Faces: in French arms the human face is sometimes represented on charges, such as roundles, &c., and in English arms the sun is generally represented as having such a face. Leopards' and bucks' faces also occur, signifying that the head is caboshed, i.e. shewing only the front portion, and badly expressed. Bacchus' faces is a term also found, but in this case it would have been more correct if they had been blazoned heads.
    Argent, a fesse humetty gules: in chief three leopard's faces of the second--BRABANT.
    Argent, a fesse dancetty gules; in chief three leopard's faces sable--Sir John POUNTNEY[Lord Mayor of London, 1330, 31, and 33-36].
    Argent, on a chevron engrailed sable, between three estoiles gules streaming on the dexter side downwards in bend or, three buck's faces of the first--AYLIFF, co. Wilts.
    Argent, three Bacchus' faces, couped at the shoulders clothes gules--BROMALL.
Faggot: This was borne by the now extinct Company of WOODMONGERS, of London, as shewn in the margin, and very similar to the bundle of laths, q.v., so much so that in a Cottonian MS. the arms are blazoned as charges with a bundle of laths vert. In another coat of arms the faggots are sometimes blazoned as the military fascines.
    Gules, a sword erect argent, hilt and pommel or, enfiled with a ducal coronet of the last between two flaunches of the second, each charged with a faggot proper; [elsewhere blazoned, argent, a chevron sable between faggots of the second]--WOODMONGERS' Company, London, 1716.
    Argent, on a chevron between three bundles of faggots(or fascines) sable as many bezants--STALWORTH.
Failli, (fr.): of a chevron, when broken into one or more pierces.
Falchion. See Sabre.
A hawk trussing.
A hawk trussing.
Falcon, (fr. faucon), is found as an heraldic bearing as early as Edward the Second's reign, if not earlier, and with it it will be convenient to associate other birds of prey, such as the hawk and sparrow-hawk(fr. epervier), the goshawk(which has not been observed in French arms), the kite(fr. milan), of which the heads occur in one English coat of arms, and the merlion, of which the wings are mentioned(the emerillion being still a French term used for a species of falcon). The French names occur of gerfaut in the arms of LA VALETTE. Guyenne(old fr. girfauk), and the fauconnet in the arms of MOUCHET Franche Comté. A crowned falcon with a sceptre was the badge of ANNE BOLEYN, and was also afterwards adopted by her daughter, Queen ELIZABETH.
    There are no conventional ways of representing the difference of the species of birds of prey in heraldic design, and they are frequently blazoned with the same descriptive terms as the applied to the eagle. They may be close, or preying(fr. empiétant), and this is also described as lolling, or trussing; they may be surgerant, or rising, overt, hovering, volant, &c.; also the wings are often described. When the beak and talons are of a different tincture, they are said to be armed of that tincture.
    Sire Thomas de HANVILE, de azure a iij girfauks de or e une daunce[i.e. fesse dancetty] de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sir Johan le FAUCONER, de argent a iij faucouns de goules--Ibid.
    Argent, three sparrow-hawks close gules--HAYDOE, Lancaster.
    Azure, a goshawk argent--MICHELGROVE.
    Sable, three marlion's sinister wings displayed argent--ATCOMB, Devon.
    Ermine, a milrind sable; on a chief azure, two marlion's wings or--MILLS, Kent.
    Sable, a marlion's wing in fesse argent, between four crosses formy or, two and two--DYNE, Norfolk.
    Azure, on a chevron or between three falcons close argent, three roses gules--Nicolas CLOSE, Bp. of Carlisle, 1450; of Lichfield, 1452.
    Gules, a chevron between three falcons close argent--RIDLEY, Bp. of Rochester, 1547; of London, 1550-53.
    Sable, a falcon rising overt or--Sir Nicolas PECHE.
    Gules, a falcon rising, wings expanded argent--HOWELL, Bp. of Bristol, 1644-46.
    Sable, a falcon hovering with bells proper over a castle with four towers argent--LANYON, Cornwall.
    Or, a falcon surgerant azure beaked or--CARWED, Llwydiarth.
    Gules, a hawk reguardant, trussing a bird all argent--GOODWIN.
    Gules, a hare argent seized by a goshawk or--DENSKYN.
    Sable, a falcon or preying on a duck argent; on a chief of the second a cross botonny gules--MADAN, or MADDEN, Wilts.
    Azure, a hawk volant argent seizing a heron also volant or--FOURNIER.
    But more especially a falcon, as also a hawk, is represented with the appurtenances which belong to the art of falconry, that is, it is blazoned frequently as belled(fr. grilleté) and jessed of such a tincture.
Hawk's Bell.
Hawk's Bell.
    The bells(fr. grillets) are little hollow circular bells, of metal, having a slit on one side, and some hard substance within, which produces a jingling sound when they are shaken; this is attached to the hawk's legs by jesses(fr. jets), or thongs of leather. To the jesses, it is said, are attached the varvels, sometimes written vervels, or rings.
    Sable, three hawk's bells or--BELLSCHAMBER.
    The leash is the line by which a hawks is held(an example us noted under heron).
    The hawk's lure is a decoy used in falconry, consisting of two wings joined with a line, to the end of which is attached the ring. The line is sometimes nowed.
    Gules, a hawk's lure argent--WARRE.
    The perch(fr. perche), to which a hawk is sometimes borne chained, or fastened by the leash(fr. lié), generally consists of two cylindrical pierces of wood joined in the form of the letter T.
    The bird also may be represented hooded(fr. chaperonné); whilst the hood itself also appears as a separate charge. The hawker's glove is also found mentioned.
    Sable, a goshawk argent, armed, jessed and belled or--BOLTON.
    Sable, two bendlets between three hawk's bells argent--BRADSHAW.
    Gules, a lion passant ermine, between three hawk's lures argent--CHESTER, co. Gloucester.
    Gules, on a fesse argent, a hawk's lure of the first; in chief a cinquefoil, and in base a hawk's leg, erased, jessed and belled of the second--SHANKE, co. Fife.
    Argent, on a bend wavy sable an arm issuing from the sinister of the last; perched on a glove of the first a hawk or--HAWKERIDGE, co. Devon.
    D'azur, au faucon d'argent chaperonné de gueules perché sur un tronc d'arbre d'or accompagné en chef de trois tiercefeuilles du même--FAUCON, Auvergne.
    D'azur, à un faucon d'or grilleté d'argent empiétant une perdrix aussi d'or, becqueé et ongleé de gueules--VARLET, Bresse.
    Argent, a fesse between three hawk's hoods gules--A quartering of KIRTON, Northampton.
    D'argent à trois chaperons d'oiseaux liés de gueules--RAPOUEL, Ile de France.
    Sable, a hawks standing on a perch argent, beaked and legged or--HAWKER, co. Wilts.
    Sable, a goshawk perched on a stock argent, armed, belled and jessed or--WEELE, Devon.
    The heads also of the birds are sometimes borne alone.
    Azure, on a chevron between three kite's heads erased or, three roses gules--John KITE, Bp. of Carlisle, 1521-37.
    Argent, a chevron between three falcon's heads erased gules beaked or--CASSEY.
    Argent, on a fesse gules three falcon's heads of the field--BAKER, Bp. of Bangor, 1723; Norwich, 1727-33.
    [Two hawks proper are the supporters to the arms of ROSE of Kilravock.]
Falot, (fr.). See Lantern.
False heraldry, (fr. faux armoiries): offending against rules.
Fan: besides the fan or shruttle already noted under basket, there is the ordinary fan, which occurs in the insignia ascribed to the FANMAKERS. The device also seems to occur in the arms ascribed in one MS. to the company of HABERDASHERS.
    Or, a fan displayed with a mount of various devices and colours, the sticks gules; on a chief per pale gules and azure, on the dexter side a shaving-iron over a bundle of fan-sticks tied together or; on the sinister side a framed saw in pale of the last--FANMAKERS' Company[inc. 1709].
    Argent, on a chevron between three fans(?) gules as many Catherine wheels or--Company of HABERDASHERS, anciently called HURRERS and MILANERS, Cottonian MS., Tiberius, D. 10.
Fanon, (fr.): this ecclesiastical term, i.e. the ornamentation of the sleeve, or cuff of a priest's vestment, is only found(like the censer) in French heraldry, no English example having been met with.
    D'argent, a trois fanons de gueules, doublés et frangés de sinople--CLINCHAMPS, Normandie.
Farriers' Implements. See Buttrices.
Fasce, (fr.): a fesse.
Fascé, (fr.): is equivalent to the English barry.
Fasce en divise, (fr.): a fesse of half its usual width, i.e. a bar.
Fasces, (fr. faisceaux): the Roman fasces, consisting of a bundle of rods bound round the helve of a hatchet, are found in some arms, but more frequently as a crest.
    Azure, a fasces in pale or, with axe argent: over all on a fesse gules three estoiles of the second--Cardinal MAZARIN, 1601.
    Argent, a Roman fasces and sword saltirewise proper; in chief a pair of blances held by an armed arm azure--HOSEASON, Zetland.
    Per pale vert and azure, a lion rampant argent crowned or; on a canton ermine two swords in saltire surmounted by a fasces impaled within a wreath all or--DOBEDE, co. Cambridge.
    Ecartelé aux 1 and 4 d'argent; aux 2 and 3 d'azur; le 2 à deux faisceaux d'armes antiques, le 3 à un faisceau de même à une bande de gueules brochante sur le tout chargée de trois étoiles d'argent--NADAULT DE BUFFON.
Fascines. See Faggot.
Faucille, (fr.): Sickle.
Faux, false, e.g. faux armoiries=false heraldry; also in old rolls applied to crosses, escutcheons, roundles, &c.=voided.
Fawn. See Deer.
Feathered, (fr. plumeté): having feathers or plumage[of an arrow, fr. empenné].
Feathers. See Plume; see also Ostrich.
Feez, fez, &c., old fr. fesse.
Fencock. See Heron.
Feon. See Pheon.
Fer de cheval=horse-shoe: de fleche=arrow-head: de javelot or de lance, lance-head.
Fer-de-moline, or fer de moulin(fr.), also inkmoline, mill-ink, millrind, millrine, (fr. anille), is according to Gibbon, "that piece of iron that beareth and upholdeth the moving millstone." Perhaps no charge has a greater diversity of forms found in ancient drawings; so much so that it may be reckoned amongst the conventional charges of heraldry. It is, indeed, generally drawn like one or other of the first two, but sometimes it appears like the third. The ordinary position of the fer-de-mouline is erect, but it may be borne fesswise, or bendwise.
    Sire William SAUNSUM, de or a un fer de molin de sable--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sir Robert de WYLEBI, de goules a un fer de molin de argent--Ibid.
    Sire Rauf le MARESCHAL, de or a un fer de molin de goules--Ibid.
    Paly of six argent and azure, a milrind of the second--PRICHET, Bp. of Gloucester, 1672-81.
    Gules, a fer-de-moline argent--FERRE.
    Or, a fer-de-moline azure--MOLYNERS.
    Ermine, a fer-de-moline azure pierced of the field--MOLINS, London.
    Argent, on a milrind sable five estoiles of the field--VICOREY, co. Derby.
    Azure, fifteen fers-de-molines or; on a chief of the second a lion rampant purpure--Insignia of LINCOLN'S INN[according to GUILLIM].
    Gules, a mill ink pierced argent--FERE, co. Stafford.
    Gules, two bars argent; over all an inkmoline argent--PAUNERTON, co. Stafford.
    Gules, a millrind bendways argent between two martlets in pale or--BURNINGHAM, Hants.
Fermaile, (i.e. fer de maille). See Buckle.
Fern, (fr. fougère): fern-leaves are found on one coat of arms, and the Adder's-tongue fern in another, but no third instance has been noticed.
    Argent, three fern-leaves vert--VERNAI, Devon.
    Azure, a fesse between three adder's-tongue leaves or--BROUNESLANE.
Ferris: the old-fashioned means employed in striking a light is found as a charge on one coat of arms.
    Per pale argent and azure, a ferris counterchanged--BOGNER.
Fesse, sometimes spelt fess, (fr. fasce): one of the ordinaries, and though not found so frequently perhaps as the bend, it is used as much as the chevron, and if its kindred charge(for this in not allowed to be a diminutive), the bar is taken into account more so. It is the most natural form to be produced in the construction of a shield, though fanciful heralds find an origin for it in the military girdle. It should occupy, according to heraldic rule, one third of the height of the escutcheon, but this proportion is almost always considerably diminished in practice. Its position is across the centre of the shield, unless it is described as enhanced, or abased.
    Walter de COLEVILLE, dor ung fece de goulz--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le Counte de WARWICK de goules crusule de or, a une fesse de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire Symon de COLVIL, porte d'or a une fes de gules.
    The fesse is subjected to the same series of variations as to its margin as have already been noted under the bend, &c., and this from earliest times; the fesse dancetty was called a dauncet, and when indented q.v. the number of indentations is sometimes given. It is found humetty(q.v.) and even with the ends botonny.
    Piers PERCY, d'or ung fece engrele d'azur--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    John de DEYVILLE, d'or ung fece flourey de l'un en l'autre--Ibid.
    Argent, a fesse botonny gules--ABIBSON.
    There cannot properly be more than one fesse in a single coat of arms; if more they are bars; but still, in rare instances, in old blazoning the term fesse is used where bar would be used now; the term a demi-fesse occurs also when it is joined with a canton. (See under Canton, arms of PYPARD.)
    Sir John de WAKE, port d'or ov ij fesse de gulez ov iij torteus d'or en la chef.--Falkirk Roll, A.D. 1298, HARL. MS. [But in the Roll in the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii. A.D. 1308-14, these arms are blazoned, Sire Johan WAKE, de or, a ij barres de goules, en le chef iij rondels de goules].
    Sir Rauff PIPART, porte d'argent ov ung fees et demy fees et le cantell d'azure; et en le cantell quint foyl d'or--Falkirk Roll, Harl. MS. 6589.
    Again, like the chevron, the fesse may be abased, enhanced, &c.
    Argent, a fesse enhanced and a chevron gules--MACK.
    And it may be debruised or broken, when it would probably be represented as in the margin; though there is much doubt as to the practical application of such terms as debruised, fracted, &c., as has been shewn under the terms bend, chevron, and downset.
    Gules, a fesse removed or debruised in the centre argent--BROKROSE.
    It may be charged with various devices, and very rarely is it depressed by other ordinaries, but such cases do occur.
    Gules, a fesse ermine depressed by a pale of the same within a bordure engrailed azure--SPONNE.
    Or, a fesse chequy azure and argent, over all a bend engrailed gules within a bordure of the third charged with eight mullets of the second--STUART, co. Oxon.
    Party per fesse(fr. coupé) is very rare in comparison with party per pale. While the division into three horizontal portions(fr. tiercé), though comparatively common in French arms, is seldom if ever found in English examples. See Party.
    Fesswise, or fessways, is used to signify that a charge, the normal position of which is upright, is placed lengthways.
    Gules, a sword lying fesswise proper, hilt and pomel or, the hilt towards the sinister between three fleur-de-lis of the last--BROWNE, Scotland.
    Fesse-wards signifies that the charge, or charges, are to be placed with the heads or points towards the centre of the shield, i.e. the fesse-point.
    Sable, a close helmet between three spear-heads, points fesse-wards--DOLBEN, Bp. of Bangor, 1632.
Fettered: used in one case of a lion's forefeet. In the case of a horse the term spancelled is used.
Fetterlock: this, so far as heraldic drawing is concerned, appears to be the same as what is elsewhere blazoned as shacklebolt, shackbolt, or manacle. It is, in fact, a 'handcuff,' or prisoners' bolt, and generally represented as shewn in the margin, though sometimes represented of a square form. In the arms of SHAKERLY, Worcestershire, they are sometimes represented more like oval rings, while in the crest of WYNDHAM the semicircular part is generally represented as a chain, and in the badge of PERCY it is made to resemble the swivel, as in the arms of the IRONMONGERS. A double bolt also occurs in the arms of ANDERTON.
    The device does not seem to occur in the more ancient rolls, but it is found very widely spread among several ancient families.
    Argent, a shack-bolt sable--NUTHALL, Nuthall, Lancashire.
    Gules, five shackles in fesse argent--SHAKERLEY.
    Argent, a heart gules, within a fetterlock sable--LOCKHART, Scotland.
    A lion's head erased or, within a fetterlock of the last--Crest of WYNDHAM, Earl of Egremont.
    Azure, a fetterlock and key argent--MABEN.
    Sable, on a bend between two pair of manacles argent three pheons bendwise in bend gules; a chief or charged with a demi-lion rampant issuant enclosed by a pair of lozenges azure--Thomas JOHNSON, co. York.
    Argent, a fesse between three fetterlocks[? padlocks] gules--GRIERSON, Dumfries.
    Sable, two single shack-bolts and one double one argent--ANDERTON, Chesh. and Lanc. [also blazoned three double shack-bolts].
    Argent, an anchor in pale azure, the ring or; the anchor surmounted with a fetterlock of the second, within the fetterlock on the dexter side of the anchor a sword erect of the last, hilt and pomel or; on the sinister side of the anchor a rose gules--Insignia of the town of BEWDLEY, Worcestershire.
Badge of EDW.IV.
Badge of EDW.IV.
    A falcon displayed within a closed fetterlock was a badge of King Edward IV. for the dukedom of York. The example is taken from the brazen gates of King Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westminster.
Feuillé, (fr.): leaved, i.e. of a tree or plant having leaves.
Fiché, (fr.): fitchy.
Fiddle. See Violin.
Field, (fr. champ): the ground or surface of the shield on which all charges are placed. See Blazon.
Field, a, is represented in one case with a river of water, q.v.
Field-pieces. See Guns.
Fier, (fr.): of a lion enraged.
Fierte, (fr.): applied to the teeth of whales.
Fifes. See Pipes.
Fig-tree, (fr. figue): the tree and the leaves occur, but no instance of the fruit being borne in English arms has been observed.
    Per fesse wavy gules and argent, in chief a lion passant guardant erminois, in base on a mount vert a fig-tree proper--MIRTLE.
    Per chevron argent and gules, three fig-leaves counterchanged--GREVES.
Figured, (fr. figuré): the sun, moon, and some other charges are so termed when drawn with human countenances, as if reflected in them.
Filberts. See Hazel.
File: See Label. A file with three labels is more properly called a label of three points.
Filet, (fr.): a narrow band; but the term is used irregularly. See Chief and Cotice.
Filière, (fr.): a very narrow border not used in English arms.
Fillet. See Chief. It is also used as a band round the head of a person.
Fimbriated, (fr. bordé): said by strict heralds to be applied only to an ordinary or other charge having a narrow edging of some other tincture all round it, so that if ant part touches the outer edging of the shield without the border being continued in that part the term should not be applied, but the term edged instead. This distinction, however, is never adhered to in practice. The crosses, for instance, in what is termed the Union Jack(see flag) are always blazoned as fimbriated, and many other examples might be cited. When applied to the dolphin is probably only extends along the dorsal ridge.
    Argent, on a fesse engrailed sable, fimbriated or, between two greyhounds courant of the second, three fleur-de-lys of the third--BAKER.
    Gules, on a bend sable fimbriated or, two pierced mullets and as many ducks argent membered of the first alternately--Sir Robert RUSSELL.
Finches: beneath this term it has been thought well to comprise a number of birds of the finch tribe, examples of which are found in heraldic blazon. In many cases only single instances have been met with, and some appear to have been adopted only for the sake of the name. They are as follows, and for the sake of reference to foreign arms the scientific names according to Linnæus have been added to each: The Goldfinch(carduelis); the Bulfinch(pyrrhula); the Chaffinch(fringilla cœlebs); the Brambling(fringilla montifringilla); the Canary(fringilla canaria); the Linnet(fringilla cannabina), and the Pinzon. This last is the only one of the series which occurs in any of the old rolls, and it has evidently been chosen for the sake of the name. It is not quite certain what is the bird meant, but it has been supposed to be the chaffinch, i.e. the modern fr. pinson. It has not, however, been found possible to fix upon the equivalents of the above in the French lists of arms.
    Argent, a chevron sable between three goldfinches proper--MOLENICK, Cornwall. [Borne also by GOULDSMITH, Kent, and GOOLD, co. Cork.]
    Or, a fesse between three bulfinches proper--ALPIN.
    Azure, on a bend invected argent between three crescents, each surmounted by a mullet of eight points or as many chaffinches proper--CHAFFERS, Liverpool.
    Argent, three bramblings proper; a chief gules--BRAMBLEY.
    Sable, on a bend or, three canary birds proper--KINNEIR of that Ilk.
    Azure, a chevron argent between three linnets proper--CARDALE, Hagley, 1590.
    Sire ... MOUNPYNZON, de argent a un lion de sable a un pinzon de or en le espandle[i.e. on the shoulder]--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Vert, on a chevron argent, between three plates, each charged with a pyncheon(i.e. goldfinch) proper, as many pansies, stalked proper--MORGAN, Bp. of S.David's, 1554-59(grant A.D. 1553, College of Arms).
Finned, of dolphins or fish, when the fins are of another tincture.
Fir-tree. See Pine.
Fire: flames of fire(fr. flammes) are not at all a rare device in coats of arms, though not observed to occur in arms before the sixteenth century; sometimes by themselves, but more frequently in connection with other charges, e.g. Alter, Beacon, Bush, Fireball, Firebrand, &c., when the term flammant, or flaming, is used. When emblazoned the flames may be represented by gules and or alternating.
    Or, on a fesse dancette, between three flames of fire gules, a lamb couchant, between two estoiles argent--Ascribed to HOOPER, Bp. of Gloucester, 1550-54; also of Worcester, 1552-53.
    Azure, a book open between three flames of fire proper, within a bordure argent, charged with four mullets and so many crosses crosslets as the first--SMITH, Edinburgh.
    Ermine, two flames in saltire gules--LEIGHT, Hants.
    Azure, flames of fire proper--BRANDER, Hants.
    Argent, a chevron voided azure between three(another two) flames of fire proper--WELLS, co. Monmouth.
    Argent, a bend between three crescent flammant proper--PADDON, Hants[granted 1590].
    Argent, three hearts flammant gules--HEART, Scotland.
    Argent, two billets raguled and trunked placed saltirewise, the sinister surmounted of the dexter azure, their tops flaming proper--SHURSTABLE.
    S.Anthony's Fire is named in the following singular coat of arms:--
    Or, on a fesse chequy azure and argent, in chief two stars of the second; quartering argent a galley, oars in action sable with S.Anthony's fire on the topmast, and in the centre of the quarters a crescent for difference--STEWART, Innernytie, Scotland.
Fire-ball, (fr. bombe): a bomb-shell, or grenade, with fire issuing from a hole in the top, or sometimes from two or more holes. For Firebrand, see Torch.
    Azure, a fire-ball or flamed proper--DANCASTER, co. Berks, granted 1556.
    Argent, a fire-ball proper held in the dexter paw of a lion rampant sable--BALL, co. Chester.
    Argent, an eagle displayed or; in chief a navel crown between two bombs of the last fired proper--GRAVES.
    Sable, on a fesse ermine between three mullets of the last a bomb-shell bursting proper--BENSLEY, London.
    Argent, a chevron between three fire-balls sable fired in four places--BALL, Devon[but it is also blazoned elsewhere as between three balls sable with four tassels].
    Argent, on a fesse gules between three grenados sable fired proper a plate--SILVERTOP, Northumberland.
    Ermine, a lion rampant sable between in chief two torteaux, and in base a hand grenade exploding proper--BALL, Norfolk.
    Paly of six or and gules, on a chief engrailed ermine three hand grenades proper--BOYCOTT, Norfolk.
Fire-chest: a figure resembling an iron box used to contain fire to warm a hall is drawn as in the margin in Berry's Heraldry, and attributed as a crest to one of the families of PRYCE. It is said to have been blazoned as a fire-beacon, but probably its use was domestic, not military.
Fired: the term is especially used of a grenade, or fire-ball, when represented bursting, or of a cannon with flames if fire issuing from the mouth. See Gun. It is also sometimes used for flammant or inflamed, e.g. of a beacon.
Firm. See Throughout.
Fish, (fr. poisson): in the earlier arms(as in the case of beasts) very few varieties of fish indeed are found mentioned in heraldic bearings. In the four rolls of arms referred to under the summaries of beasts, birds, &c., viz. of Henry III., of Edward I., II., and III., the only fish represented are the Lucies or Pikes, and the Barbel. But in later arms we find named between thirty and forty varieties of fish, as will be seen by referring to the Synopsis. As in the case of the birds, a large proportion are selected for the sake of the name, as lucie for LUCY, eels for ELLIS, and chub for CHOBBE; hence too, we find many local names of fish introduced , some of which it has been difficult to identify, such as the birt fish(see under turbot), the cob and the sparking(see herring), the spalding, and he tubbe fish. The last, however, borne by the family of TUBBE, are usually blazoned gurnets, q.v.
    It must not, however, be forgotten that the term fish had a much wider meaning than we now give it. In unscientific days not only the Dolphin was considered a fish, but, already said in the notice of this mammal, it was looked upon as the king of fishes. At the same time the Whale was classed as a fish, being an inhabitant of the sea. Also the crustacea, such as crabs and lobsters, and the mollusca, such as the escallop and whelk, were considered as fish, or at least what were called shell-fish.
    When a fish is mentioned without any definite name, it may be drawn perhaps like a trout or herring.
    Per fesse gules and or, in base a wolf passant reguardant vert, holding in his mouth a fish of the third; in chief ... KYERKWALD.
    Azure, three otters passant in pale or, each holding in his mouth a fish argent--PROUDE, Kent.
    Vert, three fishes hauriant or, spotted gules--DOGGE.
    Argent, a bend engrailed between six fishes hauriant argent--COOPER.
    Argent, on two bars wavy azure, three fishes naiant two and one, or in fesse a mount vert, charged with a dove rising, nimbed of the third--HILSEY, Bp. of Rochester, 1535-1538.
    As has been already pointed out under dolphin several Lord Mayors of London bore this supposed fish in their arms, by reason of the flourishing condition of the FISHMONGERS' Companies. The two Companies of SALT and STOCK-FISH MONGERS were united in 1536, when they obtained a charter from Henry VIII. In their old Hall, destroyed by the fire of London, there were arms in the windows of twenty-two Lord Mayors, who had been chosen from the Fishmongers' Company.
    Fish are, as a rule, borne upright, when the old French term hauriant is used, i.e. the heads are supposed to be just above the water, and to be taking in air; but they are also often borne extended, when the old term naiant, or swimming, is applied: and so it is generally stated which of these two should be the position of the fish, though if not, the first must be assumed. If two fish are 'respecting one another,' or endorsed, the upright or hauriant position is implied, or in fesse the naiant position. The fish may also be drawn in saltire, &c. The term embowed appears to be applied only to the Dolphin, and the same of vorant. The term urinant, i.e. diving, is sometimes applied to a fish with the head downwards. Besides the above, the terms allumé(fr.), when the eyes are of some bright tincture, and pamé(fr.), when the mouth is open, and the fish is as it were gasping, are applied by French heralds, but seldom, if ever, by English writers. Dolphins and sometimes other fish may be finned of another tincture than that of the body.
    In French heraldry the following have been observed: truite, hareng, saumon, brochet(pike), carpe, tanche, eperlan(smelt), lamproie, rosse(roach), and rouget(gurnet).
    Per pale azure and purpure, a fish hauriant or--VAUGHAN, Wales, [Granted 1491].
    Gules, a fish naiant argent--HARBRON, co. Chester.
    Gules, three fish conjoined at their tails, in triangle or, heads sable--BERNBACK.
    Argent, three fishes' heads meeting in the fess point argent--TWYNKYN.
    Gules, a fish in bend argent--NEVE.
    Argent, two fishes in saltire azure--GEDNEY, co. Lincoln.
    Vert, a dolphin urinant(on in pale, tail in chief) or--MONYPENNY, Kent.
Fish-hook. See Hook.
Fish-weel. See Weel.
Crosses fitchy.
Crosses fitchy.
Crosslets fitchy.
Crosslets fitchy.
Double and treble fitched.
Double and treble fitched.
Fitché(fr. fiché), fitchy, or fitched, are terms signifying pointed at the lower end, they are chiefly applied to crosses, or crosslets. See Cross, §19, where several examples will be found. Crosses may be simply fitchée, that is, from the middle downwards, or only fitchée at the foot. Crosses fitchée of all four are mentioned by theoretical writers, but it is doubtful if examples occur. The pale has sometimes the tower terminated pointed.
    Argent, a pale pointed in base gules between two cinquefoils of the second--ARCHDALL, Ireland.
    The terms double fitched and treble fitched have been awkwardly applied by heraldic writers to crosses, the ends of which terminate as shewn in the margin. See Cross, §19.
Fixed. See Throughout.
Fizure: a name given in the 'Boke of S.Alban's' to a baton.
Flag, (fr. drapeau): the flag, like the shield, was ornamented with heraldic devices, &c.; and further than this, it appears itself sometimes as a charge: a few notes on the names of flags are therefore appended. As already pointed out, a distinction has been made between a banner which is a square flag, and a flag proper, though it is rather a theoretical than a practical one.
    Azure, a chevron between three flags displayed argent--DRUMSON.
    Argent, a saltire between four laurel leaves vert, on a chief embattled azure two French flags in saltire, surmounted by a sword erect all proper; over the sword Bourbon in gold letters--Sir Henry KEATING, Justice of the Common Pleas, 1859.
    Argent, a lymphad with sail furled on a sea in base proper, at the poop a flag flying towards the bow argent fimbriated vert, charged with a pomme in fesse, on a chief gules three bezants each charged with a mullet--UTTERSON, Sussex.
    The Standard, (fr. estendart), is a long flag, gradually becoming narrower towards the point, which, unless the standard belong to a prince of the blood royal, must be split. The following figure is taken from a pedigree of the WILLOUGHBY family, c. temp. Eliz. It may be described as follows:--
    In the chief, the cross of St.George, the remainder being parted per fesse or and gules[the livery colours], divided into three portions by the white scroll containing the motto. In the first the cognizance--a griffin passant argent, armed blue. In the second crest, an owl crowned proper, upon a wreath of the family colours. The fringe green and white, the colours of the royal house of Tudor.
    Standard of different dimensions are assigned by heraldic writers to each rank, from an emperor's standard of eleven yards long, down to a baronet's of four yards.
    What is now called the Royal Standard, namely a square flag bearing the royal arms, is, properly speaking, a banner, for a standard cannot be square, and ought only to contain crests, badges, mottoes, and ornaments, and not the arms, but custom has sanctioned the name. The royal standards, however, were anciently of the true form, though the devices have varied; that of Edw. III. may be described as follows:--
    In the chief the cross of S.George, the remainder party per fesse azure and gules, and divided into three portions by a white scroll, bearing--DIEU ET MON DROIT.
    In the first, a Lion of England between in chief a coronet of crosses patés and fleur-de-lys between two clouds irradiated proper; in base, a cloud between two coronets. In the second, in chief a coronet; in base, an irradiated cloud. The third, quarterly 1 and 4, an irradiated cloud, 2 and 3 a coronet.
    Standards are sometimes named in coats of arms.
    Gules, on a standard argent, fringed or, in saltire, with a broken spear of the second, a cross of the first--SMYTH, Scotland[granted 1765.]
    Argent, three standards(another vanes) sable in an orle gules--VYRNEY.
    The Union Jack. The national flag of Great Britain and Ireland is also, properly speaking, a banner and not a flag, but as custom has sanctioned the name, it is given here instead of under banner. It was the banner of S.George(argent, a cross gules), to which the banner of S.Andrew(azure, a saltire argent) was united(instead of being quartered according to ancient custom) is pursuance of a royal proclamation dated April 12, 1606. It would then have been blazoned as follows:--
Union Jack, 1707.
Union Jack, 1707.
    Azure, a saltire argent, surmounted by a cross gules, fimbriated(more accurately edged) of the second.
    The white edging was no doubt intended to prevent one colour from being placed upon another, but this precaution was hardly necessary, for the mere contact of the red cross and blue field would have been authorized by numerous precedents. This combination was constituted the national flag of Great Britain by a royal proclamation issued July 28, 1707.
Union Jack, 1801.
Union Jack, 1801.
    No further change was made until the union with Ireland, Jan. 1, 1801, previous to which instructions were given to combine the banner of S.Patrick(argent, a saltire gules) with the crosses of S.George and S.Andrew. In obedience to these instructions, the present national flag of Great Britain and Ireland was produced, which may perhaps best be blazoned thus(though there is difference of opinion as to the correct manner). It must be drawn with upper quarters of the saltire argent towards the staff, and lower quarters argent away from it.
    Azure, the saltires of S.Patrick and S.Andrew quarterly per saltire, counterchanged argent and gules; the latter fimbriated of the second; surmounted by the cross of S.George of the third, fimbriated as the last.
    The word Jack is of doubtful origin, possibly some trifling incident may have given the name. Philologists have derived it from the surcoat, charged with a red cross anciently used by the English soldiery, which was once called a jacque(whence the word jacket): but it is doubtful whether the name Union Jack ever appears before the name jacque had quite gone out of use. Others suggest that the name of Jacques was given by the French in allusion to King JAMES, in whose reign the union took place. But these are more guesses.
    The Gonfanon is said to differ from a banner in this respect that instead of being square and fastened to a transverse bar, the gonfanon, though of the same figure, was fixed in a frame made to turn like a modern ship's vane, with two or three streamers, or tails.
    Guidon, or(fr. Guidhomme), is a flag resembling the standard in form, but less by one third, and generally ending in a point. An ancient was a name given to the guidon carried at funerals.
    Quarterly sable and argent, the first quarter occupied by a lion rampant of the second, over all a representation of the guidon of the Thirty-first Regiment( .... two laurel leaves saltirewise .... below the Union Jack) in bend sinister--BYNG, Earl and Baron Strafford.
    Pennon: a flag resembling the guidon in shape, but only half the size. It is not be charged with arms, but only with crests, heraldic and ornamental devices, and mottos.
    La ot meint richa guarnement            Meint beau penon en lance mis       
    Brodé sur sendaus e samis               Meint banier deploié.               
                                              Roll of Carlaverock, A.D. 1300.   
    Argent, two lances in saltire sable, pennons gules, surmounted by an esquire's helmet azure--CLINKSCALES.
    A kind of pennon seems also to have been called an ancient, but many of these names appear to be loosely used. See Banner.
    The Pennant in ships is probably the same. It sometimes ends in a points, more often it is forked. In the former case it is also called a streamer.
    Argent, a saltire wavy sable between two human hearts gules in flanks a dexter hand gules holding a cross crosslet azure in chief, and a ship(square rigged) proper with pennants gules in base-John TAYLOR, Orkney.
Forked pennon.
Forked pennon.
    Pennoncelle, or Pensell: the diminutive of the pennon, supposed to be carried at the end of a lance. As used at funerals, they are very small pointed flags charged with crests and ornaments.
    A demi-lion argent issuing from a ducal coronet, and holding a pennoncelle gules charged with a lion passant gardant or, the staff of the last--Crest of BROMLEY, Staff. and Warw.
    Pavon: a triangular flag about four or five yards long, tapering from about half a yard in width to a point, the lower side being at a right-angle to the staff.
    Banderolle, a narrow but flag or streamer sometimes attached to the staff beneath the flag itself.
    Vane, sometimes written wyn, also signifies a little flag.
Flag-stone: a charge in the insignia of the London Company of PAVIOURS, and probably nowhere else. It is represented as in the margin.
    Argent, a chevron between three flag-stones sable--Company of PAVIOURS.
Flagon. See Ewer.
Flambant, (fr.): flaming; e.g. of a pale wavy, and ending in a point like a flame.
Flambeau, (fr.): torch.
Flames and Flammant. See Fire.
Flank. See Flaunch.
Flask. See Fish-Weel.
Flasque. See Flaunch.
Flaunches, flanches, flanks, or flanques, sometimes also written flasques, are always borne in pairs, though by some writers the last are considered rather as diminutives of the flanches, i.e. not projecting so far into the shield. Voiders are said to be of similar form, and with still less projection, and incapable of being charged, though it is doubtful if cases occur in any ordinary blazon. The square flaunches are drawn like two projecting triangles, the outer edge of each side of the shield forming the base respectively.
    Or, two flaunches gules--LANERCOST PRIORY, Cumberland.
    Sable, two talbot's heads couped or, between as many flaunches ermine--HEVAR, London, 1687, and Norfolk.
    Argent, three palets azure between two square flaunches gules--MOSYLTON.
    Or, three palets, over all two square flanks gules--MOSELTON.
    Azure, two talbot's heads erased or, between as many flasques ermine--HERVARE, Marshland.
    Argent, three martlets in pale; on two flaunches sable three lions passant of the field--Thomas BROWN, Bishop of Rochester, 1436-1445.
    In flank, or in the flaunche, is also used to signify at the side; e.g. in a quarterly per saltire in the flanks would be equivalent to the quarters two and three; the French term flanqué is sometimes used instead of accompagné, or accosté, but the flanc is especially used for the extreme edge of the shield, from which, when any charge issues, it is said to be mouvante.
    Azure, a saltire between in chief an arrow point upward argent, in the flaunches and base three hunting horns of the last--POTTOCK, Scotland.
    Argent, two eels paleways waved, between two stars in the flanks azure--ARNEEL, Scotland.
    D'azur, au pal d'argent chargé de trois tours de gueules, et accosté(ou soutenu) par quatre jambes de lion d'or mouvantes des flancs de l'ecu--BRANCAS Comtat Venaissen.
Flax-breaker. See Hemp-break.
Flax-comb. See Wool-card.
Fleam, Fleme, or Flegme: a form, as shewn in the margin, representing an ancient lancet borne by the Company of BARBER-SURGEONS.
    Quarterly first and fourth sable, a chevron between three flemes argent[i.e. arms granted 1452], second and third per pale argent and vert, a spatula in pale argent surmounted of a rose gules charged with another of the first, the first rose regally crowned proper; between the four quarters a cross of S.George gules, charged with a lion passant gardant or--BARBERS' Company, London, [Barbers' Company incorporated, 1461: then Barbers and Surgeons united, 1540; conferred, 1630; union dissolved, 1745].
    Ermine, two surgeon's fleams in saltire gules--TYTHERLEY, Hants.
    Sable, three fleams argent--RENDACY.
    Argent, a chevron gules between three fleams or--CHETHAM, co. Derby.
    Gules, two dirks in saltire argent, points downwards, hilts and pomels or, in base a lancet open proper--M'KAILE, Aberdeen.
Flêche, (fr.): arrow.
Flected, or flexed: used instead of embowed, e.g. of an arm.
Golden Fleece.
Golden Fleece.
Fleece: the Golden Fleece, (fr. Toison d'or), owes its celebrity to the classical fable of Jason's expedition to Colchis in the ship Argo to obtain it. This fleece gave name to the very celebrated order of knighthood in Spain and Austria, and was afterwards borne by certain families.
    Azure, a toison or, within a double tressure fleury counterfleury of the last--Sir Robert JASON(Baronet 1661).
    Azure, a chevron engrailed ermine between three golden fleeces--JENNINGS, Dover.
    Per chevron ermine and gules, in base a golden fleece--FUNEAUX.
Flesh-pot. See Pot.
Badge of the Stuarts.
Badge of the Stuarts.
Fleur-de-lis, (fr.). Although there has been much controversy concerning the origin of this bearing, no doubt it represents the lily, but in a conventional form, such as was produced by the workers in metal. It is essentially the Royal Badge of France, having been adopted by King Louis VII. in the twelfth century, in allusion to the name lois, or lys. It appears amongst the Royal Badges in England in the time of the STUARTS.
    From some of the following examples it will be seen how variously the name is written in ancient rolls of arms. It will also be observed that the fleur-de-lys is subject to certain variations, e.g. stalked, slipped, leaved, seeded, and even fitchy.
    Robert AGULON, de goules ov ung fleur-de-lis d'argent--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Robert AGEUYN, de goules a une florette dor--Ibid., Harl. MS. 6585.
    William de CANTELOWE, de goules a trois fleurs delices d'or--Ibid.
    Sire Johan DEYVILE, de or a iij flures de goules e une fesse de goules a iij flures de or--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Sire Henri de COBHAM, de goules a un chevron de or a iij frures(sic) de azure--Ibid.
    Sire Gerard de OUSFLET, de argent a une fesse de azure a iij flures de or--Ibid.
    Monsire de UFFLET, port d'argent a une fess d'asur trois lis d'or en la fes--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire Robert DEYVILL, port d'or a une fes de gules a vi lis--Ibid.
    Per pale, sable and argent; a fleur-de-lis between two flaunches, each chargen with a fleur-de-lys all counterchanged--John ROBYNS, co. Worc.
    Azure, on a bend between three fleur-de-lys or, as many pierced mullets gules--LEATHES, Herringfleet, Suffolk.
    Azure, two lions rampant supporting a tower with three fleurs-de-lys out of the battlements--KELLY Castle, Kelly, Ireland.
    Barry of six argent and gules, fifteen fleurs-de-lys, three, three, three, three, two and one all counterchanged--BRANKER.
    Gules, three fleurs-de-lis stalked and slipped argent--WADSWORTH, co. York.
    Gules, a bar between two fleurs-de-lis stalked and leaved in chief and an annulet in base--KELLOCK, Scotland.
    Per fesse gules and azure, three fleurs-de-lis seeded or; a crescent for difference--PAUNCEFOOT, Somerset.
    Monsire CONSTANTINE DE MORTYMER or, flourté de fleure de lis sable as peds agus--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Besides the ordinary occurrence, as above, of perfect fleur-de-lis, the upper portion is frequently employed for the termination of other devices, or combined with them. The cross fleury, of flory(see Cross, §20) is the most frequent. A singular example of a mascle so treated in the arms of MAN will be found further on, and the more singular combination of a fleur-de-lis with another charge has already been given under Cross, §6. The terms fleury(fr. fleuré), flory, fleurty, floretty, flourite, or flurte, and similar variations, also signify adorned with, or ending in, fleurs-de-lis.
    The term fleur de lisé is also sometimes used in the sense of fleurs-de-lis being conjoined with the charge. At the same time it is said to be used also in the sense of a field or charge being semé or fleurs-de-lis, and so also the terms fleury, flory, and floretty. The modern French fleuri(to be distinguished from fleuré) is applied to plants, and signifies having flowers of another tincture, i.e. flowered. See under Hawthorn.
    In French heraldry the fleur-de-lis is drawn sometimes with a 'fleuron,' that is, it has buds added to the flowers; it is then described as epanoui, or florencée. When it is couped, so that only the upper portion is visible, it is said to be nourrie. Fleur-de-lis are blazoned naturelles, or au naturel, when they are represented as natural lilies.
    William PEYVER, d'argent a ung chevron de goules florettz d'or en le chevron--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Le REY DE FRAUNCE, de asur poudre a flurette de or--Ibid., Harl. MS. 6589.
    Le ROY DE CECYLE[Sicily] dasur poudre a florettes de or, a un lambeu de goules--Ibid.
    Sire Mostas de LATIMER, ove la bende d'aszure flourite d'or--Roll, temp. EDW. II.
    Sire Robert de HOYLANDE, de azure flurette de argent a un lupard rampaund de argent--Ibid.
    Argent, two bars azure, over all an escarbuncle of eight rays gules pometty and floretty or--BLOUNT.
    Per fesse dancetté argent and sable, each point ending in a fleur-de-lis--WOODMERTON.
    D'azur, a une fleur-de-lys d'or au pied nourri; deux lis au naturel sortant d'entre les cotes--BOSCHIER, Bretagne.
    Fleury counter fleury, or flory counter flory, signifies adorned with fleurs-de-lis alternately placed, as in the tressure of Scotland, and the annexed example. In the case of a tressure, or any other ordinary borne double or cottised, no part of the fleurs-de-lis is seen in the space between the pieces.
    Or, a bend fleury counter fleury azure--GOLDINGTON.
    Argent, a bend fleury counterfleury gules--BROMFLETT.
    Or, three bars wavy gules quartering or, a lion's head erased within a double tressure flory counter-flory gules as a coat of augmentation--DRUMMOND.
Flighted: applied to an arrow.
Flint-stone. See Shot.
Float: a tool used by Bowyers, and borne by their Company. Two forms occur.
    Sable, on a chevron between three floats or, as many mullets of the first--BOWYERS' Company[Incorporated, 1620].
    Sable, three flotes in pale argent--BIRONE.
Floatant, (fr. flottant): floating, either in the air as a bird, or flag, or more especially of a ship or sometimes of a fish, but then=naiant, i.e. supposed to be swimming in the water.
Flook. See Turbot.
Flory, floretty, florencé, &c. See Fleury; also Cross, §20.
Flounder. See Turbot.
Flowers, (fr. fleurs): flowers, as will be seen by the Synopsis, find a varied expression in heraldry, but the rose and the lily, or fleur-de-lis, are the most frequent; both of these, however, are usually represented in the conventional form, though the natural forms of each also occur. Of others the planta genista has been brought into note from being the badge of the Plantagenet kings; the trefoil, or rather the shamrock, from being the badge of Ireland; and the thistle, from being that of Scotland. They daisy, the primrose, the nettle, the violet, the columbine, and the honeysuckle, so common in our lanes, and the poppy and bluebottle in our fields, and the marigold in our marshes, naturally find a place. The tulip, narcissus, silphium(or chrysanthemum), sunflower, carnation, gilly-flower, and pansy are the garden-plants which have been introduced into arms; but by what chances the choice has fallen on these few is most probably beyond discovery. The most singular of all, perhaps, is that selected by Dr.Caius--the sengreen. These and one or two more will be found noted in their proper places.
    In the French coats of arms it is much the same. The rose and the lily, in both the conventional and the natural forms stand at the head of the list; and we find rarely the marguerite, violette, ancolie, gesse, pavot, and souci, which represent the daisy, violet, columbine, vetch, poppy, and marigold amongst wild flowers, while the œillet and pensée, or pink and pansy, amongst garden-plants, complete a very short list.
    In some few cases the term flowers occurs, i.e. where a ground is to have flowers scattered over it, and these can be only represented by dots of gules and azure, sprinkled over what is supposed to represent the green grass. But such devices, if not false heraldry, are nearly approaching it.
    The field a landscape, the base variegated with flowers; a man proper vested round the lions with linen argent, digging with a spade all of the first--Company of GARDENERS, London.
    Argent, a cedar-tree between two mounts of flowers proper; on a chief azure a dagger erect proper, pomel and hilt or between two mullets of six points gold--MONTEFIORE, Sussex.
    Flowers, also, are referred to in the bearing a chaplet of flowers, but as they are, as a rule, blazoned gules, they are intended for roses. In rare cases the stem is referred to.
    Gules, semy of nails, argent, three stems of a flower vert--ASHBY.
    Flower-pots are occasionally named. See also Lily-pot.
    Or, a chevron gules, between three columbines argent, as many flower-pots of the first--COLNET, Hants.
Fluke: of an anchor, q.v.
Flute. See Pipe.
Fly, (fr. mouche): this generic name when standing alone is probably intended to represent the common house-fly. Other flies will be found under the headings respectively of gadfly, silkworm-fly, and butterfly. Flies and bees, however, seem to be much confused in heraldic drawing. See also Beetles.
    Azure, three flies or--Geoffrey de MUSCHAMP, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1108-1298.
    Per chevron sable and argent, in chief two flies of the second--LAMBERBY.
    Argent, a chevron between three flies sable--MUSKEHAM.
    Ermine, a leopard rampant regardant, and in chief three flies volant proper--PEARCE, Bp. of Bangor, 1742, afterwards of Rochester, 1756-74.
    The French coats of arms add to the list the demoiselle and the cousin, that is, the dragon-fly and the the gnat.
Flying-fish, (lat. esocetus, a branch of the genus esox, established by Linnæus, which includes the pike). until a comparatively recent period this fish was drawn, not as it appears naturally, but more like a herring with the wing of a bird. Foreign examples are more frequent than in England, only two families here having been noticed bearing this device.
    Azure, a flying-fish in bend argent, on a chief of the second a rose gules between two torteaux--Henry ROBINSON, Bp. of Carlisle, 1598-1616.
    Vert, three flying-fishes in pale argent--GARMSTON, co. Lincoln[granted 1758.]
Foi, (fr.). See Hands joined.
Foil, (lat. folium, fr. feuille), but borne only in compounds.
    Unifoil: a charge which probably never existed anywhere but in the fancy of Randle Holme, who says that it is like a single leaf of the trefoil. The twyfoil no doubt derived its origin from the same or a similar source. Under their heads are given Trefoil, Quatrefoil, Cinquefoil, Sexfoil.
    Huit-foil, Eight-foil, or Double quatrefoil: said to be used as a mark of cadency, but no example has been met with.
Foile: old fr.=leaf.
Foine. See Weasel.
Foot. The human foot occurs but rarely. In the case of the TREMAILE arms it is no doubt intended to be covered with a boot, as the alternative blazon shews.
    Argent, a fesse between three feet gules--TRAMAILL, co. Devon.
    Argent, a fesse gules between three brogues of the second--TREMAYLE, co. Devon.
    Azure, a human foot in base argent; on a canton gules a grappling iron or--BLAAUW.
    The feet of birds and animals occur, but generally with a portion of the leg, q.v.
Force: a particular kind of shears used in French factories.
Forcené, (fr.): furious, applied to a horse rearing.
Fore-staff. See Cross-staff.
Forest. See Wood.
Forest-bill: i.q. Wood-bill.
Fork, (fr. fourche). Forks of various shapes, and varying in the number of their prongs, are borne as charges, such as pitch-fork, dung-fork, and hay-fork. The shake-fork is a conventional charge, and will be found in its alphabetical order. The forks used for fishing, &c., have been noted already under eel-spear. There do not appear to be any special rules in depicting the various forks named.
    Argent, three dung-forks two and one, prongs in chief, sable--WORTHINGTON, Yorkshire.
    Argent, three dung-forks gules--SHERLEY or SHORLEY.
    Sable, three pitch-forks in pale argent--PYKE, co. Somerset.
    Argent, three two-pronged forks sable, two upward and one downwards--WALLEY, Harl. MS. 1396.
    Argent, three three-pronged forks gules--CHORLEY.
    Argent, three five-pronged forks sable--WORTHINGTON.
    Forked, (fr. fourché), is also an heraldic term applied to the cross, §24, and to lions' tails, &c.
Formé and formy. See Cross, §26.
Fort, Fortress, and Fortification. See Castle.
Foudre, (fr.): in French arms is represented by a thunderbolt in the midst of lightning.
Fouine, i.e. foine. See Weasel.
Founders' closing-tongs.
Founders' closing-tongs.
Founders' melting-pot and furnace.
Founders' melting-pot and furnace.
Founders' closing-tongs, melting-pot, and furnace are seen only in the crest of the FOUNDERS' Company. An illustration of the laver-pot which occurs in the coat of arms has been given under ewer, and the candlestick also in its order in the alphabet.
    A fiery furnace proper, two arms of the last, [i.e. or] issuing from clouds on the sinister side of the first, [i.e. azure], vested of the last, holding in both hands a pair of closing-tongs sable, taking hold of the melting-pot in the furnace proper--Crest of the FOUNDERS' Company.
    A laver pot between two taper candlesticks or--The FOUNDERS' Company.
Fountain: this conventional device is supposed to represent a well or spring of water, and might generally be blazoned as a roundle barry wavy of six argent and azure. That this is so is evidenced from so many families of WELLS bearing it. The family of SYKES also bear it in allusion to the old name of sykes for a well. Guillim also says that the six fountains given to the family of STOURTON represent six springs, whereof the river Stour in Wiltshire hath its beginning.
    Argent, three roundles barry wavy of six argent and vert--THEMILTON.
    Argent, a chevron sable, between three fountains--SYKES, Kirkella, co. York.
    Argent, three fountains--WELLER.
    Sable, a bend or, between six fountains proper--STOURTON.
    Azure, three moor's heads couped argent on a bordure of the last three fountains proper--EDINGTON, Glasgow.
    Argent, on a chevron sable three fountains--CASSHE.
    Per fesse gules and argent; a pale counterchanged, thereon three fountains proper--LAVENDER, co. Herts.
    Or, three bars wavy gules; on a canton argent a fountains azure--DRUMMOND, Innermay, Scotland.
    Vert, a lion rampant argent within a bordure or, charged with nine fountains or wells proper--HOME, Whitfield, Scotland.
    Or, on a pile engrailed sable, three crosslets of the first in base two fountains barry wavy of six argent and azure--HALIFAX, Bp. of Gloucester, 1781, afterwards S.Asaph, 1789-90.
    Practically the well is sometimes for the fountain, but the former should properly be masoned, i.e. should shew the stone-work, while the heraldic fountain is supposed to represent the water in the well only. Fountaine with the French, however, is used for a fountain, i.e. masonry, with a jet of water.
Fourché: applied to a cross, (§24); also to a lion's tail.
Fourmie, and Fourmilière, (fr.): ant and ant-hill.
Fourrures, (fr.): Furs, q.v.
Fox: occurs somewhat frequently as an heraldic charge. The tod is a local name; hence borne by the family of TODD.
    Argent, two foxes salient counter salient in saltire, the sinister surmounted of the dexter gules--WILLIAMS, Wynnstay, co. Flint.
    Ermine, on a fesse gules, a fox passant or--PROBY, Elton Hall.
    Sable, on a fesse argent, between three helmets close a fox courant proper--KENNEDY.
    Argent, three fox's heads couped gules--TODD.
    Quarterly, first and fourth, argent, on a bend gules, three dolphins embowed or, second and third or, a chevron between three fox's heads erased gules--Edward Fox, Bp. of Hereford, 1535-38.
    With the fox may be classed the genet, an animal somewhat resembling it, but considerably smaller, and usually grey spotted with black. It was highly valued on account of its skin, and is made to be the badge of an order of knighthood said, according to the legend, to have been instituted by Charles Martel, king of France, in the year 726. The chief instance known of its use is in the Plantagenet badge of a genet passing between two broom-trees(or Plantœ genistœ), given by Edward IV. to his illegitimate son, Arthur Plantagenet, the badge thus providing a double pun.
Fracted, broken. See Fesse, Chevron, and downset(dancetty).
Frame. See Knitting-frame.
Framed-saw. See Saw,
Franc-quartier. See Canton; also Quarter.
Early arms of FRANCE.
Early arms of FRANCE.
Later arms of FRANCE.
Later arms of FRANCE.
France: fleurs-de-lis have long been the distinctive bearings of the kingdom of France, and it is to the almost constant wars between that country and our own that its frequent use in English armory is to be attributed.
    From the time of King Charles V., 1364-80, the royal insignia of France had but three fleurs-de-lis or. Before his time the escutcheon was semé de lis, which bearing was probably assumed by King Louis(Loys) VII., 1137-80, in allusion to his name.
    The Label of France is a frequent expression occuring in old genealogical works; it may signify a label azure semé of fleur-de-lis gold, or charged with three fleurs-de-lis, or again, with three fleurs-de-lis upon each of the five points.
    D'azure, semé le lis d'or--Ancient arms of FRANCE.
    D'azure a trois fleurs-de-lis d'or--Later arms of FRANCE.
    De France, au lambel de trois pendants d'argent--Ducs d'ORLEANS.
    England, a label of five points azure, each charged with three fleurs-de-lis or--Edmund PLANTAGENET, [surmounted Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, &c., second son of HEN. III.]
Frasier. See Strawberry.
Fret: a charge consisting of two narrow bendlets placed in saltire, and interlaced with a mascle. It was been supposed to represent the meshes of a fishing-net. Being borne by the family of HARRINGTON it is found called a Harrington's knot; and riddle-makers see a connection between the Herring-town and the net. Whatever may be the origin, the term fret, or rather fretté, occurs frequently in the ancient rolls, but in many cases probably only a single fret is intended. When two or more frets are borne in the same arms they must be couped, unless each occupies an entire quarter.
    Sable, a fret argent, charged with nine fleurs-de-lis gules--HARRINGTON of Honington Sibble, co. Essex.
    Sable, a fret or--HARRINGTON, Essex.
    Ermine, a fret gules in chief a lion passant guardant sable--HUDDLESTON, Upwell Hall, Cambridge.
    Gules, three lions rampant or; on a chief of the second a fret of the first--JONES, co. Kent.
    Or, a pale gules, in chief two frets and in base another counterchanged--BOAK.
    Du bon Hue le DESPENSIER ....                                               
    Fu la baniere esquartelée                                                   
    De une noir bastoun sur blanc getté                                         
    E de vermeil jaune fretté.--Roll of Carlaverock.                           
    Aymer de ST.AMONT, d'argent frette de sable ung chef de sable--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Johan de HOORNE, de goules a une frette de veer--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Hue le DE SPENSER quartele d'argent et de goules, ung bend de sable; les quartres frette d'or en le goules--Roll, temp. HEN. III.
    Sire Laurence de HAMELDENE de argent fretté de goules e les flures de or e les nowe de la frette--Roll, temp. ED. II.
    Monsire TRUSSELL le Cousin, port d'argent, fret gules, les joyntures pomelles d'or--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Fretty, (fr. fretté): is now understood to mean a continuous fret, and forms a pattern for diapering the field, or some ordinary. Very many instances are found, and sometimes the points of junction are ornamented, at other the fret itself is charged with roundles, &c. The fr. treillissé is only to be distinguished from the fretté from the mesh being smaller.
    Azure, fretty argent--CAVE, Kent.
    Azure, fretty of eight pieces raguly or--BROADHURST.
    Argent, a cross azure, fretty or--VERDON, Warwick. [See also under Cross, §3.]
    Azure, fretty ermine--MELBORNE.
    Sable, fretty or; flory argent--STOCKWOOD.
    Argent, fretty gules; on the points thereof fleurs-de-lis or--HAMELDEN.
    Argent, fretty gules; on each joint a bezant; all within a bordure azure--TRUSSELL.
    Fretted, or interlaced, (fr. entrelacé): is also sometimes used when three or more charges are so placed that a portion of one overlaps and is itself overlapped by an adjoining one. An example will be seen of three fish fretted in triangle, under salmon, and of fillets interlaced under cross triparted, §8, and of chevrons under braced. All knots are more less interlaced, and annulets, serpents, &c., when there are more than two, are generally so. Even ordinaries are sometimes so represented.
    Azure, eight arrows interlaced in bend dexter and sinister argent, headed and feathered or, fretting a bowstring in fesse of the second--Town of SHEFFIELD.
    Argent, a fesse and chevron interlaced sable--KEMPSING, Kent.
Fret: a name applied to the wine-piercer.
Frighted: applied by some to a horse rearing upon his hind-legs, the same as forcené.
Fringed, (fr. frangé): edged with fringe, said of flags and of other charges, e.g. the pall of the see of Canterbury.
Frogs, toads, tadpoles, and powets are all named, though rarely in English heraldry. They have not been observed in French examples.
    Or, a chevron between three frogs displayed gules--TREVONECK, Sancreed, Cornwall.
    Ermine, a fesse between three toads sable--REPLEY.
    Argent, three toads erect sable--BOTREAUX, Cockermouth, Cumberland.
    Argent, a cheval gules between three tadpoles haurient sable--RUSSELL[quartered by RAMSAY].
    Argent, a chevron gules between three powets haurient sable--RUSSELL[quartered by RAMSAY].
Fronde, (fr.): a sling.
Fructed, (fr. fruité): bearing fruit, but generally used when fruit is of another tincture.
Fruits and fruit-trees of various kinds of found as charges, as the synopsis shews. The apple, perhaps, is the most frequently used, but it will be seen the pear and the plum, the fig and the quince, the strawberry and the cherry, the pineapple, the orange, and the pomegranate, are all found; and to these may be added the hazel-nut and the walnut, as well as one or two others. As a rule the fruit should be drawn in its natural position, i.e. pendent. When fruits are named without any description, probably apples are intended. The term fruited or fructed(fr. fruité) is often used, and applied not only to ordinary fruit-trees, but to the oak, almond, pine, thorn, cotton-tree, &c.
    Argent, a tree eradicated vert fructed gules--Sir Humfrey ESTURE[elsewhere blazoned an apple-tree].
    Gules, three fruits an fesse argent, in chief two cinquefoils or--COLWYKE.
    An oak-branch slipped vert fructed or--BOBART, Brunswick.
Fruttle. See Basket.
Fulgent: with shining rays.
Fumant: smoking, e.g. of a brick-kiln.
Furieux, (fr.): of a bull, &c., when enraged.
Furnace. See Founders' Furnace.
Furnished: a horse completely caparisoned is so termed.
Furs, (fr. fourrures, also pannes): there are several varieties. Ermine, ermines, erminites, and erminois have already been noted with pean under Ermine. Vair, and in irregular for named Potent counter potent, will be described in their alphabetical order. All these are conventional representations of skins of divers animals, or portions of the skins sewn together in divers forms. Being mixed tinctures, that is, consisting both of metal(although not considered as such) and colour, they may be placed upon either, and conversely metal and colour may equally be placed upon them.
    The furs recognised in French heraldry are hermine proper, contre hermine(which is the reverse), and hermines of different tinctures(which are described), and the vair. The pannes is rather a general name for mixed fur; perhaps in its origin having a reference to the lining of mantles, &c.
Fuseau, (fr.): spindle. See Fusil.
Fusée, (fr.); fusil.
Fusil, (fr. fuseau and fusée), in its natural form and sense, in a spindle belonging to a distaff; but in its conventional form it is an elongated lozenge, and very often the one charge is mistaken for the other. In different arms they are differently drawn, and in the same arms at different dates they are variously represented. In an ordinary way the conventional fusil is the one to be drawn. In French armorial blazon the name fuseau seems to be reserved for the true spindle, while the fusée is used for the conventional form. In its primitive form, as in the arms of BADLAND, afterwards assumed by HOBY, it is represented as in the margin(fig. 1). The family of TREFUSIS bear another variety of the fusil(fig. 2); but the usual term for such is spindle, q.v.; while the heraldic fusil is drawn as fig. 3. The fusil does not appear in the rolls of arms, so far as been observed, before the time of Edward III.
    Monsire de MONTAGUE, Count de Sarum, port d'argent trois fusilles gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire DAWTRYNE, port de sable a une fes fusile de v points d'argent--Ibid.
    Argent, three fusils(or spindles) in fesse gules threaded or--HOBY, Bisham.
    Argent, a chevron between three ancient fusils(or wharrow spindles) sable--TREFUSIS.
    Compared with the lozenge and the mascle the fusil should always be represented narrower in proportion to its height, but, whatever rules may be laid down, they are seldom adhered to, as the disposition of the fusils and shape of the shield oblige modifications.
    Fusils are most frequently borne conjoined in the form of a fesse, a bend, a cross, or of a saltire.
    The bend fusil should consist of about five entire fusils, and two halves, each individual fusil being placed bend-sinisterwise. The fesse fusil should have five perfect fusils, and the cross, as already pointed out(see cross, §8), should consist of nine, five of which should be entire. But, as will be observed, an ordinary is often described "of so many fusils."
    In the fesse the fusils are naturally all upright; in the bend they are drawn at right angles to the diagonal line passing across the shield; in a cross of fusils all the fusils are placed upright; while in a saltire they diverge from the fesse points.
    Or, five fusils conjoined in fesse azure--PENNINGTON, Muncaster, Cumb.
    Further, there is much inconsistency in nomenclature. A fesse, bend, or cross fusil, is used instead of a fesse, bend, or cross, composed of so many fusils: fusilly also is often written with the same meaning, but, as pointed out under cross, §8, it is incorrect.
    Fusilly(fr. fusilé) is a well-defined term applied to the field, and the two tinctures must be named, as in the arms of PATTEN given below. The application of this term to a series of fusils(with one tincture only named) is consequently entirely wrong, but custom has so completely sanctioned it(no doubt through carelessness in the first instance) that the error has become almost the rule.
    Monsire William de MONTAGUE, Counte de Sarum, port d'argent trois fuselles gules--Roll, temp. ED. III.
    Monsire Edward de MONTAGUE, port d'ermine a trois fuselles de gules--Ibid.
    Argent, four fusils in fesse azure--PLOMPTON.
    Argent, a fesse fusily gules--NEWMARCH.
    Ermine, five fusils in fesse gules pierced--HUTTON.
    Or, on a fesse gules, five fusils argent; in chief three mascles azure, in base a fret of the second; all within a bordure of the fourth, entoyre of bezants--Thomas BURGESS, Bp. of S.David's, 1803; of Salisbury, 1825-37.
    Argent, a fesse of two fusils conjoined gules--CHAMPENEY, co. Devon.
    Argent, within a bordure sable, three fusils in fesse gules--James MONTAGUE, Bp. of Bath and Wells, 1608; then of Winchester, 1616-18.
    Per chevron or and azure, a bar fusily of the first, each fusil being charged with an escallop gules; in chief two fleurs-de-lis of the last--EDGAR.
    Argent, two bars fusilly gules--Rauf RAUL.
    Vert, a bend fusil or--KNIGHT.
    Argent, three fusils in bend gules--MALMAYNES.
    Argent, a bend of four fusils conjoined gules--BRADESTONE.
    Argent, four fusils in cross sable--Sir Thomas BANESTER, K.G.
    Argent, five fusils in cross--ARCHARD.
    Vert, a saltire fusilly or--FRANKE.
    Argent, four bars gules; on a canton ermine as many fusils in bend of the second--WALEYS, Dorset.
    Argent, six fusils in pale sable--DANIELS.
    Gules, five fusils in fesse quartered argent and sable, between six crosses flowered of the second--BOALER.
    Fusilly, ermine and sable--PATTEN, Stoke Newington, Middlesex.
    Fusilly, gules and or--CRONE.
    No case has been noticed in which when the term fusilly is applied to an ordinary two tinctures are named; as all the examples appear with one tincture, the term fusilly must be read 'of so many fusils.'
Fusté, (fr.): of the handle of a weapon, or trunk of a tree, when of another tincture.
Futé of shafts of arrows q.v.
Fylfot, [suggested to be a corruption of A.-S. fíer-fóte(for fyðer fote) four-footed, in allusion to the four limbs]: an ancient figure to which different mystic meanings have been applied. All that can be said as to the occurrence in England is that it possibly was introduced from the East as a novel device; for a similar form is said to have been known in India and China long before the Christian era. It is called in the Sanskrit 'swastica,' and is found used as a symbol by the Buddhists. It is curious that the same kind of device appear in the Catacombs, and at the same time it is found on a coin of Ethelred, King of Northumbria, in the ninth century. It is probably similar to the ornament which is mentioned by Anastasius as embroidered on sacred vestments during the eighth and ninth centuries in Rome under the name of gammadion, which was so-called on account of the shape resembling four Greek capital Gammas united at the base. There is no reason to suppose that all these are derived from a common source, as such a device as this would readily suggest itself, just as the Greek pattern is frequent on work of all ages. It was on account of its supposed mystical meaning perhaps introduced into mediæval vestments, belts, &c.; and though several instances of this use are found on brasses, only one instance occurs on coats of arms, namely, in those of CHAMBERLAYNE.
    One instance only of the name also has been observed in any MS. or book anterior to the eighteenth century, namely in the directions given by Francis Frosmere, c. 1480, apparently to designate his monogram F.F. (See MS. Lansdowne, No. 874.)
    Argent, a chevron between three fylfots gules--Leonard CHAMBERLAYNE, Yorkshire[so drawn in MS. Harleian, 1394, pt. 129, fol. 9=fol. 349 of MS.]
    [N.B. In Harl. MS. 1415 this coat seems to be tricked with what are meant distinctly for three escallops.]