia--
ALVINGHAM, Lincoln; BARDNEY, Lincoln; BYLAND, Yorkshire; BOXLEY, Kent; BUCKFESTRE, Devon; BURSCOUGH, Lancashire; BUTLEY, Suffolk; CUMBERMERE, Cheshire; DELACRE, Stafford; DEREHAM, Norfolk; FEVERSHAM, Kent; FURNESS; HALES; LLANDAFF; LANGDON, Kent; MALMESBURY, Wilts; MISSENDEN, Bucks; RICHMOND, Yorkshire(S.Agatha); Ditto, (S.Martin's); SHREWSBURY; STRATFORD, Essex; THAME, Oxon; THORNEY, Cambridge; THORNTON, Lincoln; VALE ROYAL, Cheshire; WARSOP, Notts; WENDLING, Norfolk; WESTMINSTER; WIRKSOPP, Notts.
The following Sees also bear the crosier in their insignia:--
ARGYLL; BARBADOS; CALCUTTA; CLONFORT and KILMACDAUAGH; CORK and ROSS; ELPHIN; GALLOWAY; JAMAICA; KILLALA and ACHONRY; KILMORE; LLANDAFF; LEIGHLIN and FERNS; LIMERICK; QUEBEC, &c.
"And on his brest a bloodie crosse he bore,
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,
For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,
And dead, as living ever, his ador'd:
Upon his shield the like was was scor'd."
Spenser's "Faerie Quene," bk. i.
§1. The primary idea of the plain heraldic cross is that the four arms are equal, and that they meet in the fesse-point of the shield; from the shape of the shield, however, the horizontal bar is generally shorter than the vertical. This even-armed cross is frequently termed the Greek cross, to distinguish it from the Latin cross, it which the lower member is always longer than the other three. The plain cross of gules on a field argent is termed the Cross of S.George, having been assigned to S.George of Cappadocia, or S.George of England. (See Union Jack under Flag.) The plain cross was the most frequent amongst the early arms.
Le Conte de NORFFOLK, d'or a ung crois de goulez--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
As said above, the position of the cross is that the centre should occupy the fesse-point, but in those cases where there is a chief this ordinary must be abased, though it be not mentioned.
Piers de SAUVOYE, goules ung crois d'argent--Ibid.
Robert de VEER d'argent a la crois de goulz--Ibid.
Argent, on a bull statant gules, armed or, upon a mount vert; a plain cross argent at the shoulder--RIDLEY.
Argent, a cross gules, a chief chequy sable and of the first--SCOLYCORNE.
The cross admits of great varieties in outline and treatment, and the inventors of heraldic devices have not been slow to avail themselves of this, and heraldic writers have in their ingenuity multiplied the forms. In giving a summary of the chief forms only we are met with the difficulty of many synonyms occurring, for practically the same form is often much varied by incorrect drawing, and much confusion has arisen from blunders of heraldic writers in misreading or misunderstanding the terms employed. The French terms are more varied still than the English, and the correlation of the two series can only be attempted approximately. It is the plain cross which is most frequently made subject to the variations described, §1 to §7, but it will be noted that other forms of the cross are also at times subjected to the same treatment.
Argent, a cross and a chief sable--JOHN, Bishop of Exeter, 1185-91.
Or, a cross gules, a chief vert--VERE, Suffolk[granted 1584].
In the following classification the varieties have been, as far as possible, restricted to cases of which examples can be founded; and an index at the end(see p. 179) will, it is hoped, render reference easy.
§2. First of all it will be well, perhaps, to note that the edges of the cross are subjected to the same variety of flection as other ordinaries, namely, they may be engrailed(fr. engreslée), embattled(fr. bretessée), indented(fr. denchée), invected(fr. cannelée), wavy, (fr. ondée) raguly, &c., and this treatment is found at tolerably dates.
Sire Thomas de YNGOLDTHORP, de goules a une crois engrele de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
French works give a cross émanchée, but the application of this exaggerated form of dancetty to a cross must be somewhat difficult, and no figures of it have been observed. The écotée of French writers has the appearance of a coarse kind of raguly. In one case the term slipped is applied to a cross, which should probably have its edges adorned with leaves.
Sire Eustace de la HACCHE de or a une crois engrele de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Argent, a cross embattled sable--BALMANNO.
Ermine, a cross pattée invected gules--GRANDALE, Harl. MS. 1407.
Vert, a cross invected argent--HAWLEY, Clarenceux King of Arms, ob. 1577.
Argent, a cross wavy gules--LORAND.
Or, a cross raguly vert--ANKETEL, Co. Monagham.
Sable, a cross flory raguly argent--BROTHERTON, Maidenhead.
Argent, a cross couped raguly and trunked sable--TYTHINGTON, Chester.
Argent, a cross slipped vert--RADELL, Harl. MS. 5866.
§3. Next the crosses besides being of various tinctures may be diversified, as the field is diversified. A cross may be e.g. chequy(fr. échiquetée), compony or counter-compony, fretty, trellised(i.e. with a somewhat closer fret), vair maçonnée, &c.
D'or, à la croix émanchée de trois pièces et deux demies d'argent sur gueules, cantonnée de quatre têtes de léopard d'azur--LE LYEUR DE LA VAL, Champagne.
Sire Johan de KOCFELD, de azure a une crois chekere de argent e de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
§4. A cross is frequently charged with other devices.
Azure, a cross counter-compony argent and gules--Eustace de WITENEYE.
Ermine, a cross counter-compony gules and or; in the dexter chief a lion rampant sable--Richard LAUNDE.
Sire Robert de VERDUN, de argent, a une crois de azure frette de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Or, a cross vair--EXMYLE.
Sire Nicholas de VALERES, de argent, a une crois de goules e v escalops de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
§5. The Cross may be of two tinctures, i.e. party per fesse, per pale, &c., or per cross, which is equivalent to quarterly(fr. écartelee), and in most cases it is so in connection with the partition of the field, and hence the tinctures are counter-changed. Though some heralds would use the term counter-quartered, the term counter-changed applied to the cross is all that is needed. The partition lines should meet in the centre in a cross and not in a saltire.
Sire Johan de BADDEHAM, de argent a une crois de goules; en la crois v molez de or--Ibid.
Sire Wauter de CORNEWAILLE, de argent, a une crois de sable besaunte de or--Ibid.
Sire Gelem de DUREM, de argent a une crois de goules e v flures de or--Ibid.
Gules, a cross per fesse or and argent--BROCKHALL.
When, however, the cross is composed as it were, of five pieces or divisions, the central being that of the field, the term quarter-pierced is used. Heraldic writers have, however, invented various terms, e.g. quarter-voided and square-pierced. And some have described the form(taking the field into account) as 'chequy of nine panes;' but it is to be noted that as a rule the pieces are charged with some device. With the French, however, the term équipollée describes the figure exactly.
Gules, a cross moline per pale argent and ermine--FRISKENEY, Lincoln.
Or, on a cross quarterly azure and gules five roses of the first--Thomas LANGTON, Bp. of S.David's, 1483; Salisbury, 1485; Winchester, 1493-1501.
Per bend azure and argent, a cross moline per bend or and of the first--HAWTRE, Bedford.
Per bend argent and sable, a cross potent counterchanged--ALMACK, Suffolk.
Argent, a cross pattée, per saltire, gules and azure--INGHAM ABBEY, Norfolk.
Per chevron, argent and gules, a cross counterchanged--CHAPMAN, York.
Quarterly azure and gules a cross patonce counterchanged; in first and fourth quarters a rose gules barbed and seeded or; in second and third quarters a sun glory proper--Thomas BENTHAM, Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, A.D. 1560-79.
Quarterly argent and azure, a cross counterchanged--BEVERCOTT.
Quarterly argent and gules, a cross botonny counterchanged--CROSLAND.
Quarterly indented argent and sable, a cross counterchanged--GLENDINING.
Argent, a quarter-pierced cross moline sable between three crescents gules--MILWARD.
§6. A cross is described as voided when the central portion of the four limbs is of the same tincture as the field, and only a narrow border is left, and this is found in ancient blazon described as 'une fausse croix.'
Sable, on a cross quarterly pierced argent, four eagles displayed of the first--BULLER, Bp. of Exeter, 1792-96.
Argent, five crosses croslet gules, over all on a quarter-pierced cross as the last, four crosses croslet like the second--BONNELL, London, 1691.
Ermine, on a quarter-pierced cross or four chevrons gules--City of LICHFIELD.
Cinq points d'argent équipollés à quatre de gueules--BOISY, Ile de France.
The term voide is used of a Cross in one or two ancient rolls in connection with recercelé, and it has been thought to imply that the voiding extends into the field, which may be described as voided throughout, and as is shewn in the illustration of the arms of KNOWLES. (See under §32.)
Hamon CREVECEUR, d'or ung faulx crois de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
But as it is possible to superimpose one cross upon another(fr. croix chargée, or remplie), and the latter may be of the tincture of the field, the result would be the same as a cross voided. Modern heralds consider that the difference is to be shewn by the shading of the lines, as already noted in the case of the chevron, but such niceties were unknown is ancient heraldry.
Azure, crusily, a cross moline voided throughout[otherwise disjoined] or--KNOWLES, Barony, 1603.
Gules, a cross patty pointed voided argent; at each corner a bezant--Henry LE WALYS(Glover's Ordinary).
Argent, a cross flory voided gules--James PILKINGTON, Bp. of Durham, 1561-76.
Ermine, a cross voided sable--ARCHDEACON, Harl. MS. 5866.
Argent, a cross humetty voided azure--WASHBORNE.
Or, a cross humetty pointed, voided azure--BURR.
De gueules, à la croix d'argent chargée d'une croix alaisée d'azur--NEUFVILLE, Limosin.
Further, there is a third way in which such arms might in some cases be blazoned, namely, as fimbriated, bordured, or edged(fr. bordé) of such a tincture.
And with this may be noted crosses which have cotices, though these are by no means common in English arms. One remarkable example, however, occurs, in which a fleur-de-lis serves as a cotice instead of a line.
Argent, a cross gules fimbriated or--BRADESTONE.
§7. At with other ordinaries, a cross may be couped; and then it is termed humetty(fr. alaisée, spelt sometimes alésée), though the term coupée seems to be occasionally used. Of course all the four arms are couped, unless there is any distinguishing note to the contrary. It would also appear that this cross should be always drawn with its arms equal. When more than one cross or crosslet occurs in the same shield it stands to reason they must be humetty, so that it is not necessary to mention it.
Argent, a cross or bordured sable--TIPPET.
Quarterly or and azure, over all on a griece of three steps a holy cross, all of the first fulfylled sable[i.e. sable fimbriated gold]--Cluniac Priory at LYNTON, Notts.
Argent, a cross cottised with eight demi-fleurs-de-lis, their bottoms towards the fesse-point, sable, between four mullets pierced of the last--ATKINS, co. Cork.
D'argent, à la croix alaisée de gueules--XAINTRAILLES, Ile de France.
The term humetty is sometimes used in connection with special terminations to the arms of the cross, but practically it is needless, for were the cross extended to the edges there would be no room for such terminations. See e.g. cross annuletty, §11, and fleuretty, §20; also gringolée and the like, §21. To these might be added anserated and ancetty(from the French anse, 'a handle'), though the terms have not been observed in any English blazon.
A cross humetty between four plain crosslets--John de PONTISSARA, Bp. of Winchester, 1282-1304.
Azure, a bend wavy in the sinister chief a cross coupy argent--Arms assigned to William de CURBELLIO, Abp. of Canterbury, 1123-36.
Azure, a cross humetty terminated with four leopard's heads or--PECKHAM.
On the other hand a cross pattée(which is naturally humetty) must be blazoned as throughout or fixed, if it is intended that the four arms of the cross should reach to the edges of the shield. See §26.
Argent, a cross humetty gules, the point in chief terminating in a crescent of the last--WANLEY.
Sable, billetty argent, a cross humetty at top, and there flory of the last--Sir John MORIS, co. Gloucester[Harl. MS. 1465, fol. 53].
See also passant, as meaning of throughout.
The French term tronçonné, signifying that the cross is broken up into small cubes, is given by Edmondson, and others, but no examples have been noticed either in French or English arms.
One example only of a demi-cross has been observed.
Argent, a chevron between three demi-crosses gules--TOKETT.
§8. Beyond the variations to which the cross is subjected there are certain devices which are made up of charges arranged in the form of the cross, and so in some cases are blazoned as such. A cross, for instance, of four ermine-spots, with the heads meeting(fr. abouttées or appointées) in the fesse-point, has been blazoned by some heralds as a Cross erminée. A cross composed of four escallop shells, or of four pheons, would only be blazoned as such.
Argent, a cross of four ermine-spots sable--HURSTON, Cheshire.
With respect, however, to the formation of crosses from lozenges, fusils, and mascles, the device is so frequent that the terms cross lozengy, or cross fusilly(fr. fuselée), or cross masculy of such a tincture, are frequently adopted, though strict heralds consider these terms inadmissible, for lozengy, masculy, and fusilly require that two tinctures should be named, and that the cross or other ordinary be drawn entire, and treated just as if it was blazoned chequy, or compony, or any other form of diversification; they therefore contend, and with reason, that the proper expression for a cross of this description should be a cross of so many lozenges, fusils, &c.
Vert, a cross of four escallops, the tops at the centre meeting, or--WENCELAUGH, co. York, 1584.
Quarterly, gules and azure, a cross of four pheons, the points to the centre argent--TRUBSHAWE.
But further than this, very strict heralds contend that a cross fusil, or of fusils(where no particular number is mentioned), should consist of nine, whereof five should be enire and four halved for the extremities, which touch the edge of the shield. If, however, the blazon runs, 'a cross of so many fusils,' especially of fusils conjoined, all the fusils should be entire, but need not necessarily touch the edge of the shield. If, however, they are intended to touch the edge of the shield, then the term throughout should be added. Practically, however, these rules are in ancient drawing never adhered to, and in modern drawing but seldom. What has been said of fusils applies of course also to lozenges and mascles.
Examples below will be found to illustrate sufficiently the variety of blazon, and it will be noted also that in some cases a cross composed of lozenges, of fusils, is terminated by some other device, e.g. fleuretty, or by a bezant.
Or, a cross of lozenges, and in the dexter chief an eagle displayed gules--FODRINGHEY.
In many cases, too, we find five or more charges arranged in cross, and in one case a cross is supposed to be formed of one lozenge with the fleury projections(see under mascle); and in another case a cross is formed of bones. While to a cross composed of two strings of beads the name of cross pater-noster has been given, although no example is cited.
Gules, a cross lozengy argent--STAWELL, Devon.
Gules, a cross of nine lozenges conjoined argent--STOWELL, Somerset.
Argent, a cross of five lozenges conjoined gules--Sr. de KESSELL.
Per pale or and azure, a cross lozengy counterchanged--HASLEFOOTE.
Quarterly or and sable, a cross lozengy counterchanged--HUNT.
Or, a cross of nine mascles gules--QUATERMAN, Leicester.
Gules, a cross masculy argent--BUTLER.
Azure, a cross of four mascles conjoined or--MILLER, Warwickshire.
Argent, a cross of nine mascles throughout gules--John de BREWES.
Argent, a cross of four fusils sable--Sir Thomas BANESTER, K.G.
Gules, a cross lozengy fleuretty or, a crescent for difference--FOTHERBY, Bp. of Salisbury, 1618-20.
Gules, a cross flory of nine fusils or--FOTHERBY, co. Lincoln, 1730.
Gules, a cross of four mascles argent, at each point a bezant--WALOIS.
Argent, fretty of six sable, five crosses crosslet fitchy in cross as the first--Sr. de BUGG.
Another way of composing a cross is by crossing bars, or rather barrulets or fillets, as some heralds term them, for the horizontal line, with endorses or batons for the vertical line. When two of these occur the term cross biparted or double parted is used, and when three occur it is called a cross triple parted. By the following examples it will be seen how loosely the various terms are used.
Gules, a cross flory of one lozenge or--CASSYLL.
Sable, a cross of a thigh bones, in dexter chief a bezant--RALPH BAYNE, Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, 1554-59.
Gules a cross of one barrulet ermines, and an endorse ermine, both humetty--SPONNE.
If a Cross triparted should be also flory heralds say that the fillets, &c., should terminate in the manner shewn in the margin, but no example is given in the works which lay down this rule.
Azure, a cross double parted argent--DOUBLER.
Argent, a cross triple parted and fretted sable--SKIRLAW, or SCYRLOW, Yorkshire.
Argent, a cross of six batunes interlaced sable--SKIRLAWE, Bp. of Lichfield, 1366; afterwards of Bath and Wells, 1386-88.
Argent, a cross humetty triple parted azure--HURST, Salop.
Azure, a cross of three barrulets, and as many endorses fretted argent, dovetailed or--PICKFORD.
A cross cabled is given in English lists(in French lists cablée) and described as formed of a cable or twisted rope; but no arms bearing these devices, either English or French, have been noticed. And the fr. cr. vivrée probably consists of a fillet crossed by an endorse, both of them nebuly or dancetty.
§9. The expression pierced is applied to crosses, and is variously used. The term pierced(more frequently applied to mullets than similar charges) implies that there is a circular opening, and the field shewn through, and such opening would be in the centre of the cross. But the opening may be of a lozenge form or of a square form. When the whole of the centre is of the tincture of the field it is, as has already been described, to be blazoned quarterly pierced; but, farther, some heralds contend that if the aperture does not occupy the whole of the central portion where the arms meet, it is to be blazoned quarter-pierced.
Azure, a cross humetty pierced sable, a chief gules--KNOWLYS.
§10. In some few cases, but rarely in English heraldry, from the angles formed by the meeting of the arms there project certain charges, e.g. rays, acorns, fleur-de-lis, &c.; with rays the term rayonnante would be used. The French term is anglé of such a charge, but there is no English equivalent. Edmondson uses the expression "adorned at angles," but gives no example.
Azure, a cross moline, lozenge-pierced argent--GAILIE.
Azure, a cross moline square-pierced argent--MOLLYNS.
Argent, a cross moline quarter-pierced azure--SIBBALD, Scotland.
Argent, a cross moline quarter-pierced gules--CROKEYN, Ireland; DOWDALL, MILBORNE, SIBBALD, Balgony, Scotland.
Argent, a cross moline quarter-pierced sable--COLVIL, Ochiltry, Scotland; Robert COPLEY, called GROSSETESTE, Bp. of Lincoln, 1235-53; COPLEY, Batley, co. York; Sir Thos. MELBOURNE.
Gules, a cross moline rebated and lozenge-pierced or--FENEY.
Argent, a cross moline quatrefoil-pierced sable--MILBOURNE.
We now come to crosses which have special names, derived either from their general outline or from their termination.
§11. Cross annuletty: a cross which is couped and has rings at the four extremities is thus called, and not, as it might be supposed, a cross formed of annulets(q.v.), either conjunct or braced one with another. It is found blazoned also as 'humetty, ringed at the ends.'
Argent, a cross annuletty sable--WESTLEY, Harl. MS. 1405.
§12. Cross avellane: so called from its resemblance to four filberts(nuces avellanœ); there seems to be no French representative(but see otelles); very few English instances have been observed.
Argent, a cross flory voided and ringed gules--Monsire John MOLTON, Harl. MS. 1386.
Vert, a cross avellane argent--SYDENHAM, Somerset, granted 1757.
§13. Cross barby(fr. barbée): much the some probably as the French croix tournée, or the croix cramponnée(the crampon being the hook shape described under that term); it does not seem to be a very definite term, but may be represented as in the margin.
Argent, two bars gules, on a canton of the second a cross avellane or--KIRKBY, Cumberland.
Argent, a cross barby gules, in chief three griffin's heads sable--TILLIE, Cornwall.
§14. Cross bottonnée is derived from the French bouton, a bud or knob, though the name does not appear to be used by French heralds, who used the term tréfflée. It is a cross ending in three lobes like the trefoil leaf, and is of rather frequent occurrence.
Argent, a cross bottonnée gules--BRERLEGH; Harl. MS. 1407.
§15. Cross Calvary, (fr. cr. de Calvaire): is a long cross or Latin cross(that is with the lower limb longer than the other three, and raised upon three steps). It has been poetically said that the three steps are symbolical of the three Christian graces, Faith, Hope, and Charity, and it is suggested by theoretical writers that the bearer took the arms in consequence of having erected such a cross at Rome. It is also sometimes called a Holy cross.
Argent, a cross bottonnée sable--WINWOOD, Bucks.
Argent, a cross bottonny azure--EGMON.
Gules, a cross botonny argent, on a chief azure a lion passant or--CHAWNCY, Harl. MS. 1465.
Argent, a cross botonny voided gules--PILKINGTON, Durham.
Argent, crusily and a cross botonny gules--RALEIGH, Warwickshire.
Monsire John de MELTON port d'argent a une crois patey et botone--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire William de COLVILL port d'or a une fes de gules; trois crossiletts botones d'argent en la fes--Ibid.
Gules, a cross botonny and raguly argent--John le FROME, Harleian MS. 1465.
Ermine, on a canton vert a cross calvary on three grieces or--QUAILE.
The Passion Cross, or Long Cross(fr. haute croix), resembles the true Latin cross in form, but seldom occurs except when it is raised on three steps, and it is then called a Cross Calvary. See also Crucifix.
Quarterly or and azure, over all a cross calvary on three grieces or steps sable fimbriated of the first--LENTON Priory, Notts.
Argent, a cross calvary gules; on a chief azure five bezants--Stephen WESTON, Bp. of Exeter, 1724-42.
Argent, a long cross gules on a grice of three steps, the upper one azure, the second as the cross, and the undermost sable--ALMEARS or ALMEERS.
Ermine, on a pale between two roses gules a cross calvary argent--MOYSE.
Azure, a passion cross standing on a Catherine wheel argent--Augustinian Nunnery at FLIXTON, Suffolk.
Argent, a holy cross sable--ANWICKE.
Barry of five argent and gules, over all a long cross(sometimes called a crosier) in bend sinister or--Gilbertine Priory at SEMPRINGHAM, Lincoln.
But the steps or degrees, or grieces(spelt also grices), as they are variously termed, are sometimes referred to apart from the Cross of Calvary, and the term graded or degraded is employed. Consequently a cross degraded(fr. à degrés, and sometimes enserrée de degrés and peronnée) and conjoined signifies a plain cross, having its extremities placed upon steps joined to the sides of the shield. The number of the steps should be mentioned, as it is often four, and sometimes as many as eight.
A long cross mounted on three degrees ensigned on the top with a fleur-de-lis; on each side the cross as escutcheon; therein a chief and two chevrons--On seal of the Borough of HEYTESBURY, Wilts.
Argent, a cross graded of three sable--WYNTWORTH.
§16. Cross clechée: this signifies a cross with the ends as shewn in the margin. Some heralds contend that the true cross clechée should have the ends voided, but there seems to be no good authority for this, at least not in English arms, and in French arms it will be seen that it is often blazoned vidée. It appears also, when voided and pommettée, to bear the title with French heralds of Cross of Toulouse, from it appearing in the insignia of that city, though as will be seen, as old blazon describes these arms as a cross paté voided.
Argent, a cross degraded and conjoined(or issuing from eight degrees), sable--WOODHOUSE.
Argent, a cross clechée sable--Sir Thomas BANASTER, K.G., ob. 2¡ëdeg; Ric. II. [as depicted upon his stall-plate at Windsor, elsewhere blazoned, Argent, a cross patty pointed sable].
§17. Crosslet, (fr. croissette or petit croix): two or more crosses are sometimes borne in the same coat, and are then termed crosslets. If only two or three are borne they may be termed crosses or crosslets. If more, they must be termed crosslets. They are drawn couped, but it is not necessary to mention that circumstance, because they could not be otherwise.
Or, on a mount between two lesser ones vert a lamb sable, holding with the dexter foot a banner ermine charged with a cross clechée gules--GROSE, Surrey(1756).
Or, on a chevron between three crosses clechy sable a fleur-de-lis between two stag's heads cabossed of the first--CARVER.
D'azur, a la croix vidée, clechée et pommettée, d'or--Comtat VENAISSIN.
De gueules, à la croix de Toulouse d'or--ORADOUR, Auvergne.
De gueules, à la croix vidée, clechée, pommettée et alaisée d'or, dite Croix de Toulouse--P. LANGUEDOC.
Le Conte de TOLOSA, de goules a un croyz d'or pate et perse a une bordure d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III; Harleian MS. 6589, circa 1256-66.
William de SARREN, d'azur a trois crois d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Distinct, however, from the crosslet is the cross crosslet, or, as it is sometimes, though rarely, termed a cross crossed(fr. croix croisée). By rights, however, a cross crossed is equivalent to a cross crosslet fixed, that is, the arms extend to the extremities of the escutcheon.
Or, three crosses gules--DE LA MAYNE.
The Cross crosslet is often borne fitched; it may also have each extremity formed like those of the cross pattée, and it is then called a Cross crosslet pattée.
But further, a Cross crosslet may be itself crossed(fr. recroissetée), though there have been differences of opinion as to its character. The true signification of this term seems to be a cross composed of four cross crosslets, but Gerard Leigh represents it as shewn in the margin.
Or, a cross crosslet fitchy azure--Gilbert IRONSIDE(Bp. of Bristol, 1689).
§18. Cross entrailed: is figured in the margin, and is borne by one family only, namely, that of CARVER. It appears to be only drawn in outline.
Argent, a cross crosslet pattée sable--WYKERSLEY.
Gules, a cross crosslet argent--CHRISTIAN, Ireland.
Or, a cross crosslet azure--CARROLL, Ireland.
Argent, a cross crosslet azure--BRITTON.
Gules, a cross crosslet crossed next the centre on the upper and lower limbs or--CHADERTON, Harl. MS. 1465.
Argent, a cross crosslet crossed(or, as Leigh expresses it, double-crossed) pattée[at all the extremities] sable--BARROW.
Or, on a chevron sable a fleur-de-lis accompanied by two stag's heads cabossed, between three crosses entrailed of the second--CARVER.
§19. A Cross fitchy(fr. fichée) is a plain cross having the lower member pointed, but the term fitchy is very frequently applied to various kinds of crosses, and more especially to the crosslets, and sometimes to the cross crosslets.
Monsire John d'ARDERNE, port gules vi crois d'or fitche, le cheif d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
There is a cross of the peculiar shape is the margin which(for want of a better name) has been called a cross double fitched. It is not known to what family the representation found belongs.
Monsire John D'ESTRIVELYN, sable a trois coupes d'argent croisele argent as peds agus--Ibid.
Argent, a cross crosslet fitched sable--SCOTT.
Sable, a bend between six crosslets fitchy--LAKE, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1616-26.
Gules, a cross patty fitched at foot or--Sir Gilbert HEYTON, Harl. MS. 6589.
Argent, a cross fitchy at base gules--POTESFORD Church, Devon.
Argent, a cross double fitched argent ..... [a coat existing at Quorndon, Leicestershire].
§20. Of crosses with a floriated termination there are many varieties found in the actual emblazoning, but the nomenclature both of French and English heralds appears to be in a very unsatisfactory condition. The term most frequently employed is a cross fleury, and this is written also flory, floretty, and fleuronny, while the modern French heralds give us fleurée, fleuronnée, florencé (or fleuroncée), and fleur-de-lisée. It is not easy, however, to distinguish these from each other, or correlate them with the English terms, or with those used in ancient heraldry.
The commonly-accepted distinction by English heralds is that fleury signifies the cross itself terminating in the form of the upper portion of a fleur-de-lis, but that fleuretty(which is seldom used) signifies the cross to be couped, and the flower, as it were, protruding from the portion so couped; but it is a great question whether there is the slightest authority for such to be obtained from actual examples, or any such agreement to be found amongst the heralds of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As to the French terms, fleurée seems not to be applied so much to the cross as to other ordinaries, and signifies rather the edges ornamented with flowers or trefoils, while fleuri is applied only to plants in flower. The French fleur-de-lisée, on the other hand, seems to be the equivalent of the English fleuretty, and is represented with the flower protruding from the couped ends of the cross. The florencée and fleuronnée seem to be practically the same term, and both to be the equivalent of the English fleury. On the other hand, fleur-de-lisée seems in English blazon to be applied to the edges of the cross rather than to the ends, and consequently to be synonymous with the French fleurée.
We find also confusion in drawings between the cross fleury and the cross patonce, which latter, it will be seen, may be said to lie between a cross fleury and a cross patée, according to some authorities, though drawn differently by others.
It will be observed that in the old blazon, the ends(chefs or bouts) are sometimes described as fleuretty. "Richard SUWARD, who accompanied those[at Caerlaverock], had a black banner painted with a white cross with the ends fleuretty."
John LAMPLOWE, argent ung crois sable florettee--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire Johan de LAMPLOU, de or a un crois de sable les chefs flurettes--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Roger de SUYLVERTONE, de argent a une crois de sable, les chefs flurettes--Ibid.
Monsire William TRUSSELL, port d'argent une crois de gules les bouts floretes--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire de PAVELEY, d'asure a une crois d'or en les bouts floretes--Ibid.
Monsire le Suard D'ESCOZE port sable a une crois d'argent les bouts floretes--Ibid.
Richart SUWART, Re o cus converse O crois blance o bouz flouretée.
Noire baniere ot aprestée Roll of Caerlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Argent, a cross flory azure--BEVERCOURT and LEXINGTON.
§21. Cross gringolée, is used only French heraldry, but it is typical of a cross of crosses which consist of a cross humetty, but with heads of animals or some such device issuing from the ends. (See under Cross, §7.) In the case of gringolée the heads of snakes are implied. Guivrée possibly has the same signification, i.e. with vipers' heads.
Argent, a cross flory voided azure--MELTON, Lancaster.
Argent, on a cross flory sable four bezants--WHITGIFT, Bp. of Worcester, 1577, afterwards Abp. of Canterbury, 1583-1604. [Arms granted, 1577.]
Argent, a cross fleuretty sable--HOLMSHAW, Scotland.
Gules, a cross fleuronny argent--BROMFLET.
D'azure, à la crois d'argent, les extrémités fleur de lisées d'or--DUNOIS, Champagne.
Per pale azure and gules, over all a cross fleur-de-lis on the sides or--Gilbert IRONSIDE, Bp. of Bristol, 1661-71.
De gules, a la croix d'hermine gringolée d'or--KAER, Bretagne.
§22. A Cross hameçon is given in heraldic books, but appears to be borne only by one family in England, and that probably of foreign origin. The name implies that the ends should be represented like fish-hooks.
D'argent, a la croix de gueules gringolée d'or--MONTFORT, Bretagne.
Azure, a cross hameçon argent--MAGENS, Sussex.
§23. Cross Maltese, or of eight points. A cross of this form is the badge of the knights of Malta, and of some other religious orders. The points are imagined to symbolize the eight beatitudes.
A Maltese cross enamelled white and edged with gold--Badge of the Knights of MALTA.
A cross of sixteen points is also found note in some heraldic works, but probably only used in modern French heraldry. The drawing appears as an ordinary cross humetty, with the extremities indented, each having four points.
Argent, a cross Maltese gules--Order of S. STEFANO, Pisa, 1561.
§24. We next come to a cross having a great variety of nomenclature as well as of form. The ordinary and correct term is the Cross moline, and like the fer-de-moline or mill-rind, from which it derives its name, the ends are bifurcated. But they are usually made to turn over like the two side lobes of the cross fleury, the central lobe being absent.
Neither the fer-de-moline nor the cross moline occurs in the rolls of Henry III. In those of Edward II. the fer-de-moline occurs as a charge, and also the cross recercelée(q.v.), which may perhaps represent the Cross moline; but by some heralds the term Cross recercelée, q.v., is supposed to be confined to a cr. moline voided.
Moreover, with the author of the poem which describes the siege of Caerlaverock, the term Fer-de-moline appears to mean the Cross moline, as there is no doubt the arms of Antony BECK, the warrior-bishop of Durham, 'who sent has banner of red, with a fer-de-moline of ermine,' were somewhat as represented in the margin, since a Bishop would be sure to bear a cross.
Le noble evesque de Dureaume,
Le plus vaillant clerk du roiaume ...
Vermeille, o un fer de molyn
De ermine, e envoia se ensegne.
Roll of Caerlaverock, c. 1300.
The Cross recercelée too is found more frequently in the later rolls, e.g. in Edward III.'s reign, and then it will be seen that the cross moline occurs but in one instance.
The drawings very in the extent to which the bifurcated end is curved, and either of those shewn in the margin may be followed. It they are much more curved, the term 'anchory' may perhaps be given to the cross, a translation of the French term ancrée, which seems to represent the cross moline; but it is not a very happy description, as the ends are not drawn like the flukes of an anchor.
Monsire Symon de CHAMBERLAYNE, quarterly, d'or et gules a une crois molin argent en la quarter devant--Roll, temp. EDW. III.
The cross called by French writers anillée, and varied in spelling by French and English writers into neslée, nyslée, nillée, &c., seems to be but another name for the cross moline, the French anille being exactly the same as the mill-rind. But because some French heralds have drawn the curved extremities more slender than is usual in English drawing, the cross anillée has been described as a very thin cross anchory.
Azure, a cross moline or--MOLYNEUX, of Hawkley, Lanc. [many other families of the same name bear crosses moline variously pierced and tinctured.]
Argent, a cross moline azure--MILLER, Scotland.
Azure, a cross moline or--Adam MOLEYNS, Bp. of Chichester, 1445-50.
Per fesse embattled gules and azure, in chief two pickaxes and in base a cross moline or--PICKWICK.
Argent, a cross moline pierced gules--MILBORNE.
Gules, a cross moline voided argent--BECKE.
Gules, a cross moline sarcelled argent--BEC.
Azure, a cross anchory or--BEAURAIN.
Sable, a cross anchory or--TATYNGTON, Suffolk, Harl. MS. 1449.
D'azur, à trois anilles ou fers de moulin d'or--GERESME, Brie.
A severer form, and perhaps one more skin to the original notion of the fer-de-moline, is one with rectangular ends, which heralds have named cross mill-rind, abbreviated into cross miller). But so far as has been observed the title occurs only in heraldic works, and is not applied especially to any actual arms.
Under this head it may be well to include the Cross fourchée. It is found in ancient blazon, particularly in the roll of arms of the time of Henry III., and in one the term fourché au kanee occurs, which has been itself a crux to heraldic writers. The exact form of the cross fourché is not known, but it is supposed to be like that in the margin, for which later heralds have invented the term cross miller rebated. In French heraldic works a distinction seems to be made between fourchée and fourchetée, but it is not clear what that distinction is.
Gilbert de la VALE, de la MARCH, d'argent ung croix fourche de goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
In connection with the cross fourché may be noted the erroneous blazon of the shake fork(q.v.) as a cross pall; it is not, however, a cross at all; it is the forked character of the pall which has led to a combination of the two ideas.
John de LEXINGTON d'argent ung crois d'azure fourche au kanee.--Ibid.
Per pale or and vert, over all a cross fourchy gules--HINGHAM.
Argent, a cross moline rebated engrailed, sable--COTES, Harl. MS. 6829.
A Cross moline is said to be sometimes used as a mark of cadency.
§25. Cross nowy. When the term is used by itself it is supposed to signify that the arms of the cross, instead of meeting and forming right-angles, stop at the edge of a circle, which, so to speak, cuts off the angles; at least, it is represented thus in the drawing given in Edmondson. Thence varieties are imagined, viz. nowy lozengy, nowy masculy, &c., with each of the angles filled by a projection of half a lozenge, mascle, &c., but no examples are named. Nowy quadrate, however, is applied when the projections appear to form a square, and an example will be found figured in the Arms of LICHFIELD under cross §31.
There is a term also said to be used, namely, nowyed, which means that the projection need not be in the centre but in each of the arms of the cross. Both nowy and nowyed, however, are quite distinct from nowed(fr. noué), applied to serpents, &c.
§26. The term Cross pattée(fr.), more often writen patty, primarily means that the arms of the cross become expanded, of opened out, as they approach the edge of the shield. Named by itself, it means that the extremities are bounded by a straight line, that is, they are couped before reaching the edge of the shield. If otherwise, that is if the arms are extended to the edge of the field, the word throughout must be added(or, as some prefer, fixed, ferme, or entire); or if they have any other termination, e.g. flory, pometty, &c., such termination must be named; but in this case they belong rather to the class of Cross patonce(q.v.). In one case the ends are indented by a hollow(see below, under DYMOCK), and Berry gives a figure of a cross patty notched, but gives no name of bearer.
As to the expanding sides of the cross there seems to be no rule, but they are generally drawn slightly curved outwards, and not straight, as in the Maltese cross. Amidst the various forms which appear in the works of different authors it is difficult to define the line of demarcation between it and its kindred, cross patonce, which is described in the next article.
The extremities in French arms are sometimes so much curved that the outline of the four arms represent so many segments of a circle. With the French, however, the rule is for the Cross pattée to reach to the edge, and when it does not the term alaisée is introduced. It is not at all unusual in English arms for the lower extremity of the cross patty to be terminated in a point, and then it is blazoned cross patty fitchy. Cross crosslets may also be patty, and the device is then a very striking one. A Cross patty is also said to be used as a mark of cadency.
Le Conte d'AUMARLE, le goules, ung croix pate de verre--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
As to the synonym formée or formy, which appears to be used with modern heralds as frequently as patty, it is difficult to explain its origin or meaning. One example is found in a roll as early Henry III., but no other till a roll of Edw. III., where certain small crosses are described as formé de lis, that is, made up of the four flowers united in the centre. This may therefore be the origin of the term, since it will be observed that the same arms are blazoned in the previous reign(see above) as bearing 'iij crois patées.' It will be noted also that, as read by NICOLAS, the word lis appears as lij, but there can scarcely be much room to doubt the true reading.
Sire William de LATIMER, de goules a un croys pattee de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire Le LATIMER, port de gules a une crois patey or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Sire Johan de BERKELEYE, de goules a iij crois patees de or, e un chevron de argent--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Moris de BERKELEYE, de goules a les crusules pates de argent, e un chevron de argent--Ibid.
Sire Johan de RESOUN, de goules a un lion de or, en la un quarter un crois patée de veer--Ibid.
Monsire de ROIOSBY, de gules a trois crois pateis de sable, eu une bend d'argent--Roll, temp. EDW. III.
Sable, a cross pattée, or--ALLEN.
Ermine, a cross patty invected gules--GRANDALE, Harl. MS. 1407.
Verte, a cross patee fitchy or--HARRIS, Bp. of Llandaff, 1729-38.
Sable, a cross patty throughout fitchy or--COLLIAR.
Argent, a cross patty throughout engrailed sable--PESHALL.
Argent, a cross patée fixed sable--WOODHOUSE.
Gules, a cross patty crenelly at the ends argent--BATNYMERSH.
Argent, a cross pattée gules, in each end a small semicircle(otherwise a cross patée with one engrail)--DYMOCK.
Sable, on a chevron between three estoiles or, three crosses pattee fitchy gules--William LAUD, Bp. of S.David's, 1621; Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1626; Bp. of London, 1628; Abp. of Cant., 1633-45.
Argent, a cross patty elongated at the foot and pierced gules--MOLTON.
Le baucent del hospitale de goules a un croyz d'argent fourme--Harl. MS. 6589, c. 1256.66.
§27. Cross patonce is certainly an ancient term, as it occurs in the Roll of Arms, temp. Hen. III. Its definite origin or exact meaning cannot be determined; but the primary idea seems to be that the arms should expand, as a cross pattée, and that they should be terminated more or less like a cross flory.
Monsire Morris de BERKELEY, port de gules, a une cheveron d'argent entre dis croises forme de 'lij[forme de lis]--Roll, temp. EDW. III.
Gules, a cross formée or--Simon ISLIP, Abp. of Cant., 1349-66.
Ermine, two rings interlaced sable, on a chief of the last three crosses formy argent--WYCHINGHAM, Norfolk.
Argent, two annulets linked together gules, between three crosses formy sable--THORNHAGH, Nottinghamshire, confirmed 1582.
Argent, a wolf statant sable, on a chief azure three crosses formee of the first--EWER, Bp. of Llandaff, 1761, afterwards of Bangor, 1769-74.
Per fesse or and argent, in chief a lion rampant holding in the paw a cross formy fitchy gules, a chief sable, in base a cross formy fitchy ermine, surmounted by a fleur-de-lis of the fourth--VAWDREY, Chester.
Argent, on a chevron, the upper part terminating in a cross formée, gules, three bezants--NEWLAND, Southampton. [See similar example under Fesse.]
Argent, on a chevron between three crosses formée gules, three doves of the field--W. SANCROFT, Abp. of Canterbury, 1678-91[from MS. Lambeth, No. 555].
The cross figured in the margin is taken from the glass in Dorchester Church, which is not later than the early part of the fourteenth century, and may therefore be said to be contemporary with the man whose arms they represent, viz. William LATIMER, Lord of Corby, who sat in Parliament 1289-1305. But if we look at the blazon of the Latimer arms in the earlier rolls we find the cross described as a cross patée, though in later times as cross patonce.
William de VECEY, goules, a une croix patonce d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
Sire William de LATIMER, de goules, a un croys patee de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
.... De Guilleme le LATIMIER. Portoit en rouge bien pourtraite.
Ki la crois patée de or mier Roll of Siege of Caerlaverock, A.D. 1300.
Gules, a cross patonce or--LATIMER, Northamp.
§28. Cross patriarchal(fr. cr. of patriarcale) is a cross which has two horizontal bars instead of one. It is said that the ancient Patriarchs of Jerusalem bore this kind of cross, and that afterwards it was borne by the Patriarch of Constantinople, while the cross adopted by the Pope of Rome had three horizontal bars; but the historical evidence as to this adoption is very obscure. The name does not appear, so far as has been observed, in any of the rolls of arms in the thirteenth, fourteenth, or fifteenth centuries.
Sable, a cross patonce argent, pierced plain of the field, between four escallops of the second--Richard FLETCHER, Bp. of Bristol, 1589; afterwards of Worcester, 1593; and then of London, 1595-96.
Azure, an eagle displayed ermine, on his breast a cross patonce of the field--HOWLEY, Bp. of London, 1813; Abp. of Cant. 1828-48.
Argent, a cross patonce voided and pomelled at the four ends gules--Monsire John MELTON Harl. MS. 1386, fo. 34.
Azure, two bars, and in chief a cross patonce or--HOLTE, Warwick.
Vert, a cross patonce or between four crosses pattee argent--Town of ABINGDON, Berks, granted 1623.
Argent, a cross patty flory sable; over all a bendlet gules--SWINNERTON, co. Salop.
Argent, two bars sable, over all a cross formy flory gules--BRERETON, co. Chester.
Or, a cross patty, and at each end flory gules--EVETT, co. Worcester.
Sometimes the arms in the first-cited example are represented with the extremity of the lower limb and the extremities of the chief horizontal limbs touching the edge of the shield, but the usual representation is as in the illustration, with all the limbs couped. It is often blazoned as a cross Lorraine, and in some cases it is termed as Archiepiscopal cross, though it may generally in that case be taken to mean instead of the Ordinary a charge drawn like a crosier(q.v.), and surmounted by a cross instead of crook.
Sable, a cross patriarchal argent--Arms ascribed to Ralph de TURBINE, Bp. of Rochester, 1108; Archbp. of Cant., 1114-22.
An example is given by Palliot of a cross Patriarchal, viz. that of the bishopric of HERCHFELD, with the lower end terminating something like a cross patonce, to which he applies the term enhendée.
Argent, a cross patriarchal on a grice of three steps gules--Cluniac Priory, BROMHOLM, Norfolk.
Or, on a cross sable, a cross patriarchal of the field--VESEY, Visc. de Vesci.
A cross patriarchal gules fimbriated or--Badge of the KNIGHTS TEMPLARS.
Argent, on a bend gules, over all a cross patriarchal sable--RORKE, Ireland.
Gules, a buck trippant argent, in chief two bees volant or, on a chief nebuly of the third a Lorraine cross as the field between two eagles displayed sable--GOODHART, Kent.
§29. Cross pomel, or pommelly(fr. bourdonnée). A plain cross terminating in four round pomels, e.g. like the knob at the end of swordhilts, or in bourdons, that is, the knobs at the top of the pilgrims' staves. But there is much confusion arising from carelessness is writing the name in different ways. We find pomy, and very frequently pometty(fr. pommettée), and some heralds contend that the latter means something different, i.e. that there are two knobs terminating the arms of the cross; others say that it means a cross with a circular protuberance in the middle of each arm(like the escarbuncle). Again, in some French blazoning, the term pomettée signifies having knobs at several angles, as in the case of the Cross of Toulouse, given under cleche.
Argent, a cross pomel sable--WASSELEY, or WASTERLEY.
The French term Moussue, moussé, or émoussé, appears to mean a cross with the ends simply rounded at the extremities, from an obsolete word equivalent to blunted, and is given in some heraldic works, but without examples.
Argent, a bend between two cotises gules and six crosses pomelly fitchy sable--BOUDENELL.
Or, on a pale gules a cross pomy fitchy argent, on a chief azure three bezants--WRIGHT, London.
Argent, a fesse dancetty between three crosses pomel fitchy gules--SANDES, Bucks.
Gules, a fesse checquy or and sable between six crosses pomel argent--KYNYSMAN.
Gules, a cross pometty voided or--BRAUNSTON.
D'azure, à la crois d'argent, le pied bourdonné ou pommetté et fiché du même; aux cantons quatre étoiles d'or--BAZAS, Guyenne.
§30. Cross portate or portante: an ambiguous term which Edmondson says is given by Randle Holmes to a long cross raguly. Other heraldic writers give it to a peculiar form, which is neither chevron, bend, nor cross, but an odd admixture of the three, and is so drawn by Berry, who says that double portant means a cross patriarcale. The idea seems to be a cross 'in bend,' as if being carried. Confusion has also, no doubt, arisen from had drawing, hasty writing, and careless reading. One coat of arms only has a cross so blazoned.
Barry of six gules and argent, over all a cross portate in bend sinister azure(?)--St.GILBERT.
§31. Cross potent, written sometimes potence(fr. potencée): so called because its arms terminate in potents(q.v.), or like crutches. It is also called a Jerusalem cross, from its occurrence in the insignia of the kingdom of JERUSALEM, established by the Crusaders, the crosses being supposed by some writers to symbolize the five wounds of Christ.
Sable, a cross potent or--ALLEN, Finchley, Middlesex.
It is observable that in this coat metal is placed, contrary to the general rule, upon metal, a peculiarity which in this case is said to bear allusion to Ps. lxviii. 15.
Sable, a cross potence argent--APRICE, Wales.
Argent, a cross potent between four plain crosslets or--Arms of JERUSALEM.
A singular variety of the cross potent is called sometimes the Cross of S.Chad, because it occurs in the insignia of the episcopal see of LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY, of which S.Chad was the first Bishop.
Per pale gules and argent, a cross potent quadrat in the centre(or nowy quadrat) per pale of the last and or, between four crosses pattée, those on the dexter side silver, those on the sinister side gold. (See of LICHFIELD and COVENTRY.)
The above arms are, however, sometimes blazoned as--
Per pale gules and argent, a cross potent quadrat between four crosses formy all counterchanged.
Some other curious varieties of the cross potent occur. When engrailed the term applies only to the inner edges, the outer edges remaining plain. When crossed, it is meant that each arm is crossed by another piece half-way between the potent and the centre, and seems to the equivalent of what is called by some writers a cross gemelle, though, as is so frequent, no examples are adduced of the use of the term. In one case the term batune is said by Papworth to be applied to a cross potent; but we have little doubt the word is botoné, i.e. §14, where from another Harleian MS. gives BRERLEGH as bearing such a cross.
Azure, a cross fitchée or--Coat ascribed, in the sixteenth century, to King ETHELDRED.
The most remarkable, however, is what Palliot and others call a Cross potence repotencée, drawn with the potents starting off at different angles, and said to be borne by the family of SQUARCIAFICHI. The potent rebated of Edmondson appears to be the Fylfot(q.v.).
Azure, a cross potent engrailed or--BRENCHESLEY.
Argent, a cross potent crossed sable--CROWCHER.
Gules, a cross potent crossed or--CHEDERTON.
Quarterly, first and fourth, gules, a crosslet potence or; second and third argent, a chevron between three crampirons gules--CHADDERTON, Bp. of Chester, 1579; Bp. of Lincoln, 1595-1608.
Argent, a cross batune(i.e. potent) gules--PRERLEY, Harl. MS. 1407.
§32. Cross recercelée: of all the crosses perhaps this has been the most disputed by heraldic writers. We find the term sarcelly more frequently used, but there are so many varieties of spelling adopted by different authors of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that it is a question whether there is one word or two; attempts, however, appear to have been made to distinguish different meanings attached to different modes of spelling. They are as follows, so far as printed works go(manuscript readings would add to the number):--cercelée, recercellé, recersile, resarcelée, resarcelled, sarcelée, sarcelly. One writer speaks of cerclée being spelt cercelée and recercelée, and so confused with the sarcelly.
The term as applied to the Cross occurs twice in one of the two rolls which are apparently of HENRY III.rd's reign. Also in a roll temp. EDWARD II. two examples occur with the term voided added and one without, though in the latter voided is, no doubt, implied; hence, as the general outline was similar to the cross moline, it may be considered as a cross moline voided, or disjoined, and drawn as in arms of KNOWLES opposite. See §6.
The appearance is just as if in order to strengthen his shield the smith had taken four pieces of iron and bent them round, as was done in the case of hinges and other ornamental iron-work found remaining on church doors, &c., of the 13th and 14th centuries, primarily to add strength to the woodwork, but at the same time ornamentation.
Modern heralds seem to use the term alike for the cross moline and for the cross moline voided, and employ usually in blazon the spelling sarcelly. But beyond this, in various books on heraldry, both English and foreign, an attempt is made to distinguish between recercelé, i.e. cerclé or circled, and sarcelly, defined by Berry as 'a cross voided, or as it were, sawed apart.' See more under Recercelé.
Hugh de BAUCOY, d'or a une croyz de goules recersele; a une labeu de sable--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
§33. Cross recoursy(fr. raccourcie): a very doubtful term, Modern French heraldic works distinctly consider it to be the same as couped, but Berry, who appears to have based his definition on Edmondson and other English heraldic works, implies that it means voided.
Edwarde de PAVELEY, dazure a un croys dor recersele--Ibid.
Sire William de BASINGES, de azure, a une crois recercele e voide de or, e un baston de goules--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire ... de BASINGE, de azure, a un crois recercele et voide d'or--Ibid.
Sire Peres de TADINGTONE, de sable a un crois de or recersele--Ibid.
Monsire de WONNEDALE, port d'argent une crois recersele de gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire de BEKE, port le revers--Ibid.
Monsire de BRENNE, port d'asure a un crois d'or recersele; une baston de gules--Ibid.
Monsire Oliver de INGHAM, port parte d'or et vert, a une crois recercele gules--Ibid.
Quarterly, gules and sable, a cross sarcelle quarterly or and ermines, on a chief of the third a rose en soleil between two pelicans of the first--Edmund BONNER, Bp. of Hereford, 1539, afterwards of London, 1539-49, and 1553-59.
Ermine, a cross sarcelly sable--GODARD, Chester.
Azure, crusilly a cross sarcelly disjoined or--KNOWLES, Earl of Banbury, ob. 1632.
Argent, crusily gules a cross sarcelly sable--RALEIGH.
Argent, a cross sarcelly engrailed sable--COTTER.
Per fesse argent and gules, a cross sarcelly counterchanged--COLUMBERS.
Quarterly, argent and azure, a cross sarcelly counterchanged--JAMES, Surrey.
Azure, a cross sarcelly pierced argent--MELTON, Aston, York.
Gules, a cross sarcelly ermine--BECK, Yorkshire.
Argent, a cross sarcelly disjoined or--BASINGES.
Argent, a cross patty fitchy disjoined or--BROKENCROSS.
Argent, a cross crosslet recoursy argent--BASING.
§34. Cross tau, or of S.Anthony, who is represented with such a cross embroidered upon the left side of his garment. It is called cross commisse by some heraldic writers, with a somewhat fanciful allusion to Ezekiel, chap. ix. ver. 4, or as representing the token of absolution with which malefactors are said to have been stamped on the hand. It should be drawn like a Greek Tau.
Or, a cross tau azure--Friary of S.ANTHONY, London.
§35. Cross urdée(written sometimes verdy, fr. aiguisée), or cross champaine, should be represented as annexed. Sometimes it is drawn with the edges curved inwards, towards the centre, but it is then a cross cleché. It is also found blazoned simply as a cross pointed, and humetty pointed has also been used by some writers for the same.
Gules, a cross tau surmounted by a crescent or--WANLEY.
Per chevron or and vert, in base on a hind trippant, argent, a cross tau, and in chief a cross tau between two crosses patonce fitchy gules--CROSSLEY, Ireland, 1725.
Argent, on a bend sable three taus of the first--BERD.
Ermine, on a chief indented gules, three cross taus or--THURLAND.
Argent, a cross tau gules, in chief, three crowns of thorns proper--TAUKE.
Or, a bend vair between two crosses verdy voided sable--MANGLES, Surrey.
Argent, a cross pointed and voided sable--DUKENFIELD, Bart.
Cross-bow. See Bow.
INDEX TO THE ARTICLE CROSS.
Cr.abased, fr. abaissée § 1|Cr.clechée §16
aiguisée §35| commisse §34
alaisée or alesée § 7| compony, fr. componée § 3
ancettée § 7| conjoined §15
anchory, fr. ancrée §24| coticed § 6
of S.Andrew See Saltire| counter compony § 3
anglée §10| counter-quartered § 5
annuletty §11| coupy, fr. coupée § 7
anillée or nillée §24| cramponnée §13
anserated § 7| crossed, fr. croisée §17
of S.Anthony §34| crosslet §17
archiepiscopal §28| degraded, fr. à degrés §15
avellane §12| demi § 7
barrulets, of three § 8| disjoined §32
barby or barbée §13| ecartelée § 5
batune §31| echiquetée § 3
batons, of six § 8| ecotée § 2
biparted § 8| edged § 6
bordée § 6| emanchée § 2
bottonnée §14| endorses of § 8
bourdonnée §29| embattled § 2
bordured § 6| engrailed, fr. engrêlée §§2, 31
bretessée § 2| enhendée §28
cabled, fr. cablée § 8| equipollée § 5
Calvary, fr. de Calvaire §15| enserrée de degrés §15
cannelée § 2| entrailed §18
cercelée §32| ermines, of four § 8
of S.Chad §31| erminée § 8
champaine §35| escallops, of four § 8
charged §§1, 4, 6| fausse § 6
chequy, fr. echiquetée § 3| fimbriated § 6
chequy of nine panes § 5| fitchy, fr. fichée §19
Cr.fixed § 7|Cr.patty, fr. pattée §26
fleury §§8, 20| passant § 7
fleur-de-lisée §20| Passion §15
fleuronnée §20| paternoster § 8
florencée §20| patonce §27
flory §§8, 20| patriarchal, fr. patriarcale §28
formy §26| of S.Patrick See Saltire
fourchée §24| peronnée §15
fourchetée §24| pierced § 9
fretty, fr. frettée § 3| plain § 1
fusilly, fr. fuselée § 8| pheons, of four § 8
Greek § 1| pointed §35
of S.George § 1| points, of sixteen §23
gemelle §31| pomelly §29
grady or graded §15| pometty, fr. pomettée §§16, 29
grieced §15| pomy §29
gringolée §21| portate §30
guivrée §§8, 21| potent, fr. potencée §31
hameçon §22| quarterly, fr. écartelée § 5
haute, fr. §15| quarter-pierced §§5, 9
a Holy §15| quarterly-pierced § 9
humetty § 7| quarter-voided § 5
humetty pointed §35| raguly § 2
indented § 2| rayonnante §10
invected §31| recercelée §§6, 24, 32
of Jerusalem §31| recoursy §33
of S.Julian See Saltire| recroisettée §17
Latin §§1, 15| remplie § 6
long §15| re-potencée §31
Lorraine §28| sarcelly §32
lozengy, fr. losangée § 8| slipped § 2
masculy § 8| square pierced § 5
maconnée § 3| tau §34
of Malta §23| throughout § 7
miller §24| of Toulouse §16
milrind §24| tournée §13
moline §24| triparted § 8
moussue §29| treflée §14
neslée, fr. §24| treillissée § 3
notched §26| tronçonnée § 7
nowy §25| urdy, fr. urdée §35
nyslée §24| vairée § 3
ondée § 2| verdy §35
pall See Pall| voided, fr. vidée §§6, 16
parted, fr. partie § 8| vivrée § 8
party per fesse, pale, &c. § 5| wavy, fr. ondée § 2
Cross-staff: this is a general term for any instrument for taking levels or altitudes. The Mariner's Cross-staff, now of course obsolete, was commonly called the fore-staff. One form of the cross-staff will be found under Plumber's implements.
Azure, on a chevron between three mariner's cross-staves or five mullets of the first--EVINGTON, co. Lincoln.
Crossed, (fr. croisé,) used rarely of a charge having a cross on it; (2) more often having a bar across, e.g. a crossed-crosslet.
Crouch, or Crowche: a crutch. See Potent.
Crow. See Raven.
Crown, (fr. couronne): this word occurring in blazon without any addition usually implies a ducal coronet without the cap. When blazoned proper it signifies that it is of gold.
Or, a crown sable garnished gold--BELLINGHAM.
Crown royal of England, sometimes also called an Imperial crown. The forms of the crowns worn by the successive kings of England very considerably, and will be found in architectural illustrations of the sculptured heads of kings from monuments and other stone carvings in churches[see examples in Rickman's Gothic Architecture, sixth and seventh Editions]; but in this place they must be considered only in their connection with armorial bearings. The earliest instance of the royal arms being ensigned with a crown is in the case of those of Henry VI. At this time the crown had attained its present form, with the exception of the number of arches. The arms of Edward IV. are surmounted by the rim of the crown only, adorned with crosses pattée and fleur-de-lis. The crown of Richard III. shews five semi-arches, that of Henry VII. shews but four, and his successor's only three, although seldom met with until about the time of James II., before which five semi-arches were generally shewn. Several instances of Royal crowns are found on coats of arms.
Sable, three crowns or--LEE, co. York.
Gules, a royal crown or--M'ALPIN, Scotland.
The crown of Spain, as used by King Philip II., consort of Queen Mary of England, was a circle of gold jewelled, supporting eight strawberry-leaves. Four ogee arches, pearled, were sometimes added, meeting under a mound and cross pattée. No cap.
Gules, a regal crown, within a double tressure-flory counter-flory or--ERSKINE, co. Fife.
Azure, a royal crown of gold; in chief a quarter gironny of eight or and sable; on the sinister side three dexter hands couped fesswise, each holding a bunch of arrows proper--MACKONOCHIE.
Argent, an arrow fesswise piercing a heart surmounted with a royal crown proper, on a chief azure three mullets of the first--DOUGLAS, Kent.
Azure, a stag trippant argent, unguled, attired, and bearing between his horns an imperial crown or--OWAIN GETHIN.
Ermine, on a chief gules three imperial crowns proper--Company of FURRIERS, Edinburgh.
The crown of Scotland, as borne by James VI. before his succession to the throne of England, exactly resembled the imperial crown of Great Britain. It is represented in the Crest of Scotland(q.v.). This differs essentially from the actual crown of Scotland, discovered in Edinburgh Castle in 1817.
The crown of Hanover. The electorate of Hanover having been constituted a kingdom, the bonnet which had hitherto been placed over the insignia of that state was exchanged for a crown, in pursuance of a royal proclamation dated June 8, 1816.
The crown of Charlemagne. This crown having been borne by five kings of England as Arch-treasurers of the Holy Roman Empire, claims a place in the armory of Great Britain. Its form is generally depicted as in the margin.
The crown of a king of arms in of silver gilt, and consists of a circle inscribed with the words 'miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam' (i.e. Ps. li. 1), supporting sixteen oak-leaves, each alternate leaf being somewhat higher than the rest. Nine only of these leaves are shewn in drawing, two of them being in profile. The cap is of crimson satin, turned up with ermine, and surmounted by a tassel of gold. The crowns of kings of arms formerly resembled that of the sovereign, or sometimes ducal coronets.
The other crowns used in British heraldry follow in alphabetical order.
Antique crown, Eastern crown, as it is sometimes called, is supposed to represent the crown anciently worn by Oriental princes, as appears by their coins. The unicorn supporting the royal arms is gorged with this kind of crown, but it probably is here in fact only the rim of the crown royal.
Argent, a bar wavy and a demi-otter issuant sable, armed, langued, and crowned with an antique crown, gules--MELDRUM.
Celestial crown: a crown resembling the Eastern, with the addition of a radiant star in the form of a mullet upon each point. This is frequently used as an ornament upon the achievements of deceased ladies.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned with an antique crown or--ROCHE, Ireland, also SLOAN.
Ermine, on a chief engrailed sable three antique crowns or--EARLE, Bp. of Worcester, 1662; afterwards of Salisbury, 1663-65.
Argent, a lion rampant, tail nowed gules, gorged with an Eastern coronet or, in chief three falcons proper--BEWES, Cornwall.
Gules, a demi-Virgin couped below the shoulders, issuing from clouds all proper vested or, crowned with an eastern crown of the last, her hair dishevelled and wreathed round the temples with roses of the second, all within an orle of clouds proper--MERCERS' Company[inc. 1394, arms confirmed 1634].
Argent, three pastoral staves, two and one, each ensigned on the top with a crown celestial--WORTHINGTON.
Civic crown: a wreath of oak acorned, has been already noted under Chaplet.
The Prince's crown should more properly be blazoned Prince's coronet(q.v.); still the term is found.
Ermine, on a chief gules three prince's crowns composed of crosses pattee and fleur-de-lis or, with caps of the first tasselled of the third--SKINNERS' Company[inc. 1327, arms granted 1551].
Ducal crown: see post, under Coronet, but the term is sometimes used.
Imperial crown: is properly the crown peculiar to the German emperor, which forms part of the crest of STOKES of Cambridgeshire, though, as already said, in English arms the crown royal of these realms is often so called.
Or, an imperial crown gules--ROBINSON, Hertford.
Mural crown: formed of battlements masoned. Fancifully said to have been given by the Romans to the soldier who first ascended the walls of a besieged fortress.
Gules, an imperial crown supported by a sword in pale proper hilted and pommelled within a double tressure-flory counter-flory--SETON, Earl of Winton, 1306-29.
Or, a mural crown gules, between two barrulets azure and three wolf's heads erased sable--SEALE.
Crown palisado is a name given to a form of crown with, at it were, palisades upon it, and hence fancifully said to have been given by the Roman generals to him who first entered the enemies' camp by breaking through their outworks. It is called vallar, or vallary, from the Latin vallus, which practically means the palisade surmounting the vallum. It is sometimes(though less correctly) represented as the second figure, namely, with a champaine border.
Erminois, on a pile embattled azure a mural crown between two caltraps in pale or--WALKER, Herts.
Argent, three griffins passant in pale azure murally gorged of the first, within a bordure sable bezanty--WILLS.
Gules, three mural coronets argent masoned sable--JOURDAN.
Or, a crown vallery gules between three stags trippant proper--ROGERS, Denbigh.
Naval crown: a circle, having upon its upper edge four masts of galleys, each with a topsail, and as many sterns placed alternately. Imaginative heralds say it was invented by the Emperor Claudius as a reward for sea service.
Gules, six ancient naval crowns or--CLYTON, Scotland.
Crown of Rue, (fr. Crancelin, from germ. Kranslein): the ancient arms of the Dukedom of Saxony were barry of eight, or and sable. The story goes that the bend vert was added by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, when he confirmed the dukedom on Bernard of Anhalt(c. 1156), who desiring some mark to distinguish him from the dukes of the former house, the emperor took a chaplet of rue which he had upon his head, and threw it across the shield. These were the paternal arms of the late Prince ALBERT. The bearing is sometimes called a ducal coronet in bend, and sometimes a bend archy coronetty.
Azure, a lion rampant argent charged on the shoulder with an eagle displayed sable; on a chief wavy ermine, an anchor erect of the third, the shank surrounded with a naval crown, rim azure, sterns and sails proper--LOUIS, Devon.
Azure, a naval crown within an orle of twelve anchors or--LENDON[granted 1658].
Papal or Triple crown: see Tiara. Crown of Thorns: see Thorns, Crown of. The Crown Obsidional, and Crown Triumphal(composed of grass and of laurel or bay-leaves) have been already noticed under Chaplet.
Under the article Crown it is convenient to include Coronet, as the two terms are in some cases interchangeable.
From the reign of Edward III. coronets of various forms were worn(as it seems indiscriminately) by princes, dukes, earls, and even knights, but apparently rather by way of ornament than distinction, or if for distinction, only(like the collar of SS) as a mark of gentility. The helmet of Edward the Black Prince, upon his effigy at Canterbury, is surrounded with a coronet totally different from that subsequently assigned to his rank.
The coronets at present in use in England are the following, but connected more frequently with the Crest.
1. The coronet of the PRINCE OF WALES only differs from the royal crown in the omission of one of the arches. Edward, the son of Richard III., is recorded to have worn a demy crown on the day of his father's coronation at York(June 26, 1483); and was that day created Prince of Wales. It was formerly only the rim of the crown; but the arch was added in pursuance of a warrant of King Charles II., February 9, 1661.
2. That of the PRINCESS ROYAL has a coronet composed of four fleur-de-lis, two crosses, and two strawberry leaves; one of the crosses appearing in the centre. Within the circle is a cap of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and closed at the top with a golden tassel.
3. That of other PRINCES and PRINCESSES, sons and daughters of a sovereign, resembles the coronet of the Prince of Wales, but without the arch. The cap as before.
4. That of PRINCES and PRINCESSES, sons and daughters of the above, is similar, except that strawberry-leaves are substituted for the fleur-de-lis. The Princes' crowns, however, are usually drawn in heraldry after a somewhat conventional manner.
Azure, a prince's coronet .... between two ostrich feathers in chief, a garb in base, all within a bordure sable bezanté--Town of EVESHAM.
5. That of DUKES is a circle of gold richly chased, and having upon its upper edge eight strawberry-leaves; only five are shewn in the drawing, two of them being in profile. The cap is of crimson velvet lined with white taffeta and turned up with ermine. At the top is a gold tassel. A coronet without the cap, and shewing but three leaves, is called a Ducal coronet, and frequently a Ducal crown.
Ermine, on a chief gules three prince's crowns composed of crosses pattée and fleur-de-lys or, with caps of the first, tasselled of the third--SKINNERS' Company[incorporated 1327, confirmed 1395].
Azure, three ducal crowns two and one or, each pierced with two arrows in saltire of the last--Abbey of BURY S.EDMUNDS.
6. That of the MARQUIS is a rim of gold richly chased, supporting four strawberry-leaves and as many large pearls(or rather balls of silver) upon short points. The cap as before, though in heraldic drawings it is usually omitted.
Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale or; in chief two ducal coronets of the last--Priory of S.BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, London.
Gules, three ducal crowns or--See of ELY.
7. That of the EARL. A rim of gold richly chased, on the upper edge of which are eight strawberry-leaves, and the same number of pearls set upon high points, so that it is readily distinguished from the coronet of the marquis. The cap, if shewn, the same as the first.
Sable, a roundle argent between three earl's coronets or--CORONA.
8. A VISCOUNT'S Coronet is a chased circle of gold supporting twelve, fourteen, or, as some say, sixteen pearls, but usually only seven visible. The cap resembles those of the other coronets. This coronet was appointed by King James I.
9. A BARON'S Coronet is a plain circle of gold having six large pearls upon it, four which are seen in a drawing. The cap as before. This coronet was assigned to barons on their petition to King Charles II., soon after his restoration. Before that period they wore caps of crimson velvet turned up with ermine, and at a still earlier period, scarlet caps turned up with white fur.
Crowned, (fr. couronné) Many cases of beasts, especially the lion, and sometimes birds, especially the eagle, being crowned. A ducal coronet is implied unless some other be expressly mentioned, but birds and beasts are sometimes described as crowned with a diadem(fr. diademmé), i.e. a plain fillet of metal. Also lions, dogs, and other animals are frequently gorged with a crown.
Argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned or--HILTON, Lanc.
Crucifix, Such a charge occurs in one or two arms.
Or, a lion rampant azure, crowned gules--CLYVEDON, Essex.
Argent, a lion rampant azure, crowned with a coronet of four balls azure or--Ralph de MAIDSTONE, Bp. of Hereford, 1234, 1239[MS. Add. B. Mus. 12443].
Per pale argent and gules, three bars counterchanged, on a canton of the second a rose crowned or--BARRETT, co. Cork.
Azure, a saint standing on three degrees of steps vested in a loose robe, with rays of glory round his head, holding a crucifix before him in pale, his hands extended to the extremities of the cross, and the foot on the cross resting on the upper step, all or--Insignia of the See of WATERFORD.
Crusily, Crucilly, or Crusuly(old fr. Crusule), is used now to signify semé of cross crosslet, but whether or not in the older arms simply small crosses were used cannot be determined. Any ordinary of charge over a field crusily debruises portions of the crosses, which should be arranged diagonally as in the example given in the margin.
Argent, on a cross Calvary with a griece of three steps gules, the Saviour or--BUTLER, Baron Caher, 1543.
Gules, crusily or--ROHAN, Lord of Warwick.
At the same time the term is used when the crosses are of a different kind, and then they have to be named.
Sire William de KYME, de goules crusule de or a un cheveron de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Sire Henri de LEKEBOURNE, de argent, crusule de sable a un cheveron de sable--Ibid.
Azure, crusily three bars or--BLACKENHAM, Suffolk.
Monsire de PARIS, sable, cheveron, entrecrusule argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Sire ... de DEN, de argent ij barres de sable; en les barres les crusules pattée de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Azure, crusily bottony, a lion rampant argent--BRAYTOFT, co. Lincoln.
Crusule, old fr. crosslet, §17.
Gules, crusily fitchy or, a griffin segreant of the last--PAU.
Crutch, or Crutch-staff. See Pilgrim's-staff and Potent.
Crystals. See Diamond.
Cubes, or Blocks: a somewhat indefinite term for squares appearing on a shield. So uncertain is the intention of the draughtsman, that sometimes the very same charges are blazoned as dice, delves, which are elsewhere blazoned as blocks, or gads.
Or, on a chevron gules between three cubes pean as many horse-shoes argent--WILLIAMS, co. Pembroke.
Cubit arm. See Arm.
Azure, on a chevron engrailed three blocks or, each charged with a cross of the second--HOBSON, Harl. MS. A.D. 1404.
Azure, on three blocks(or billets, or delves, or dice), argent, an annulet to each sable--PAYNTER, Cornwall.
Argent, on three blocks(or billets, or delves, or dice) sable, a mullet to each of the first--AMBROSE, Lancaster.
Cuffed: used of an arm vested with a sleeve, of which the cuff is of another tincture.
Cuirass, or Breastplate: a charge but rarely borne in coats of arms.
Vert, a bar counter compony argent and azure between three cuirasses of the second; on a chief silver as many buckles of the third--BALDBERNEY, Scotland.
Culter, i.q. Coulter under Plough.
Argent, a chevron ermine between three breastplates argent--SWALLMAN, Kent.
Culverin. See Gun.
Cummin: used as a charge only for the sake of the name.
Azure, a chevron between three sheaves of cummin or--COMYN, Durham.
Cup, (old fr. Coupe): the cup was rather a favourite device from the fourteenth century onwards, as shewn by several references to it in the Rolls of Edward II. and Edward III. The plain chalice-like cup without a cover was perhaps first emblazoned, such as is found figured on incised slabs, &c.; but it is sometimes represented in modern heraldry ornamented, as shewn in the drawing of the arms of CANDISH.
Gules, three comyn-sheaves or, two and one--REDCOMYN.
Sire William le BOTILER de Wemme, de azure a une bende e vj coupes de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
But many families, especially those of BUTLER and CLEAVER, bear covered cups(fr. coupes couvertes), which are frequently represented on their tombs, and which are similar in shape to that in the margin, which is taken from the tomb of Johan le BOTILER, c. 1290, in the church of S.Bride, Glamorganshire.
Sir Johan DARGENTEM, de goules a iij coupes de argent--Ibid.
Monsire de ARGENTYNE, gules trois coupes d'argent--Roll, temp. ED. III.
Monsire Edmond le BOTELER, port d'asure atrois coupes d'or--Ibid.
Sable, a chevron or between three cups uncovered--CANDISH, Suffolk.
Argent, a standing cup covered sable--John CLUER, London, 1716.
Besides these ordinary forms are some with descriptive details, as also others under the different names of drinking-pots, college-pots, &c.
Gules, a cross between four covered cups argent--Richard DE LA WYCH, Bp. of Chichester, 1245-53.
Argent, between two bendlets engrailed sable, three covered cups of the second--Joseph BUTLER, Bp. of Bristol, 1738; afterwards of Durham, 1750-52.
Gules, a bend between three covered cups or--John BUTLER, Bp. of Oxford, 1788-1802.
Quarterly, first and fourth, azure, a chevron between three covered cups or, second and third ermine, on a chief indented sable, three escallops argent--BUTLER, Bp. of Lichfield, 1836-1839.
Sable, three cups covered per fesse or and argent--SYMONDS.
Gules, three cups covered argent garnished or--M. Gilis D'ARGENTINE.
Quarterly, gules and azure; in the first and fourth a leopard's head or; in the second and third a covered cup; and in chief two round buckles, the tongued fessways, points to the dexter, all of the third--GOLDSMITHS' Company[incorporated 1327].
Gules, three cups covered, with one handle to each, argent--Reginald AT CONDUIT, Lord Mayor of London, 1334-5.
The small cup sometimes found, and as borne in the arms of ATHULL, is probably intended for an acorn-cup.
Per pale azure and gules, a cup covered with handles argent between three catherine wheels or--STREET, Middlesex.
Argent, three cups sable coronetted or--BRANDISHFIELD.
Argent, three drinking-pots sable--GERIARE, co. Lincoln.
Gules, three college-pots argent--ARGENTON, Devon.
Sable, three covers for cups argent--KOVERDAW.
Argent, three cups azure--ATHULL.
Cuppa, or Cuppy. See Potent counter potent.
Cuppules(i.e. couples), e.g. Bars gemelles.
Curlew. See Snipe.
Currier's Shave, i.e. the Curriers', or Paring Knife, borne by the Curriers' Company, is represented as in the margin. In some drawings, however, both the handles resemble that on the dexter side of the figure,
Azure, a cross engrailed or between four pairs of currier's shaves in saltire argent, handles of the second--CURRIERS' Company[incorporated 1605].
Curry-comb: this very rarely occurs in coats of arms, and there in so definite form of representation.
Argent, a chevron gules between three curry-combs proper--HARMAN.
Curved-recurved: bent in the form of the letter S, synonymous with flexed reflexed, and bowed embowed.
Sable, three curry-combs argent, garnished or--HARMOND, co. Oxford.
Cushion: this charge is found in ancient arms under the name oreiller(old fr. horeler), or pillow, the latter term also sometimes occurring in modern blazon. It has, as a rule, four tassels, one at each of the corners, and it is not necessary to mention them unless of a different tincture. Cushions are sometimes fringed. They may also be charged with some device.
Maheu de REDMAIN, de goules a trois horielers d'or--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
When the tassels appear as a separate charge they are to be represented as in the margin.
Sire Mahteu de REDEMAN, de goulys a iij horilers de ermine--Roll, temp. ED. II.
Monsire John FLEMINGE, barre d'argent et d'asur a trois oreillers de gules en la sovereign barre--Roll, temp. Ed. III.
Monsire John de NORTON, port d'argent une cheveron entre trois oreilers de sable--Ibid.
Gules, on a fesse or, between three cushions ermine, tasselled of the second, three fleur-de-lys of the field--HUTTON, Bp. of Bangor, 1743; Abp. of York, 1747; Abp. of Cant. 1757-58.
Quarterly, first and fourth gules, three cushions tasselled ermine, second and third gules, a lion rampant argent--Richard REDMAN, Bp. of S.Asaph, 1491; afterwards Bp. of Exeter, 1496-1500.
Argent, three cushions lozengewise gules, tasselled or--BECARD.
Gules, three square cushions argent--GREYSTOCK.
Gules, a cross argent between four cushions lozengeways ermine, tasselled or--William REDMAN, Bp. of Norwich, 1595-1602.
Sable, on a cushion a dog couchant or--ALABAND.
Or, on each of three cushions within a bordure gules, a crescent of the first--MELVILLE, Scotland.
Vert, three pillows ermine--HOPKINSON, co. York.
Gules, three tassels or--WOOLER.
Cutlas. See Sabre.
Cutting-knife. See(1) Basket-makers; (2) Pattern-makers; (3) Plumbers.
Cyclamor, fr.: a single large ring, not used in English arms.
Cygnet. See Swan.
Cypress. See Pine.